28,370 results match your criteria between-group differences


The effect of root canal preparation size and taper of middle mesial canals on fracture resistance of the mandibular molar teeth: An in vitro study.

J Endod 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

(Associate Professor) Department of Endodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of root canal preparation size and taper of middle mesial (MM) canals on fracture resistance of mandibular molars.

Methods: Fifty-five mandibular molar teeth having MM canal were selected based on the cone-beam computed tomography analysis. Following the decoronation and distal root separation procedure, the lengths of the mesial roots were standardized to 13 mm. Read More

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'Keeping the kids at home' can limit the persistence of contagious pathogens in social animals.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, 10315, Berlin, Germany.

Social networks are considered to be 'highly modular' when individuals within one module are more connected to each other than they are to individuals in other modules. It is currently unclear how highly modular social networks influence the persistence of contagious pathogens that generate lifelong immunity in their hosts when between-group interactions are age-dependent. This trait occurs in social species with communal nurseries, where juveniles are reared together for a substantial period in burrows or similar forms of containment and are thus in isolation from contact with individuals in other social groups. Read More

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Immunogenicity and Safety of a Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Administered Concomitantly or Sequentially With Tdap Vaccine: Randomized Phase IIIb Trial in Healthy Participants 9-60 Years of Age in the Philippines.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

From the Philippine Children's Medical Center, Quezon City, The Philippines Far Eastern University Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation, Quezon City, The Philippines Medical Center Manila, Manila, The Philippines Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Alabang Muntinlupa City, The Philippines Sanofi Pasteur, France Sanofi Pasteur, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Incorporating dengue vaccination into existing childhood vaccination programs could increase vaccine coverage. This study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of concomitant versus sequential administration of the combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine and the tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV).

Methods: This phase IIIb, randomized, open-label, multicenter study was conducted in the Philippines in individuals 9-≤60 years of age (NCT02992418). Read More

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Intaglio surface trueness of milled and 3D-printed digital maxillary and mandibular dentures: A clinical study.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Professor, Prosthodontics and Periodontics, Chair, Department of Prosthodontics, Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Statement Of Problem: While the dimensional accuracy of the intaglio surface of a removable complete denture is key to its adaptation, comfort, and clinical performance, information on the ability of milling and 3D-printing workflows to accurately reproduce this surface is lacking.

Purpose: The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the trueness of the intaglio surface of milled and 3D-printed removable complete digital dentures.

Material And Methods: Intraoral scans were obtained from 14 participants for a total of 20 edentulous arches. Read More

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Increasing access to family planning services among women receiving medications for opioid use disorder: A pilot randomized trial examining a peer-led navigation intervention.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Jul 4;126:108318. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Division of General Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 12631 E. 17(th) Ave., Aurora, CO 80045, USA; Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, PO Box 378066, Aurora, CO 80014, USA; Colorado Permanente Medical Group, 10350 E. Dakota Ave., Denver, CO 80247, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: High rates of unintended pregnancy occur among women with opioid use disorder (OUD). OUD treatment settings may provide an ideal opportunity to address the family planning needs of patients. However, few studies have rigorously evaluated interventions designed to address family planning needs in the OUD treatment setting. Read More

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Long-term outcomes of single-incision versus multiport laparoscopic totally extra-peritoneal inguinal hernia repair: a single-institution experience of 186 consecutive cases.

Surg Today 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka Police Hospital, Tennoji-Ku Kitayamacho 10-31, Osaka, Osaka, 543-0035, Japan.

Purpose: This retrospective study was conducted to compare the long-term outcomes of single-incision totally extraperitoneal (S-TEP) inguinal hernia repair and conventional multiport totally extraperitoneal (M-TEP) inguinal hernia repair.

Methods: The study population included 186 consecutive patients (S-TEP, n = 149; M-TEP, n = 37) who underwent elective surgery for inguinal hernia at Osaka Police Hospital between 2011 and 2013.

Results: No significant between-group difference was found in patient or hernia characteristics or in perioperative outcomes, with the exception of age (S-TEP group vs. Read More

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Gene Deletion and Sleep Depletion: Exploring the Relationship Between Sleep and Affect in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

J Genet Psychol 2021 Jun 11:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Psychology, College of Engineering, Science and Environment, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 22. Sleep problems have been reported in this population, and psychiatric disorders and affect dysregulation are common to the behavioral phenotype of 22q11DS. Read More

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Successful nutritional control of scratching and clinical signs associated with adverse food reaction: A randomized controlled COSCAD'18 adherent clinical trial in dogs in the United Kingdom.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Hill's Pet Nutrition, Inc, Topeka, Kansas 66616, USA.

Background: Adverse reactions to food are a common dermatological condition in dogs, requiring nutritional intervention using novel or hydrolysate protein-based foods.

Objective: To evaluate a therapeutic food containing egg and phytonutrients in dogs with food allergies using an activity monitor and core outcome set for canine atopic dermatitis (COSCAD'18) in a controlled double-masked, multicenter, prospective clinical trial.

Animals: Adult dogs with a history of adverse food reaction as diagnosed by a food elimination trial were recruited from general practices. Read More

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Successful nutritional control of scratching and clinical signs associated with adverse food reaction: A randomized controlled COSCAD'18 adherent clinical trial in dogs in the United States.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Pet Nutrition Center, Hill's Pet Nutrition, Inc, Topeka, Kansas 66616, USA.

Background: Adverse reactions to food are a common dermatological condition in dogs, requiring nutritional intervention using a novel or hydrolysate protein-based food.

Objective: To evaluate a therapeutic food containing egg and phytonutrients in dogs with food allergies using an activity monitor and core outcome set for canine atopic dermatitis (COSCAD'18) guidelines and in a controlled double-masked, multicenter, prospective clinical trial.

Animals: Adult dogs with a history of adverse food reaction as diagnosed by a food elimination trial were recruited from general practices. Read More

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Functional Brain Connectivity Patterns Associated with Visual Hallucinations in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

J Alzheimers Dis Rep 2021 Apr 29;5(1):311-320. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: The presence of recurrent, complex visual hallucinations (VH) is among the core clinical features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). It has been proposed that VH arise from a disrupted organization of functional brain networks. However, studies are still limited, especially investigating the resting-state functional brain features underpinning VH in patients with dementia. Read More

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Oxytocin-Trust Link in Oxytocin-Sensitive Participants and Those Without Autistic Traits.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:659737. Epub 2021 May 25.

Center for Infectious Disease Education and Research, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

There have been numerous studies in which the biological role of oxytocin in trusting behavior has been investigated. However, a link between oxytocin and trust in humans was discovered only in one early study. We hypothesized that there is a large interindividual variation in oxytocin sensitivity, and that such variation is one reason for the doubt surrounding the role of oxytocin in trusting behavior. Read More

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Surgical Outcomes of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment with Different Peripheral Vitreous-Shaving Procedures.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 28;15:2197-2202. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan.

Purpose: To compare the surgical outcomes of vitreous surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after two different peripheral vitreous-shaving techniques are performed.

Methods: We reviewed 269 eyes with RRD that were treated with a 25-gauge vitrectomy by a single surgeon between June 2015 and May 2020. The exclusion criteria for the proposed air tamponade selection were as follows: more than two weeks since RRD onset, giant retinal tears, a history of complications following cataract surgery, high myopia, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy classified as grade C or higher. Read More

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Trends in infants born at low birthweight and disparities by maternal race and education from 2003 to 2018 in the United States.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 10;21(1):1117. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, University of Wisconsin Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 610 N Walnut Street, Madison, WI, 53726, USA.

Background: Understanding current levels, as well as past and future trends, of the percentage of infants born at low birthweight (LBW) in the United States is imperative to improving the health of our nation. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine recent trends in percentage of LBW, both overall and by maternal race and education subgroups. Studying disparities in percentage of LBW by these subgroups can help to further understand the health needs of the population and can inform policies that can close race and class disparities in poor birth outcomes. Read More

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Seasonal variation in neurohormones, mood and sleep in patients with primary open angle glaucoma - implications of the ipRGC-system.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Jun 10:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Primary open angle glaucoma is associated with an increased risk of mood and sleep disorders. These adversities have been suggested to relate to a disrupted function of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). The ipRGCs are key components in the nonvisual photoreceptive system that mediates light effects on mood, sleep and circadian rhythm. Read More

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Blood Flow Restriction Training for the Shoulder: A Case for Proximal Benefit[Formula: see text].

Am J Sports Med 2021 Jun 10:3635465211017524. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Orthopedic Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Although blood flow restriction (BFR) is becoming increasingly popular in physical therapy and athletic training settings, little is known about the effects of BFR combined with low-intensity exercise (LIX) on muscles proximal to the site of occlusion.

Hypothesis/purpose: Determine whether LIX combined with BFR applied distally to the shoulder on the brachial region of the arm (BFR-LIX) promotes greater increases in shoulder lean mass, rotator cuff strength, endurance, and acute increases in shoulder muscle activation compared with LIX alone. We hypothesized that BFR-LIX would elicit greater increases in rotator cuff strength, endurance, and muscle mass. Read More

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'Empowering Our People: ' Impact of a Culturally Adapted Evidence-Based Intervention on STI Risks Among Native Americans with Binge Substance Use.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

1Center for American Indian Health. Johns Hopkins University. 415 N. Washington St. Baltimore, MD 21231 2Center for Point-of-Care Technologies Research for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Johns Hopkins University. 1830 E. Monument Street, Suite 9026 Baltimore, MD 21287.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted evidence-based intervention (EBI) called EMPWR for impacts on sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and sexual health risk behaviors.

Methods: We enrolled Native American adults with recent binge substance use from a rural, reservation community in the Southwest into a 1:1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted July 2015 to June 2019. All participants were offered non clinic-based self-administered STI screening. Read More

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Effects of physical exercise on natural killer cell activity during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy: A randomized pilot study.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(11):e14919

Department of Physiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Natural killer (NK) cells are a population of innate immune cells known to play a pivotal role against tumor spread. In multiple murine models, it was shown that physical exercise had the potential to increase NK cell antitumor activity through their mobilization and tissue redistribution in an interleukin (IL)-6 and epinephrine-dependent manner. The translation of this finding to patients is unclear. Read More

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Can preoperative results predict the need for future reintervention following injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis?

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Audiology and Phoniatric Clinic, World Hearing Centre, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Mokra 17 Str., Kajetany, Nadarzyn, 05-830, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: The objective was to investigate whether a patient's preoperative test results can predict the need for future reoperation in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP).

Methods: A single-centre retrospective study was performed. The study group consisted of 18 patients with UVFP who had been treated with injection laryngoplasty but who required further treatment and were augmentated again within 36 months. Read More

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Predicting motor skill learning in older adults using visuospatial performance.

J Mot Learn Dev 2020 Apr;8(1):38-51

School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.

Between-group comparisons of older and younger adults suggest that motor learning decreases with advancing age. However, such comparisons do not necessarily account for group differences in cognitive function, despite the co-occurrence of aging and cognitive decline. As such, cognitive differences may explain the observed age effects on motor learning. Read More

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Predictors of later insulin therapy for gestational diabetes diagnosed in early pregnancy.

Endocr J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Interventions for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), diagnosed in early pregnancy, have been a topic of controversy. This study aimed to elucidate factors that predict patients with GDM diagnosed before 24 gestational weeks (early GDM: E-GDM) who require insulin therapy later during pregnancy. Furthermore, we identified patients whose impaired glucose tolerance should be strictly controlled from early gestation onward. Read More

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Are isokinetic leg torques and kick velocity reliable predictors of competitive level in taekwondo athletes?

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0235582. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Biomechanics, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro-SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study is to analyze how isokinetic knee and hip peak torques and roundhouse kick velocities are related to expertise level (elite vs. sub-elite) in taekwondo athletes. Seven elite and seven sub-elite athletes were tested for kick-specific variables (KSV, composed of kinematic variables and power of impact) and for concentric isokinetic peak torque (PT) at 60°/s and 240°/s. Read More

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Exploring Tai Chi Exercise and Mind-Body Breathing in Patients with COPD in a Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial.

COPD 2021 Jun 9:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

In this pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial, participants with moderate to severe COPD were randomized to a 12-week tai chi or MBB intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Feasibility, as assessed by intervention adherence, was the primary outcome. Read More

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Multicomponent exercise program in older adults with lung cancer during adjuvant/palliative treatment: A secondary analysis of an intervention study.

J Frailty Aging 2021 ;10(3):247-253

Mikel Izquierdo, PhD, Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarra, Av. De Barañain s/n 31008 Pamplona (Navarra) Spain, Tel + 34 948 417876,

Background: Lung cancer is the second most prevalent common cancer in the world and predominantly affects older adults. This study aimed to examine the impact of an exercise programme in the use of health resources in older adults and to assess their changes in frailty status.

Design: This is a secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study with a non-randomized control group. Read More

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Changes in dependence, withdrawal, and craving among adult smokers who switch to nicotine salt pod-based e-cigarettes.

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, California State University San Marcos.

Background And Aims: For e-cigarettes to be a viable substitute for combustible cigarettes, it is likely that they must be rewarding enough for regular use, indicated by factors such as craving and dependence, important aspects of reinforcement. This study aimed to understand short-term changes in measures of nicotine dependence between groups differing by use trajectory in a switching trial, and within group changes of these measures.

Design: Secondary data analysis of one arm of an e-cigarette randomized clinical trial. Read More

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Magnetoencephalography reveals increased slow-to-fast alpha power ratios in patients with chronic pain.

Pain Rep 2021 Jul-Aug;6(2):e928. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Center for Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Objective disease markers are a key for diagnosis and personalized interventions. In chronic pain, such markers are still not available, and therapy relies on individual patients' reports. However, several pain studies have reported group-based differences in functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Read More

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Student Perception of Case-based Teaching by Near-Peers and Faculty during the Internal Medicine Clerkship: A Noninferiority Study.

J Med Educ Curric Dev 2021 Jan-Dec;8:23821205211020762. Epub 2021 May 31.

Departments of Science Education, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY, USA.

Introduction: Third-year medical students traditionally receive their didactic or small group teaching sessions from clinical faculty during clerkship rotations. Near-peer teaching is increasingly recognized as an acceptable method for teaching, however most near-peer teaching takes place during the pre-clinical curriculum. We sought to determine if fourth year medical students were noninferior to faculty in facilitating small group discussions during clerkship rotations. Read More

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Group differences in health literacy are ameliorated in ehealth literacy.

Health Psychol Behav Med 2021 May 15;9(1):480-497. Epub 2021 May 15.

Faculty of Social Welfare and Health, School of Public Health, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Heath literacy and eHealth literacy are skills that enable individuals to seek, understand and use information in ways which promote and maintain health. The present study examined group differences (ethnicity, immigration) in both literacies and whether there exists an association between the literacies and potential outcomes/gains in health behaviors, health care utilization, perceived health and perceived outcomes of Internet search.

Methods: Participants included 819 Israeli men and women who responded to a nationally representative random-digital-dial (RDD) telephone survey. Read More

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Zoledronic acid does not affect insulin resistance in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy: a prespecified secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 2021 5;12:20420188211012118. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Animal studies suggest that undercarboxylated osteocalcin may improve insulin sensitivity its effect on testicular testosterone production. Human studies have been conflicting. Men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer experience profound hypogonadism resulting in increased insulin resistance. Read More

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The Effect of a Persian Herbal Medicine Compound on the Lipid Profiles of Patients with Dyslipidemia: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 20;2021:6631963. Epub 2021 May 20.

Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center (TCMRC), Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Introduction: It has been well established in the world that lipid disorders promote the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. This study aimed to assess the impacts of a Persian medicinal (PM) compound on lipid profile.

Materials And Methods: From June 21 to October 21, 2020, a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted with 74 dyslipidemic patients, who were randomly divided into two equally populated groups: one prescribed with a Persian medicinal herbal compound ( = 37) and a placebo group ( = 37). Read More

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Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on quality of recovery and pain after abdominal hysterectomy.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Mar;37(1):85-89. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey.

Background And Aims: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive complementary therapy for postoperative pain management. The effect of TENS on quality of recovery (QoR) and pain treatment in the early postoperative period is not well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TENS on postoperative QoR and pain in patients who had undergone a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH + BSO). Read More

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