J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr;106(5):1245-1254
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Context: This mini-review provides an overview of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, with a focus on the role of hormone formulation, dose, and route of delivery.
Methods: This summary is based on authors' knowledge in the field of menopausal HT and supplemented by a PubMed search using the terms "menopause hormone therapy," "transdermal," "estradiol," "conjugated estrogens," "bioidentical," "cardiovascular disease," "lipoproteins," "glucose," "progestogens," "low dose."
Results: Available evidence indicates that oral unopposed estrogens have a favorable effect on lipoprotein levels, glycemia, insulin, and CVD risk; however, the addition of progestogens blunts the lipid-related effects. Read More