34,934 results match your criteria biological psychological

Frequency Drift in MR Spectroscopy at 3T.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 24:118430. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA.

Purpose: Heating of gradient coils and passive shim components is a common cause of instability in the B field, especially when gradient intensive sequences are used. The aim of the study was to set a benchmark for typical drift encountered during MR spectroscopy (MRS) to assess the need for real-time field-frequency locking on MRI scanners by comparing field drift data from a large number of sites.

Method: A standardized protocol was developed for 80 participating sites using 99 3T MR scanners from 3 major vendors. Read More

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Risk factors associated with stress symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum: integrative literature review.

Women Health 2021 Jul 26:1-17. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Centro Universitário Barão de Mauá, Psychology, Brazil.

Stressful events during prenatal and postpartum have been associated with an increase in the susceptibility to the onset of various diseases, threatening mental and physical health of mother and baby. The aim of this study was to synthesize and analyze the literature related to risk factors associated with stress symptoms during pregnancy and immediate postpartum by means of an integrative review. The search was conducted from January 2013 to July 2020, consulting the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science and LILACS. Read More

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Effect of Exhaustive Training or Forced Immobilization on Physiological Condition and Main Metabolic and Stress Markers of Wistar Male Rats.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology, Moscow, Russia.

For correct and reliable experimental in vivo assessment of antistress effect of various bioactive substances, appropriate biomodels reproducing stress and organism response to stress in laboratory animals should be chosen. We chose treadmill test for simulating exhaustive physical load and forced immobilization accompanied by disorders of physiological and psychological condition. Verification of the models used indicates their wide applicability for testing certain biological manifestations under reproduced stress exposure. Read More

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Cardiovascular Stress Reactivity and Health: Recent Questions and Future Directions.

Psychosom Med 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA School of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland Institute of Epidemiology & Health, University College London, London, UK Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and VA Medical Center, Oklahoma, USA.

Objective: High cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress are associated with the development of hypertension, systemic atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. However, it has become apparent that low biological stress reactivity also may have serious consequences for health, although less is known about the mechanisms of this. The objective of this narrative review and opinion paper is to summarise and consider where we are now in terms of the usefulness of the reactivity hypothesis and reactivity research, given that both ends of the reactivity spectrum appear to be associated with poor health, and to address some of the key criticisms and future challenges for the research area. Read More

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Mortality among family members of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - a Swedish register-based study.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2021 Jul 23:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Unit of Integrative Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

: To test two hypotheses: (1) partners of ALS patients have higher mortality due to outcomes related to psychological distress, and (2) parents and siblings of ALS patients have higher mortality due to diseases that co-occur with ALS. We performed a nationwide, register-based cohort study in Sweden. We included ALS-free partners, biological parents and full siblings ( = 11,704) of ALS patients, as well as ALS-free partners, biological parents and full siblings ( = 14,460,150) of ALS-free individuals, and followed them during 1961-2013. Read More

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Functional network topology of the right insula affects emotion dysregulation in hyperactive-impulsive attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):15045. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Biological Psychology, Department of Psychology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl-von-Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, 26111, Oldenburg, Germany.

Emotion dysregulation is common in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is highly prevalent in young adult ADHD and related to reduced well-being and social impairments. Neuroimaging studies reported neural activity changes in ADHD in brain regions associated with emotion processing and regulation. Read More

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Perceived fear of COVID-19 and its associated factors among Nepalese older adults in eastern Nepal: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(7):e0254825. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Ministry of Health and Population, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected all age groups worldwide, but older adults have been affected greatly with an increased risk of severe illness and mortality. Nepal is struggling with the COVID-19 pandemic. The normal life of older adults, one of the vulnerable populations to COVID-19 infection, has been primarily impacted. Read More

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Impact of supervised beego, a traditional Chinese water-only fasting, on thrombosis and haemostasis.

BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2021 5;4(1):4-17. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Hematology Center of Cyrus Tang Medical Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Beego is a traditional Chinese complete water-only fasting practice initially developed for spiritual purposes, later extending to physical fitness purposes. Beego notably includes a psychological induction component that includes meditation and abdominal breathing, light body exercise and ends with a specific gradual refeeding program before returning to a normal diet. Beego has regained its popularity in recent decades in China as a strategy for helping people in subhealthy conditions or with metabolic syndrome, but we are unaware of any studies examining the biological effects of this practice. Read More

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January 2021

The Straw That Broke the Camel's Back: Natural Variations in 17β-Estradiol and COMT-Val158Met Genotype Interact in the Modulation of Model-Free and Model-Based Control.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 8;15:658769. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

The sex hormone estradiol has recently gained attention in human decision-making research. Animal studies have already shown that estradiol promotes dopaminergic transmission and thus supports reward-seeking behavior and aspects of addiction. In humans, natural variations of estradiol across the menstrual cycle modulate the ability to learn from direct performance feedback ("model-free" learning). Read More

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Patients' Explanatory Models about drug-resistant epilepsy in Argentina. A thematic analysis.

Seizure 2021 Jul 11;91:409-416. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

National Scientific and Technical Research Council of Argentina, University of Buenos Aires, School of Psychology, Argentina.

Objective: The aim of this study is to explore explanatory models (EM) about epilepsy in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Design: A qualitative approach gathered data through semi-structured interviews, oriented to gain an in-depth and contextual understanding of EM about epilepsy of patients with DRE. Data collection and analysis were followed by an inductive and interpretive approach informed by the principles of thematic analysis. Read More

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Reported sources of health inequities in Indigenous Peoples with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of quantitative studies.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jul 23;21(1):1447. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Medicine, University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Background: To summarise the evidentiary basis related to causes of inequities in chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Peoples.

Methods: We conducted a Kaupapa Māori meta-synthesis evaluating the epidemiology of chronic kidney diseases in Indigenous Peoples. Systematic searching of MEDLINE, Google Scholar, OVID Nursing, CENTRAL and Embase was conducted to 31 December 2019. Read More

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Modelling Health in University Students: Are Young Women More Complicated Than Men?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 8;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary.

The biopsychosocial model of health in a limited life course perspective was tested among students in higher education using data from a nationwide cross-sectional survey of students on track to become teachers in Hungary. Health determinants were grouped into categories of biological, psychological, and social determinants and arranged in a temporal manner from childhood to the present. The model was tested by canonical correlation analysis followed by multivariate analysis of covariance. Read More

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Does the Interaction between Local and Systemic Inflammation Provide a Link from Psychology and Lifestyle to Tissue Health in Musculoskeletal Conditions?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 7;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

NHMRC Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia.

Musculoskeletal conditions are known to involve biological, psychological, social and, often, lifestyle elements. However, these domains are generally considered in isolation from each other. This siloed approach is unlikely to be adequate to understand the complexity of these conditions and likely explains a major component of the disappointing effects of treatment. Read More

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Intranasal oxytocin, testosterone reactivity, and human competitiveness.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jul 9;132:105352. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Psychology Department, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus Campus, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 9190501, Israel. Electronic address:

Competitiveness is an essential feature of human social interactions. Despite an extensive body of research on the underlying psychological and cultural factors regulating competitive behavior, the role of biological factors remains poorly understood. Extant research has focused primarily on sex hormones, with equivocal findings. Read More

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Exploring the Relationship Between Mental Well-Being, Exercise Routines, and the Intake of Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Comparison Across Sport Disciplines.

Front Psychol 2021 6;12:689058. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Organization for Promotion of Neurodevelopmental Disorder Research, Kyoto, Japan.

Physical distancing under the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a significant impact on lifestyles, including exercise routines. In this study, we examined the relationship between mental health and addictive behaviors, such as excessive exercise and the use of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs) across 12 sport disciplines. A large cross-sectional sample of the adult population ( = 2,295) was surveyed. Read More

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Feel-Good Requirements: Neurophysiological and Psychological Design Criteria of Affective Touch for (Assistive) Robots.

Front Neurorobot 2021 6;15:661207. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Chair of Autonomous Systems and Mechatronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Previous research has shown the value of the sense of embodiment, i.e., being able to integrate objects into one's bodily self-representation, and its connection to (assistive) robotics. Read More

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Multicomponent exercise to improve motor functions, cognition and well-being for nursing home residents who are unable to walk - A randomized controlled trial.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jul 19:111484. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Human Movement Science, University of Hamburg, Mollerstr, 10, 20148 Hamburg, Germany; Biological Psychology and Neuroergonomics, TU Berlin, Fasanenstr. 1, 10623 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Older nursing home residents are often characterized by multimorbidity and dependency in activities of daily living. Most exercise studies in this setting aim at residents who are still able to walk despite the huge group of residents that is unable to walk. Thus, little is known about the effectiveness to improve cognitive and motor functions as well as well-being within this target group, e. Read More

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Erratum to "Bonobos and chimpanzees preferentially attend to familiar members of the dominant sex" [ 177 (2021) 193-206].

Anim Behav 2021 Jul;177:303

School of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, U.K.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav. Read More

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Theoretical constraints: Science, caretaking, and the creation of normative ideals.

Robin G Nelson

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Jul 21:e23650. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Anthropology, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California, USA.

Objectives: This review explores the dualism in evolutionary anthropology that both acknowledges a broad range of familial caretaking strategies, while also remaining tethered to theories scaffolded around notions of selfish genes that constrain our understanding of who provides adequate kin care. I examine the process of norm creation in the sciences by investigating how theory may limit which data are collected and how those data are interpreted.

Methods: This paper serves as a literature review and critique of prominent biological, evolutionary, and psychological conceptualizations of parental investment and caretaking in humans, and how these studies shape what is considered normal behavior in scientific literature. Read More

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Ensuring Prevention Science Research is Synthesis-Ready for Immediate and Lasting Scientific Impact.

Prev Sci 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

When seeking to inform and improve prevention efforts and policy, it is important to be able to robustly synthesize all available evidence. But evidence sources are often large and heterogeneous, so understanding what works, for whom, and in what contexts can only be achieved through a systematic and comprehensive synthesis of evidence. Many barriers impede comprehensive evidence synthesis, which leads to uncertainty about the generalizability of intervention effectiveness, including inaccurate titles/abstracts/keywords terminology (hampering literature search efforts), ambiguous reporting of study methods (resulting in inaccurate assessments of study rigor), and poorly reported participant characteristics, outcomes, and key variables (obstructing the calculation of an overall effect or the examination of effect modifiers). Read More

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HPA-axis activity and the moderating effect of self-esteem in the context of intimate partner violence in Cameroon.

Eur J Psychotraumatol 2021 13;12(1):1930897. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

I-Reach Lab, Unit of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Background: The experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) is stressful. One objective way to monitor it is to assess victims' stress response by measuring the concentration of their salivary cortisol, the major stress hormone released by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Objective: We investigated how the IPV experienced by women in Cameroon affects their stress levels and those of their children. Read More

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microRNAs and Gene-Environment Interactions in Autism: Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress and the Gene on Maternal microRNA Expression.

Front Psychiatry 2021 5;12:668577. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Children's Mercy Hospital and University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, United States.

Genetics and environment both are critical in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their interaction (G × E) is less understood. Numerous studies have shown higher incidence of stress exposures during pregnancies with children later diagnosed with ASD. However, many stress-exposed mothers have unaffected children. Read More

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Epilepsy, violence, and crime. A historical analysis.

Júlia Gyimesi

J Hist Behav Sci 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Personality and Clinical Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest, Hungary.

In the 19th and early 20th century, epilepsy was one of the most investigated disorders in forensic psychiatry and psychology. The possible subsidiary symptoms of epilepsy (such as temporal confusion, alterations of consciousness, or increased aggression) played pivotal roles in early forensic and criminal psychological theories that aimed to underscore the problematic medical, social and legal status of epileptic criminals. These criminals were considered extremely violent and capable of committing sudden, brutal acts. Read More

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Evidence of psychological and biological effects of structured Mindfulness-Based Interventions for cancer patients and survivors: A meta-review.

Psychooncology 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Psychology Service, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPOP), Porto, Portugal.

Objective: A large number of studies have been conducted exploring the effects of mindfulness programs on health outcomes, such as psychological and biological outcomes. However, there is substantial heterogeneity among studies and, consequently, in the systematic reviews/meta-analyses. Since clinical practice is massively informed by evidence on review studies, our main objective was to summarize the reported evidence regarding the effects of structured mindfulness-based programs on psychological, biological, and quality-of-life outcomes in cancer patients. Read More

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Post-ictal psychosis in epilepsy: A clinico-genetic study.

Ann Neurol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, WC1N 3BG, UK.

Objective: Psychoses affecting people with epilepsy increase disease burden and diminish quality of life. We characterised post-ictal psychosis, which comprises about one-quarter of epilepsy-related psychoses, and has unknown causation.

Methods: We conducted a case-control cohort study including patients diagnosed with post-ictal psychosis, confirmed by psychiatric assessment, with available data regarding epilepsy, treatment, psychiatric history, psychosis profile and outcomes. Read More

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Whole genome sequencing of nearly isogenic WMI and WLI inbred rats identifies genes potentially involved in depression and stress reactivity.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14774. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

The WMI and WLI inbred rats were generated from the stress-prone, and not yet fully inbred, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) strain. These were selected using bi-directional selection for immobility in the forced swim test and were then sib-mated for over 38 generations. Despite the low level of genetic diversity among WKY progenitors, the WMI substrain is significantly more vulnerable to stress relative to the counter-selected WLI strain. Read More

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Early-life social experience affects offspring DNA methylation and later life stress phenotype.

Nat Commun 2021 07 20;12(1):4398. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Lifecourse Epidemiology of Adiposity and Diabetes (LEAD) Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA.

Studies in rodents and captive primates suggest that the early-life social environment affects future phenotype, potentially through alterations to DNA methylation. Little is known of these associations in wild animals. In a wild population of spotted hyenas, we test the hypothesis that maternal care during the first year of life and social connectedness during two periods of early development leads to differences in DNA methylation and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) later in life. Read More

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Sex differences in human mate preferences vary across sex ratios.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jul 21;288(1955):20211115. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Psychology, Izmir University of Economics, Izmir 35300, Turkey.

A wide range of literature connects sex ratio and mating behaviours in non-human animals. However, research examining sex ratio and human mating is limited in scope. Prior work has examined the relationship between sex ratio and desire for short-term, uncommitted mating as well as outcomes such as marriage and divorce rates. Read More

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Illusory Essences: A Bias Holding Back Theorizing in Psychological Science.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2021 Jul 20:1745691621991838. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge.

The reliance in psychology on verbal definitions means that psychological research is unusually moored to how humans think and communicate about categories. Psychological concepts (e.g. Read More

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