66 results match your criteria bioidentical estrogens

Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease: The Role of Formulation, Dose, and Route of Delivery.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Context: This mini-review provides an overview of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, with a focus on the role of hormone formulation, dose, and route of delivery.

Methods: This summary is based on authors' knowledge in the field of menopausal HT and supplemented by a PubMed search using the terms "menopause hormone therapy", "transdermal", "estradiol", "conjugated estrogens", "bioidentical", "cardiovascular disease", "lipoproteins", "glucose", "progestogens", "low dose".

Results: Available evidence indicates that oral unopposed estrogens have a favorable effect on lipoprotein levels, glycemia, insulin and CVD risk, however the addition of progestogens blunts the lipid-related effects. Read More

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January 2021

Bioidentical hormones.

Climacteric 2021 Feb 6;24(1):38-45. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

After the results of the Women's Health Initiative trials were published, patient and clinician interest in potential alternatives to conventional hormone therapy (HT) has grown. A commonly used alternative therapy involves custom-compounded steroid hormone preparations, formulated by compounding pharmacies. Many postmenopausal women consider the hormones as natural or bioidentical, in contrast to hormones used in conventional HT, which they consider synthetic. Read More

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February 2021

Drugs for menopausal symptoms.


Med Lett Drugs Ther 2020 08;62(1604):124-128

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Uterine bleeding with hormone therapies in menopausal women: a systematic review.

Climacteric 2020 12 7;23(6):550-558. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

TherapeuticsMD, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Uterine bleeding is a common reason why women discontinue menopausal hormone therapy (HT). This systematic review compared bleeding profiles reported in studies for continuous-combined HT approved in North America and Europe for moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women with a uterus. Non-head-to-head studies showed that uterine bleeding varies by formulation and administration route, with oral having a better bleeding profile than transdermal formulations. Read More

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December 2020

Transdermal delivery of bioidentical estrogen in menopausal hormone therapy: a clinical review.

Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2020 04 9;17(4):543-549. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Division of Women's Health Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.

: The history of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) use has evolved over the years based on the influence of many factors, including availability and safety related to formulation and route of estrogen products. Given unexpected findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in the early 2000's that used oral conjugated equine estrogen, the desire for and research supporting transdermal estradiol products grew. Transdermal estrogen is now a popular and commonly used formulation for treating menopausal symptoms. Read More

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Hormone Therapy and Effects on Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease in Postmenopausal Women: Importance of Nomenclature.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;73(1):23-37

Austin Health, Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

Numerous observational studies have suggested that hormone therapy (HT) might protect postmenopausal women against cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, because of the significant disparity between results, especially those between observational and randomized controlled trials (RCT), this postulate remains unproven. A significant contributing factor to these inconsistencies is the loose use of the generic definitions of estrogens and progestogens with most studies not delineating the clear differences between non-endogenous and endogenously identical (bioidentical) hormones, their molecular binding affinities and actions, and resultant metabolites. Read More

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January 2020

The dangers of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy.

Br J Gen Pract 2019 11 31;69(688):540-541. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Professor of Gynaecology, King's College London; Consultant Gynaecologist, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

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November 2019

Determination of estradiol and progesterone content in capsules and creams from compounding pharmacies.

Menopause 2019 09;26(9):966-971

TherapeuticsMD, Boca Raton, FL.

Objectives: To analytically characterize the doses of estradiol and progesterone found in compounded combined forms of oral capsule and transdermal cream formulations, and determine the consistency of the hormone formulations within a batch.

Methods: Prescriptions for combined estradiol/progesterone capsules (0.5 and 100 mg, respectively) and creams (0. Read More

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September 2019

Colorectal cancer screening.


Med Lett Drugs Ther 2019 Jul;61(1575):97-99

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A combined, bioidentical, oral, 17β-estradiol and progesterone capsule for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms due to menopause.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2019 Aug 22;12(8):729-739. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

b TherapeuticsMD , Boca Raton , FL , USA.

: Many women seek treatment to alleviate menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Numerous women use combination compounded hormone therapy (CHT) to achieve the benefits of estrogen/progesterone for endometrial protection. TX-001HR is a combination of bioidentical 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in a single capsule designed for continuous daily use to treat moderate to severe VMS. Read More

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Bioidentical hormone therapy in menopause: relevance in dermatology.

Dermatol Online J 2019 Jan 15;25(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Dermatology & Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

Hormone replacement therapy has been shown to be effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms. However, its use is controversial owing to potential health risks, such as thromboembolism and cancer. Bioidentical hormone therapy has recently become popular as an alternative to conventional hormone replacement therapy. Read More

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January 2019

Increased Incidence of Endometrial Cancer Following the Women's Health Initiative: An Assessment of Risk Factors.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2019 02 28;28(2):237-243. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University School of Medicine , New York, New York.

Background: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database shows a variable increase in endometrial cancer incidence over time. The objective of this review was to examine published endometrial cancer rates and potential etiologies.

Methods: Endometrial cancer incidence was obtained from the SEER Program database from 1975 through 2014, and a test for trend in incidence was calculated. Read More

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February 2019

Impact of micronized progesterone on body weight, body mass index, and glucose metabolism: a systematic review.

Climacteric 2019 04 27;22(2):148-161. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , University of Bern , Bern , Switzerland.

In women, body weight increases with age. Often menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is blamed for enhancing this effect. In recent years, the debate on bioidentical MHT including micronized progesterone (MP) has increased. Read More

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Human versus non-human sex steroid use in hormone replacement therapies part 1: Preclinical data.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2019 01 9;480:12-35. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Division of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, USA.

Prior to 2002, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was considered to be an important component of postmenopausal healthcare. This was based on a plethora of basic, epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrating the health benefits of supplementation with human sex steroids. However, adverse findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) studies that examined the 2 major forms of HRT in use in the US at that time - Premarin (conjugated equine estrogens; CEE) and Prempro (CEE + medroxyprogesterone acetate; MPA), cast a shadow over the use of any form of HRT. Read More

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January 2019

Hormone Therapy and Breast Cancer: Emerging Steroid Receptor Mechanisms.

J Mol Endocrinol 2018 10 16;61(4):R133-R160. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa.

Although hormone therapy is widely used by millions of women to relieve symptoms of menopause, it has been associated with several side-effects such as coronary heart disease, stroke and increased invasive breast cancer risk. These side-effects have caused many women to seek alternatives to conventional hormone therapy, including the controversial custom-compounded bioidentical hormone therapy suggested to not increase breast cancer risk. Historically estrogens and the estrogen receptor were considered the principal factors promoting breast cancer development and progression, however, a role for other members of the steroid receptor family in breast cancer pathogenesis is now evident, with emerging studies revealing an interplay between some steroid receptors. Read More

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October 2018

Establishing a Rationale for Compounding Hormone Replacement Therapy.

Bruce Biundo

Int J Pharm Compd 2018 May-Jun;22(3):190-195

Professional Compounding Centers of America (PCCA), Houston, Texas.

Why compound bioidentical hormones? Are there no similar commercial products? What is unique about the options compounding pharmacists offer compared with what is out in the marketplace? These are questions that physicians and other practitioners are asking, and it is very important that we have intelligent, well-thought answers when we respond. Times have changed, and the challenges we face today in marketing our compounded therapies are not the same as those of twenty years ago. Premarin is no longer at the top of the heap, and there are topical, commercial products that contain bioidentical estradiol, and capsules that contain the same progesterone that we use. Read More

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September 2018

Conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer relative to bioidentical hormone therapy and controls.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(5):e0197064. Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Objective: By the 1990s it became popular for women to use hormone therapy (HT) to ease menopause symptoms. Bioidentical estrogen and progesterone are supplements whose molecular structures are identical to what is made in the human body, while synthetic supplements are ones whose structures are not. After the Women's Health Initiative found that the combined use of the synthetics conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increased breast cancer risk, prescriptions for synthetic HT declined considerably. Read More

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Evidence on the use of progesterone in menopausal hormone therapy.

S Mirkin

Climacteric 2018 08 9;21(4):346-354. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

a TherapeuticsMD , Boca Raton , FL , USA.

A need exists for a regulatory agency-approved hormone therapy (HT) with naturally occurring hormones combining progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2), since no single product contains both endogenous hormones. Many women choose HT with P4 and millions of women around the world are using unapproved, poorly regulated compounded HT. The use of natural P4 in HT results, for the most part, in favorable outcomes without deleterious effects, as shown in clinical studies of postmenopausal women. Read More

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The impact of micronized progesterone on breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

Climacteric 2018 04 31;21(2):111-122. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

c Clinic for Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine , RWTH University of Aachen , Aachen , Germany.

Postmenopausal women with an intact uterus using estrogen therapy should receive a progestogen for endometrial protection. The debate on bioidentical hormones including micronized progesterone has increased in recent years. Based on a systematic literature review on the impact of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) containing micronized progesterone on the mammary gland, an international expert panel's recommendations are as follows: (1) estrogens combined with oral (approved) or vaginal (off-label use) micronized progesterone do not increase breast cancer risk for up to 5 years of treatment duration; (2) there is limited evidence that estrogens combined with oral micronized progesterone applied for more than 5 years are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; and (3) counseling on combined MHT should cover breast cancer risk - regardless of the progestogen chosen. Read More

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Why women choose compounded bioidentical hormone therapy: lessons from a qualitative study of menopausal decision-making.

BMC Womens Health 2017 Oct 2;17(1):97. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, 1009 E. South Campus Drive, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA.

Background: In recent years, compounded bioidentical hormone therapy (CBHT) has emerged as a popular alternative to manufactured, FDA approved hormone therapy (HT)-despite concerns within the medical community and the availability of new FDA approved "bioidentical" products. This study aims to characterize the motivations for using CBHT in a U.S. Read More

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October 2017

A comparative characterization of estrogens used in hormone therapy via estrogen receptor (ER)-α and -β.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 11 22;174:27-39. Epub 2017 Jul 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa. Electronic address:

Conventional hormone therapy (HT) containing estrogens such as ethinylestradiol (EE) have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular disease resulting in women seeking safer alternatives that are claimed to have fewer health risks. One such alternative gaining popularity, is custom-compounded bioidentical (b)HT formulations containing bioidentical estradiol (bE) and estriol (bE). However, the preparation of these custom-compounded estrogens is not regulated, and depending on the route of synthesis, steroid mixtures with differing activities may be produced. Read More

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November 2017


Endocr Pract 2017 Jul;23(7):869-880

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)/American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Position Statement is designed to update the previous menopause clinical practice guidelines published in 2011 but does not replace them. The current document reviews new clinical trials published since then as well as new information regarding possible risks and benefits of therapies available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. AACE reinforces the recommendations made in its previous guidelines and provides additional recommendations on the basis of new data. Read More

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Effects of obesogenic diet and estradiol on dorsal raphe gene expression in old female macaques.

PLoS One 2017 19;12(6):e0178788. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR, United States of America.

The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems. Read More

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September 2017

Custom-compounded bioidentical hormone therapy: why so popular despite potential harm? The case against routine use.

M L'Hermite

Climacteric 2017 Jun 9;20(3):205-211. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

a Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique , CHU Brugmann, Université Libre de Bruxelles , Bruxelles , Belgium.

Wide rejection of conventional hormone therapy (HT) after the initial publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) led to unjustified use of custom-compounded bioidentical hormones. In the USA, it became an unregulated drug manufacturer industry in disguise, without proper control and making false claims and misleading advertisements. Manufacturing quality is not ensured. Read More

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Menopausal Symptom Relief and Side Effects Experienced by Women Using Compounded Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy and Synthetic Conjugated Equine Estrogen and/or Progestin Hormone Replacement Therapy, Part 3.

Int J Pharm Compd 2017 Jan-Feb;21(1):6-16

Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University.

The use of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy by menopausal women has become a popular alternative to traditional synthetic conjugated equine estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy due to safety concerns raised by recent studies. However, due to the lack of randomized, large-scale trials to evaluate the efficacy and side-effect profile of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy many healthcare providers are reluctant to prescribe such therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare women's menopausal symptom relief and side effects experienced when using compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and traditional hormone replacement therapy. Read More

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Bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy: registered hormones (non-oral estradiol ± progesterone) are optimal.

M L'Hermite

Climacteric 2017 Aug 16;20(4):331-338. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

a Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique , CHU Brugmann, Université Libre de Bruxelles , Bruxelles , Belgium.

The many advantages of registered bioidentical sex hormones over registered, conventional, non-bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are considered. The transdermal route of estrogen administration avoids excess venous thromboembolic and ischemic stroke events. There is some indication that conjugated equine estrogens are more thrombogenic and most likely induce some hypertensive responses; estradiol might also be superior to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in terms of global cardiovascular health. Read More

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Bioidentical Estrogen for Menopausal Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2017 01 7;26(1):18-28. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

4 Department of Internal Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth , Hanover, New Hampshire.

Background: Proponents of bioidentical estrogens claim that they are superior for treating menopausal symptoms, including depressive symptoms. Small trials examining the effects of bioidentical estrogens on depressive symptoms show conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of bioidentical estrogens for treatment of depressive symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women. Read More

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January 2017

Bioidentical hormones for women with vasomotor symptoms.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Aug 1(8):CD010407. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

Management of educational evaluation, School of Sciences of Health/FEPECS, SMHN Quadra 3 conjunto A Bloco 1 Edifício FEPECS, Brasília, Brazil, 70710-100.

Background: Various hormone therapies (HT) are available to treat menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Bioidentical hormones are chemically identical to those produced by the human body, and several types are well-tested and available on prescription. Many women have opted for bioidentical hormone therapy (BHT) on the assumption that it is safer than other forms of HT. Read More

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