40,486 results match your criteria bile salts

Suppressing ERK Pathway Impairs Glycochenodeoxycholate-Mediated Survival and Drug-Resistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

Front Oncol 2021 13;11:663944. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, National Health Commission (NHC) Key Laboratory of Nanobiological Technology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDA), a toxic component in bile salts, is involved in carcinogenesis of gastrointestinal tumors. The objective of this research was to study the function of ERK1/2 in the GCDA-mediated survival and drug-resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs). Firstly, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was detected extensively expressed in liver cancer cells, and silencing ERK1/2 by RNA interference could suppress GCDA-stimulated survival and promote apoptosis. Read More

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Characterization and evaluation of probiotic potential in vitro and in situ of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei isolated from tenate cheese.

J Food Prot 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo Professor Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Ciudad del Conocimiento, Universidad Autón Carboneras MEXICO Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, México Hidalgo 42184.

The objectives of this investigation were a) to isolate bacteria from different foods (dairy products, fruits, and vegetables) and evaluate their probiotic potential and b) to select, identify, and characterize the strain with the highest probiotic potential. From 14 food samples, a total of 117 strains were isolated; however, only 42 (T1 to T42) showed the morphology (gram-positive, coco, and bacillar form) and were catalase- and oxidase-negative to be considered as a presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The antagonistic activity of the 42 strains was evaluated on Escherichia coli (O157:H7E09), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19115), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ATCC 14028). Read More

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Rhizospheric Lactobacillus plantarum (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum) strains exhibit bile salt hydrolysis, hypocholestrolemic and probiotic capabilities in vitro.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 27;11(1):15288. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi, India.

Lactobacillus plantarum (renamed as Lactiplantibacillus plantarum) has been isolated from many sources but very rarely from rhizospheric soil. This is the first report on isolation and assessment of probiotic capabilities of L. plantarum strains isolated from rhizospheric soil. Read More

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Fxr signaling and microbial metabolism of bile salts in the zebrafish intestine.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 23;7(30). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke Microbiome Center, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Bile salt synthesis, secretion into the intestinal lumen, and resorption in the ileum occur in all vertebrate classes. In mammals, bile salt composition is determined by host and microbial enzymes, affecting signaling through the bile salt-binding transcription factor farnesoid X receptor (Fxr). However, these processes in other vertebrate classes remain poorly understood. Read More

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Liver Bile Acid Changes in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 12;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, 1301 N Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9037, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. It is hypothesized to develop due to the dysfunction of two major proteins, amyloid-β (Aβ) and microtubule-associated protein, tau. Evidence supports the involvement of cholesterol changes in both the generation and deposition of Aβ. Read More

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Activity of probiotics from food origin for oxalate degradation.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Kidney stones composed of oxalate are a significant health problem. It has been suggested that modification of the intestinal microbiota to reduce the amount of oxalate in the digestive system could be an effective treatment. There have been several studies into the use of lactic acid bacteria for the degradation of intestinal oxalates. Read More

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Gut microbiota-derived metabolites in CRC progression and causation.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Gene Regulation Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Background: Based on recent research reports, dysbiosis and improper concentrations of microbial metabolites in the gut may result into the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. Recent advancement also highlights the involvement of bacteria and their secreted metabolites in the cancer causation. Gut microbial metabolites are functional output of the host-microbiota interactions and produced by anaerobic fermentation of food components in the diet. Read More

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Revealing the complex self-assembly behaviour of sodium deoxycholate in aqueous solution.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 27;604:415-428. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Molecular Chemistry and Materials Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, 7610001 Rehovot, Israel.

Hypothesis: Sodium deoxycholate is a natural bile salt produced by animals and fulfilling important physiological processes. It is also used as dispersive surfactant and building block for self-assembled architectures in biology and material science. Although long debated, the study of its self-assembly in water is hereto incomplete and the models of the known aggregates are still controversial. Read More

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The Role of OmpR in Bile Tolerance and Pathogenesis of Adherent-Invasive .

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:684473. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

BioVersys AG, Basel, Switzerland.

Gut microbiota dysbiosis toward adherent-invasive (AIEC) plays an important role in Crohn's disease (CD). The OmpR transcriptional regulator is required for the AIEC LF82 prototype strain to adhere and invade intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, we explored the role of OmpR in AIEC pathogenesis using a panel of eight strains isolated from CD patients and identified as AIEC. Read More

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Facilitated Buccal Insulin Delivery via Hydrophobic Ion-Pairing Approach: In vitro and ex vivo Evaluation.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 7;16:4677-4691. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: The clinical use of therapeutic peptides has been limited because of their inefficient delivery approaches and, therefore, inadequate delivery to target sites. Buccal administration of therapeutic peptides offers patients a potential alternative to the current invasive routes of administration.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to fabricate hydrophobic ion-pairing (HIP)-nanocomplexes (C1 and C2) utilizing anionic bile salts and cationic peptides, and to assess their permeability across TR146 buccal cell layers and porcine buccal tissue. Read More

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Proteome, bioinformatic and functional analyses reveal a distinct and conserved metabolic pathway for bile salt degradation in the .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Jul 14:AEM0098721. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Microbial Biotechnology and Ecology, Institute for Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.

Bile salts are amphiphilic steroids chain with digestive functions in vertebrates. Upon excretion, bile salts are degraded by environmental bacteria. Degradation of the bile-salt steroid skeleton resembles the well-studied pathway for other steroids like testosterone, while specific differences occur during side-chain degradation and the initiating transformations of the steroid skeleton. Read More

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Do Macrocyclic Peptide Drugs Interact with Bile Salts under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions?

Mol Pharm 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, The University of Kansas, 2093 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, United States.

Peptide drugs face several barriers to oral delivery, including enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and low membrane permeability. Importantly, the direct interaction between various biorelevant colloids (i.e. Read More

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Effect of Bile Salts on the Interfacial Dilational Rheology of Lecithin in the Lipid Digestion Process.

J Oleo Sci 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Light Industry, Beijing Technology and Business University.

The effects of bile salts on the emulsifier adsorption layer play a crucial role in lipid digestion. The current study selected sodium cholate (NaCh) and lecithin as model compounds for bile salts and food emulsifiers, respectively. The interface dilational rheological and emulsification properties of NaCh and lecithin were carried out. Read More

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Altered profiles of fecal bile acids correlate with gut microbiota and inflammatory responses in patients with ulcerative colitis.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun;27(24):3609-3629

Department of Gastroenterology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

Background: Gut microbiota and its metabolites may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Several clinical studies have recently shown that patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have altered profiles of fecal bile acids (BAs). It was observed that BA receptors Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) participate in intestinal inflammatory responses by regulating NF-ĸB signaling. Read More

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A Simple Dilution Method for Preparation of Different Aggregates from Oleic Acid/CHAPSO Bicelles.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 12;21(12):5993-5999

Division of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.

We evaluated the effect of dilution on both the size and packing density of aggregates prepared from a fatty acid (oleic acid, OA)/detergent (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxypropane sulfonate (CHAPSO)) bicelle as a parent for functional membrane materials. The sizes of the aggregates formed at different molar ratios, (= [OA]/([OA]+[CHAPSO])), of 0.3 and 0. Read More

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December 2021

Bile salts regulate zinc uptake and capsule synthesis in a mastitis-associated extraintestinal pathogenic strain.

Infect Immun 2021 Jul 6:IAI0035721. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States.

Extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) are major causes of urinary and bloodstream infections. ExPEC reservoirs are not completely understood. Some mastitis-associated (MAEC) strains carry genes associated with ExPEC virulence, including metal scavenging, immune avoidance, and host attachment functions. Read More

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Prebiotic effects of citrus pectic oligosaccharides.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Jul 6:1-4. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA) - Research Centre for Olive, Fruit and Citrus Crops, Acireale, Italy.

Citrus peel wastes, one of the major by-products of the agri-food industry, are a source of value-added compounds. In this work, a commercial pectin (PEC1) and one obtained by direct extraction from citrus fibre (PEC2), were hydrolysed and ultrafiltered at different cut-off (100, 50 and 30 kDa) and then tested in broth with four different probiotic strains: and subsp. In addition, the probiotic strains selected for their growth rate with the fractions of the two pectins were tested for tolerance to different pH values and bile salts. Read More

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Synthesis of digestive enzymes, food processing, and nutrient absorption in decapod crustaceans: a comparison to the mammalian model of digestion.

Günter Vogt

Zoology (Jena) 2021 08 10;147:125945. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Biosciences, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

The ∼15.000 decapod crustaceans that are mostly omnivorous have evolved a structurally and functionally complex digestive system. They have highly effective cuticular chewing and filtering structures in the stomach, which are regularly renewed by moulting. Read More

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The characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented food as potential probiotics.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 25;32(4):743-749. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Pulmonology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Objectives: This study aims to determine the characteristics of and from fermented soursop fruit juice and cow's milk, respectively as probiotic candidate based on exposure to pH, bile salts, pathogenic bacteria, and antibiotics.

Methods: studies were conducted to examine the resistance of and in pH 2, 2.5, 3. Read More

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Flavonoids from Whole-Grain Oat Alleviated High-Fat Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia Regulating Bile Acid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota in Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 2;69(27):7629-7640. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Medical Instruments and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China.

A high-fat diet (HFD) causes hyperlipidemia, which worsens disturbances in bile acid (BA) metabolism and gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate the regulation of flavonoids from whole-grain oat (FO) on BA metabolism and gut microbiota in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic mice. The experiment results showed that FO improved serum lipid profiles and decreased body weight and lipid deposition in HFD-fed mice. Read More

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Atorvastatin Modulates Bile Acid Homeostasis in Mice with Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 16;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Charles University, Simkova 870, 500 03 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Bile acids (BA) play a significant role in the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The present study evaluates the modulation of bile acid metabolomics by atorvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering agent commonly used to treat cardiovascular complications accompanying NASH. NASH was induced in mice by 24 weeks of consuming a high-saturated fat, high-fructose, and high-cholesterol diet (F), with atorvastatin administered orally (20 mg/kg/day) during the last three weeks. Read More

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The Effects of Food on Cannabidiol Bioaccessibility.

Molecules 2021 Jun 11;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a hydrophobic non-psychoactive compound with therapeutic characteristics. Animal and human studies have shown its poor oral bioavailability in vivo, and the impact of consuming lipid-soluble CBD with and without food on gut bioaccessibility has not been explored. The purpose of this research was to study the bioaccessibility of CBD after a three-phase upper digestion experiment with and without food, and to test lipase activity with different substrate concentrations. Read More

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Perinatal High-Salt Diet Induces Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis, Bile Acid Homeostasis Disbalance, and NAFLD in Weanling Mice Offspring.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 22;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

A perinatal high-salt (HS) diet was reported to elevate plasma triglycerides. This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that a perinatal HS diet predisposed offspring to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of abnormal lipid metabolism, and the possible mechanism. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (0. Read More

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Highly Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Derivatives of Bile Salts.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 22;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Avda. Alfonso X El Sabio s/n, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

Lipophilicity of 15 derivatives of sodium cholate, defined by the octan-1-ol/water partition coefficient (), has been theoretically determined by the   method. These derivatives bear highly hydrophobic or highly hydrophilic substituents at the C3 position of the steroid nucleus, being linked to it through an amide bond. The difference between the maximum value of and the minimum one is enlarged to 3. Read More

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Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) as Model of Gut-Liver Axis Interaction: From Pathophysiology to Potential Target of Treatment for Personalized Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 17;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver disease worldwide, affecting both adults and children and will result, in the near future, as the leading cause of end-stage liver disease. Indeed, its prevalence is rapidly increasing, and NAFLD is becoming a major public health concern. For this reason, great efforts are needed to identify its pathogenetic factors and new therapeutic approaches. Read More

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In Vitro Probitotic Evaluation of with Antimicrobial Spectrum in a Model.

Foods 2021 Jun 20;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

In the present study, we screened for potential probiotic yeast that could survive under extreme frozen conditions. The antimicrobial and heat-stable properties of the isolated yeast strains () (, , , , , and ) was analyzed and compared with commercial probiotic strains. The results revealed that the tested strain showed higher resistance to gastric enzymes (bile salts, pepsin, and pancreatic enzyme) at low pH, with broad antibiotic resistance. Read More

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Machine learning applied to serum and cerebrospinal fluid metabolomes revealed altered arginine metabolism in neonatal sepsis with meningoencephalitis.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 18;19:3284-3292. Epub 2021 May 18.

Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, National Center for Children's Health, Shanghai 201102, China.

Background: Neonatal sepsis with meningoencephalitis is a common complication of sepsis, which is a leading cause of neonatal death and neurological dysfunction. Early identification of neonatal sepsis with meningoencephalitis is particularly important for reducing brain damage. We recruited 70 patients with neonatal sepsis, 42 of which were diagnosed as meningoencephalitis, and collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples. Read More

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The Interface of and the Gut Microbiome.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1937015

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

The bacterium is the etiologic agent of the severe human diarrheal disease cholera. The gut microbiome, or the native community of microorganisms found in the human gastrointestinal tract, is increasingly being recognized as a factor in driving susceptibility to infection, fitness, and host interactions of this pathogen. Here, we review a subset of the emerging studies in how gut microbiome structure and microbial function are able to drive virulence gene regulation, metabolism, and modulate host immune responses to cholera infection and vaccination. Read More

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The antibiotic efflux protein TolC is a highly evolvable target under colicin E1 or TLS phage selection.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Green Center for Systems Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Bacteriophages and bacterial toxins are promising antibacterial agents to treat infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In fact, bacteriophages have recently been successfully used to treat life-threatening infections caused by MDR bacteria [1-3]. One potential problem with using these antibacterial agents is the evolution of resistance against them in the long term. Read More

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Prevalence and Characterization of Food-Borne From African Salad in Southern Nigeria.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:632266. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Applied Microbial Processes and Environmental Health Research Group, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

The demand for minimally processed vegetables (African salad) has increased partly due to its inclusion in ready-to-eat foods. Nevertheless, the associated risk of the presence of emergent foodborne pathogens, such as might be underestimated. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize foodborne from minimally processed vegetables using culture-based methods and molecular approach. Read More

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