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Mutational analyses of novel rat models with targeted modifications in inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility genes.

Mamm Genome 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Rat Resource and Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65201, USA.

Mutations and single base pair polymorphisms in various genes have been associated with increased susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have created a series of rat strains carrying targeted genetic alterations within three IBD susceptibility genes: Nod2, Atg16l1, and Il23r, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. Knock-out alleles and alleles with known human susceptibility polymorphisms were generated on three different genetic backgrounds: Fischer, Lewis and Sprague Dawley. Read More

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Selenium source and level on performance, selenium retention and biochemical responses of young broiler chicks.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Apr 9;17(1):151. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, 36570900, Brazil.

Background: Selenium (Se) has been recognized as an essential micronutrient for nearly all forms of life. In recent decades, broiler responses to dietary Se supplemental levels and sources have received considerable attention. On environmental grounds, organic trace mineral utilization in practical broiler feeds has been defended due to its higher bioavailability. Read More

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The predictive value of normal EEGs in dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: To determine differences in clinical presentation and disease progression between patients with dementia due to AD with visually normal and abnormal EEG recordings. We hypothesized that patients with normal electroencephalographs (EEGs) are a representation of the heterogeneity of AD. We expected this group to have a phenotype with relatively predominant hippocampal atrophy, memory deficits, and a slower disease progression. Read More

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Doxorubicin-Loaded Mixed Micelles for the Effective Management of Skin Carcinoma: In Vivo Anti-Tumor Activity and Biodistribution Studies.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 Apr 9;22(3):130. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Chemical Sciences and Pharmacy, Central University of Rajasthan, Dist. Ajmer, Bandarsindri, Rajasthan, 305 817, India.

Skin cancer is an alarming concern due to increased radiation and chemical exposure. Doxorubicin is a drug prescribed for various cancers by parenteral route. Apart from the pharmaceutical challenge of being a biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) Class III drug, the side effects of doxorubicin are also a great concern. Read More

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Bioavailability of copper and nickel in naturally metal-enriched soils of Carajás Mining Province, Eastern Amazon, Brazil.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 9;193(5):256. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Soil Science Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 3037, 37200-900, Brazil.

Naturally elevated contents of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) are found in soils worldwide, and their potential toxicity is better understood when geochemical reactive fractions are identified and monitored. Thus, this study aimed to assess the bioavailability of Cu and Ni and estimate environmental risks in naturally metal-enriched soils of Carajás Mining Province, Eastern Amazon, Brazil. For that, 58 surficial soil samples were analyzed for their extractable contents of Cu and Ni by Mehlich 1. Read More

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Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nanomedicine.

Authors:
Jinmyoung Joo

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1310:401-447

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, South Korea.

Nanotechnology has been widely applied to medical interventions for prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutics of diseases, and the application of nanotechnology for medical purposes, which is called as a term "nanomedicine" has received tremendous attention. In particular, the design and development of nanoparticle for biosensors have received a great deal of attention, since those are most impactful area of clinical translation showing potential breakthrough in early diagnosis of diseases such as cancers and infections. For example, the nanoparticles that have intrinsic unique features such as magnetic responsive characteristics or photoluminescence can be utilized for noninvasive visualization of inner body. Read More

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A review of biochemical diversity and metabolic modeling of EBPR process under specific environmental conditions and carbon source availability.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 7;288:112362. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Civil engineering, York university, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, M3J 1P3, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is one of the most promising technologies as an economical and environmentally sustainable technique for removal of phosphorus from wastewater (WW). However, with high capacity of EBPR, insufficient P-removal is a major yet common issue of many full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), due to misinterpreted environmental and microbial disturbance. By developing a rather extensive understanding on biochemical pathways and metabolic models governing the anaerobic and aerobic/anoxic processes; the optimal operational conditions, environmental changes and microbial population interaction are efficiently predicted. Read More

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Transcriptome and physiological studies reveal key players in wheat nitrogen use efficiency under both high and low N.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

The effective use of available nitrogen (N) to improve crop grain yields provides an important strategy to reduce environmental N pollution and promote sustainable agriculture. However, little is known about the common genetic basis of N use efficiency (NUE) at varying N availability. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Read More

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Exposure characteristics of antimony and coexisting arsenic from multi-path exposure in typical antimony mine area.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 3;289:112493. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China. Electronic address:

In this study, samples of daily foods, drinking waters, surface waters, and soils were collected and screened to investigate the external exposure of Sb and As from various intake pathways in typical Sb mining area. Biomarker samples of residents were analyzed to monitor internal exposure characteristic of Sb and As in human body. Exposure dosages of As and Sb and transfer of Sb and As from environment to human body were estimated based on the external and internal exposure. Read More

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Complexation reduces nickel toxicity to purple sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), a test of biotic ligand principles in seawater.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 3;216:112156. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The potential for Ni toxicity in seawater is of concern because of mining and processing activities in coastal regions. Determining Ni speciation is vital to understanding and predicting Ni toxicity and for bioavailability-based nickel risk assessment. The goal of this study was to characterize the complexation of Ni in relation to toxicity using embryological development of purple sea urchin (S. Read More

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CoCoNet: An Efficient Deep Learning Tool for Viral Metagenome Binning.

Bioinformatics 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Information and Computer Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, 96822, USA.

Motivation: Metagenomic approaches hold the potential to characterize microbial communities and unravel the intricate link between the microbiome and biological processes. Assembly is one of the most critical steps in metagenomics experiments. It consists of transforming overlapping DNA sequencing reads into sufficiently accurate representations of the community's genomes. Read More

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Pyrethroid based pesticides - chemical and biological aspects.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2021 Apr 6:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Animal Biology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India.

Human and animal welfare primarily depends on the availability of food and surrounding environment. Over a century and half, the quest to identify agents that can enhance food production and protection from vector borne diseases resulted in the identification and use of a variety of pesticides, of which the pyrethroid based ones emerged as the best choice. Pesticides while improved the quality of life, on the other hand caused enormous health risks. Read More

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Integrated transcriptome and metabolome analysis reveals molecular responses of the clams to acute hypoxia.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Mar 26;168:105317. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266071, China. Electronic address:

Mudflat shellfish have evolved well-adapted strategies for coping with dynamic environmental fluxes and stressful conditions, including oxygen availability. The Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum are worldwide cultured shellfish in marine intertidal zone, which usually encounter great risk of acute hypoxia exposure in coastal habitats. To reveal the effects of acute hypoxia on metabolic changes of the clams, we performed the integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics to investigate the global changes of genes and metabolites during acute hypoxia stress at the whole-organism level. Read More

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Ecdysteroid metabolism in mammals: the fate of ingested 20-hydroxyecdysone in mice and rats.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Apr 2:105896. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Biophytis, Sorbonne Université - BC9, 4 place Jussieu, 75005, Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, CNRS - Institut de Biologie Paris Seine (BIOSIPE), 75005, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Phytoecdysteroids are molecules derived from sterol metabolism and found in many plants. They display a wide array of pharmacological effects on mammals (e.g. Read More

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Prediction of potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 using 3D-QSAR, molecular docking modeling and ADMET properties.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 26;7(3):e06603. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Molecular Chemistry and Natural Substances Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Moulay Ismail University of Meknes, Morocco.

Coronavirus (COVID-19), an enveloped RNA virus, primarily affects human beings. It has been deemed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. For this reason, COVID-19 has become one of the most lethal viruses which the modern world has ever witnessed although some established pharmaceutical companies allege that they have come up with a remedy for COVID-19. Read More

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Growth Hormone/Insulin Growth Factor Axis in Sex Steroid Associated Disorders and Related Cancers.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 18;9:630503. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Endocrine Oncology Research Group, Department of Surgery, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.

To date, almost all solid malignancies have implicated insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling as a driver of tumour growth. However, the remarkable level of crosstalk between sex hormones, the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and its ligands IGF-1 and 2 in endocrine driven cancers is incompletely understood. Similar to the sex steroids, IGF signalling is essential in normal development as well as growth and tissue homoeostasis, and undergoes a steady decline with advancing age and increasing visceral adiposity. Read More

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Pharmacology, Toxicity, Bioavailability, and Formulation of Magnolol: An Update.

Front Pharmacol 2021 17;12:632767. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Magnolol (MG) is one of the primary active components of cortex, which has been widely used in traditional Chinese and Japanese herbal medicine and possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities. In recent years, attention has been drawn to this component due to its potential as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug. To summarize the new biological and pharmacological data on MG, we screened the literature from January 2011 to October 2020. Read More

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