41,677 results match your criteria bile salt


A systems-level analysis of bile acids effects on rat colon epithelial cells.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Bile acid diarrhoea is a chronic condition caused by increased delivery of bile acids to the colon. The underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. To investigate genes involved in bile acid diarrhoea, systems-level analyses were employed on a rat bile acid diarrhoea model. Read More

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October 2021

Importance of Conjugation of the Bile Salt on the Mechanism of Lipolysis.

Molecules 2021 Sep 23;26(19). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Colloid and Lipid Science, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland.

We aim to advance the discussion on the significance of the conjugation of bile salts (BS) in our organism. We hypothesize that conjugation influences the rate of lipolysis. Since the rate of lipolysis is a compound parameter, we compare the effect of conjugation on four surface parameters, which contribute to the rate. Read More

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September 2021

Glycyrrhetinic Acid Protects α-Naphthylisothiocyanate- Induced Cholestasis Through Regulating Transporters, Inflammation and Apoptosis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:701240. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the active metabolic product of Glycyrrhizin (GL) that is the main ingredient of licorice, was reported to protect against α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)- induced cholestasis. However, its protective mechanism remains unclear. In our work, the cholestatic liver injury in mice was caused by ANIT and GA was used for the treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Potential prebiotic properties of exopolysaccharides produced by a novel strain, YY-112.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 4;12(19):9456-9465. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Institute of Food Science, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China.

Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) derived from have important physiological effects and are commonly used as new prebiotics. We identified and studied a new strain, YY-112, isolated from waxberry (). This strain, identified as , tolerates acids, bile salts, and artificial digestive fluids. Read More

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October 2021

Roles of Gut Microbiota and Metabolites in Pathogenesis of Functional Constipation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 21;2021:5560310. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

Functional constipation (FC), a condition characterized by heterogeneous symptoms (infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, excessive straining, or a sense of incomplete evacuation), is prevalent over the world. It is a multifactorial disorder and can be categorized into four subgroups according to different pathological mechanisms: normal transit constipation (NTC), slow transit constipation (STC), defecatory disorders (DD), and mixed type. Recently, growing evidence from human and animals has pointed that there was a strong association between gut microbiota and FC based on the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Read More

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September 2021

Barrett's Epithelium to Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Is There a "Point of No Return"?

Front Genet 2021 17;12:706706. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, United States.

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) arises from Barrett's epithelium (BE), and chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease is considered the strongest risk factor for disease progression. All BE patients undergo acid suppressive therapy, surveillance, and BE removal by surgery or endoscopic ablation, yet the incidence of EAC continues to increase. Despite the known side effects and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach is the standard clinical management as there are no reliable methods for risk stratification. Read More

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September 2021

Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus isolated from horses and its therapeutic effect on DSS-induced colitis in mice.

Microb Pathog 2021 Sep 29:105216. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a refractory disease that endangers both humans and animals. In recent times, Lactobacillus have been used to treat animal diseases. It may be a good choice to try to isolate Lactobacillus with probiotic potential to treat IBD. Read More

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September 2021

A homozygous R148W mutation in Semaphorin 7A causes progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 Sep 29:e14563. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Cholestatic Liver Diseases Center, Department of Gastroenterology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) is a membrane-bound protein that involves axon growth and other biological processes. SEMA7A mutations are associated with vertebral fracture and Kallmann syndrome. Here, we report a case with a mutation in SEMA7A that displays familial cholestasis. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of the Probiotic Potential between Isolated from Kimchi and Standard Probiotic Strains Isolated from Different Sources.

Foods 2021 Sep 8;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Microbiology and Functionality Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju 61755, Korea.

In the present study, the properties of the () WiKim0112 isolated from kimchi were evaluated by comparing its probiotic properties to those of WCFS1 and KACC 11451 isolated from different sources. In both pH 2 and 3, media containing pepsin, Wikim0112, and WCFS1 showed higher cell viability than KACC11451. Viability of all . Read More

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September 2021

Disease-Associated Gut Microbiota Reduces the Profile of Secondary Bile Acids in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 9;11:698852. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) display an altered gut microbiota compared with healthy children. However, little is known about the fecal bile acid profiles and their association with gut microbiota dysbiosis in pediatric NAFLD. A total of 68 children were enrolled in this study, including 32 NAFLD patients and 36 healthy children. Read More

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September 2021

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Oatp2b1 as a functional ortholog of the human OATP2B1 transporter.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia.

OATP2B1 belongs to a highly conserved organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family of transporters, involved in the cellular uptake of both endogenous and exogenous compounds. The reported substrates of human OATP2B1 include steroid conjugates, bile salts, and thyroid hormones, as well as pharmaceuticals. Human OATP2B1 has orthologous genes in other vertebrate species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio), a widely used model organism in biomedical and environmental research. Read More

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September 2021

Bile salts promote ToxR regulon activation during growth under virulence inducing conditions.

Infect Immun 2021 Sep 20:IAI0044121. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Pittsburgh, PA.

Cholera is an epidemic disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium . is found in aquatic ecosystems and infects people through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Following ingestion, responds to host cues to activate the expression of critical virulence genes that are under control of a hierarchical regulatory system called the ToxR regulon. Read More

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September 2021

Prophylactic inhibition of colonization by with the secondary bile acid metabolite deoxycholic acid.

Infect Immun 2021 Sep 20:IAI0046321. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

(Spn) colonizes the nasopharynx of children and the elderly but also kills millions worldwide yearly. The secondary bile acid metabolite, deoxycholic acid (DoC), affects the viability of human pathogens but also plays multiple roles in host physiology. We assessed the antimicrobial activity of DoC and investigated its potential to eradicate Spn colonization using a model of human nasopharyngeal colonization and an mouse model of colonization. Read More

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September 2021

Gallensäure öfters Grund für Diarrhö.

Authors:
Martin Storr

MMW Fortschr Med 2021 09;163(16):30

Zentrum für Endoskopie, Internistenzentrum, Oßwaldstr. 1, 82319, Starnberg, Deutschland.

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September 2021

Current state of prognostication, therapy and prospective innovations for Barrett's-related esophageal adenocarcinoma: a literature review.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Aug;12(4):1197-1214

Department of Translational Research, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Objective: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), which has one of the lowest 5-year survival rates in oncology. The reasons for poor survival are twofold: the large majority of diagnoses are in advanced stages (~80%) and limited treatment options, with a deficit of biology-guided therapies. As a rapidly growing public health concern with poor prognosis, research into the molecular progression for BE and novel therapeutics for EAC currently has high clinical utility. Read More

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Gastrointestinal transit tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, and functional attributes of strains isolated from Indigenous Dahi.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 13;9(9):5092-5102. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Food and Biological Engineering Jiangsu University Zhenjiang China.

Strains of WFA1 (KU877440), WFA2 (KU877441), and WFA3 (KU877442) were isolated from indigenous Dahi (yogurt), screened, and selected based on acid and bile tolerance along with the antimicrobial activity. These selected strains were further assessed for their probiotic and functional attributes. Results for simulated gastric and intestinal tolerance/ resistance revealed that all three strains can resist and survive under the following mentioned conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Cholbam® and Zellweger spectrum disorders: treatment implementation and management.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 09 14;16(1):388. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Oklahoma University Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Background: Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are a rare, heterogenous group of autosomal recessively inherited disorders characterized by reduced peroxisomes numbers, impaired peroxisomal formation, and/or defective peroxisomal functioning. In the absence of functional peroxisomes, bile acid synthesis is disrupted, and multisystem disease ensues with abnormalities in the brain, liver, kidneys, muscle, eyes, ears, and nervous system.

Main Body: Liver disease may play an important role in morbidity and mortality, with hepatic fibrosis that can develop as early as the postnatal period and often progressing to cirrhosis within the first year of life. Read More

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September 2021

Genetic variants associated with beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity potentially influence bile acid metabolites and gestational diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 09;9(1)

School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

Introduction: To investigate associations between genetic variants related to beta-cell (BC) dysfunction or insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and bile acids (BAs), as well as the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Research Design And Methods: We organized a case-control study of 230 women with GDM and 217 without GDM nested in a large prospective cohort of 22 302 Chinese women in Tianjin, China. Two weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs), namely BC-GRS and IR-GRS, were established by combining 39 and 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms known to be associated with BC dysfunction and IR, respectively. Read More

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September 2021

Hepatic stellate cells in the injured liver: Perspectives beyond hepatic fibrosis.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Pharmacology, The Blue Lab, Molecular Medicine and Toxicology Division, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Over the last two decades, our understanding of the pathological role of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in fibrotic liver disease has increased dramatically. As HSCs are identified as the principal collagen-producing cells in the injured liver, several experimental and clinical studies have targeted HSCs to treat liver fibrosis. However, HSCs also play a critical role in developing nonfibrotic liver diseases such as cholestasis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Read More

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September 2021

[ABDOMINAL OBESITY AND GUT MICROBIOTA (REVIEW)].

Georgian Med News 2021 Jul-Aug(316-317):142-146

GI "L.T. Malaya Therapy National Institute of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kharkiv, Ukraine.

In review provides data on pathophysiological relationships of intestinal microbiota with body weight regulation in patients with abdominal obesity. In manuscript discusses the leading mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can contribute to obesity and metabolic diseases, analyzes its components, including gastrointestinal peptides, short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, farnesoid receptors, etc. Western diet high in salt, dysbiosis and endotoxemia can be powerful pro-inflammatory factors responsible for the development of insulin resistance and weight gain. Read More

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September 2021

Pueraria flavones-loaded bile salt liposomes with improved intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability: and evaluation.

Pharm Dev Technol 2021 Oct 5:1-10. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, PR China.

Pueraria flavone (PF), the main component of , is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases; however, it exhibits low oral bioavailability because of its poor membrane permeability. In this study, PF-loaded sodium deoxycholate-decorated liposomes (SDC-Lips) were prepared using the reverse-phase evaporation method and optimised using the Box-Behnken design method. The morphology, particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of these PF-loaded SDC-Lips were evaluated. Read More

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October 2021

Resistant type 2 amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis responsive to cholestyramine as an adjunctive therapy.

Clin Med (Lond) 2021 09;21(5):e529-e530

The Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust, Dudley, UK

Amiodarone is a class 3 antiarrhythmic drug which may be associated with thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is classified as type 1 (AIT 1; which may develop in the presence of latent autoimmune hyperthyroid condition) or type 2 (AIT 2; which develops in an apparently normal thyroid resulting from destructive thyroiditis). AIT 1 routinely requires treatment with thionamides, whereas AIT 2 is treated with steroids. Read More

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September 2021

Induction of P-glycoprotein expression and activity by prolactin in female rat liver.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 7:119936. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET) - Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario, Argentina. Electronic address:

Aim: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a critical role in the excretion of xenobiotics into bile. Previous studies have demonstrated that prolactin (PRL) regulates biotransformation and bile salt transport. Here we investigate whether the capability of the liver to transport xenobiotics into bile is altered in hyperprolactinemic states studying the modulation of hepatic P-gp by PRL. Read More

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September 2021

Targeted LC-MS/MS Profiling of Bile Acids in Various Animal Tissues.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 7;69(36):10572-10580. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Chair of Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Technical University of Munich, Lise-Meitner-Straße 34, D-85354 Freising, Germany.

Bile acids are being increasingly investigated in humans and laboratory animals as markers for various diseases in addition to their important functions, such as promoting the emulsification in fat digestion and preventing gallstone formation. In humans and animals, primary bile acids are formed from cholesterol in the liver, converted in the intestine into various secondary bile acids by the intestinal microbiota and reabsorbed in the terminal ileum, and partially returned to the liver. A universal high-throughput workflow, including a simple workup, was applied as a tool for bile acid analysis in animal studies. Read More

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September 2021

Comparing the Protective Effects of Curcumin and Ursodeoxycholic Acid after Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat Liver.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2021 May;31(3):673-682

Department of Biology, Kazerun Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun, Iran.

Background: Alcohol consumption can cause hepatitis and long-term cirrhosis of the liver. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of curcumin (CUR) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) alone and together in the prevention and treatment of liver damage caused by overuse of ethanol.

Methods: Adult Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 5, including the control group and various combinations of ethanol, CUR and UDCA groups. Read More

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Bile acid transporter-mediated oral absorption of insulin via hydrophobic ion-pairing approach.

J Control Release 2021 Oct 2;338:644-661. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Center for Forensic Pharmaceutical Science, Keimyung University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Despite many ongoing and innovative approaches, there are still formidable challenges in the clinical translation of oral peptide drugs into marketable products due to their low absorption and poor bioavailability. Herein, a novel nanocarrier platform was developed that employs a hydrophobic ion-pairing (HIP) of model peptide (insulin) and the anionic bile salt (sodium glycodeoxycholate, SGDC), and markedly improves intestinal absorption via the bile acid pathway. The developed HIP-nanocomplexes (C1 and C2) were optimized, characterized, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation were performed to assess oral efficacy of these system. Read More

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October 2021

Bile salts adsorption on dextran-based hydrogels.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Nov 2;190:270-283. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

"Petru Poni" Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Department of Natural Polymers, Bioactive and Biocompatible Materials, Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 41 A, 700457, Iasi, Romania.

Dextran-based gels bearing two types of pendant N, N-dimethyl-N-alkyl-N-(2-hydroxypropyl) ammonium chloride groups with different alkyl chain length substituents (C and C/C, respectively) at the quaternary nitrogen were synthesized and structural characteristics of the compounds were studied by elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The morphology and size of polymeric microspheres were examined by SEM and their swelling behavior in water was also investigated. The hydrogels were evaluated as sorbents for sodium cholate (NaCA) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDCA) in water and 10 mM NaCl solutions. Read More

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November 2021

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis with radiological abnormalities of the chest.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Sep 3;14(9). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Division of Respirology, Neurology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan.

A 55-year-old man with mental retardation and calcaneal tendon thickening was referred for a suspected genetic disease. His serum cholestanol was elevated and genetic analysis of his blood cells for revealed a homozygous missense mutation. We diagnosed him with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). Read More

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September 2021

[The role of intestinal microbiota in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

Rev Med Chil 2021 Apr;149(4):570-579

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Carrera de Nutrición y Dietética, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of hepatic pathologies ranging from simple steatosis (SS) to hepatocellular carcinoma. Intestinal microbiota (IM) is composed of trillions of microorganisms existing in the gut. It has 150 times more genes than the host. Read More

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Can feeding strategies alter immune signaling and gut sepsis in critical illness?

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine.

The insult necessitating admission to the intensive care unit propels the patient along a course involving increasing oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and adverse outcomes. As the largest immune organ with the greatest microbial burden, the gastrointestinal tract may change the speed and direction the patient follows along this pathway. The gut's influence is mediated by a complex process of cross-talk immune signaling between the intestinal epithelium, the liver, and the microbiome. Read More

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September 2021