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Systematics of 'lithistid' tetractinellid demosponges from the Tropical Western Atlantic-implications for phylodiversity and bathymetric distribution.

PeerJ 2021 2;9:e10775. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Background: Among all present demosponges, lithistids represent a polyphyletic group with exceptionally well-preserved fossils dating back to the Cambrian. Knowledge of their recent diversity, particularly in the Tropical Western Atlantic Ocean (TWA) where they are common in deep waters, is scarce making any comparison between present and past major 'lithistid' faunas difficult. In addition, the lack of sufficient molecular and morphological data hamper any predictions on phylogenetic relationships or phylodiversity from this region. Read More

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Enhancement of Target-Oriented Opinion Words Extraction with Multiview-Trained Machine Reading Comprehension Model.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 27;2021:6645871. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Target-oriented opinion words extraction (TOWE) seeks to identify opinion expressions oriented to a specific target, and it is a crucial step toward fine-grained opinion mining. Recent neural networks have achieved significant success in this task by building target-aware representations. However, there are still two limitations of these methods that hinder the progress of TOWE. Read More

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Development of Potent NEDD8-Activating Enzyme Inhibitors Bearing a Pyrimidotriazole Scaffold.

J Med Chem 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica (SIMM), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.

The ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 is a critical signaling molecule implicated in the functional maintenance and homeostasis of cells. Dysregulation of this process is involved in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Therefore, NEDD8-activating enzyme E1 (NAE), the only activation enzyme of the neddylation pathway, has been an emergent anticancer target. Read More

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The Use of Virtual Reality Echocardiography in Medical Education.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Children's Heart Centre, Children's Health Ireland at Crumlin, Cooley Rd, Dublin, D12 N512, Ireland.

Virtual reality (VR) is a relatively new technology that allows an individual to experience a virtual world. This new immersive video type may be of particular usefulness in procedure-based healthcare settings. We hypothesized that VR echocardiography was non-inferior to live demonstration. Read More

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Total body irradiation of bone marrow transplant using helical TomoTherapy with a focus on the quality of dose contribution at junction target volumes.

Strahlenther Onkol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Radiotherapy, Basavatarakam Indo American Cancer Hospital & Research Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) can be safely delivered on TomoTherapy (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) in both pediatric and adult patients with proper imaging and planning despite the length constraint of 135 cm. To overcome this limitation, two CT (Computed Tomography) scans (CT1& CT2) are taken in patients above 135 cm in height. Adequate junction dose coverage is important in TBI. Read More

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[The use of data for public health and healthcare-a shared goal of the EU member states].

Authors:
Ingo Meyer

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

PMV forschungsgruppe, Universität zu Köln, Medizinische Fakultät und Uniklinik Köln, Herderstr. 52, 50931, Köln, Deutschland.

Population health - understood both as prevention and healthcare - needs good data. Data can support decision making on the system level as well as the delivery of services for each individual. Furthermore, data are a prerequisite for research and innovation. Read More

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Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Congenital Abnormalities of the Kidney and Urinary Tract in Children Using a Multi-Instance Deep Learning Method Based on Ultrasound Imaging Data.

Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging 2020 Apr 22;2020:1347-1350. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Ultrasound images are widely used for diagnosis of congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Since a typical clinical ultrasound image captures 2D information of a specific view plan of the kidney and images of the same kidney on different planes have varied appearances, it is challenging to develop a computer aided diagnosis tool robust to ultrasound images in different views. To overcome this problem, we develop a multi-instance deep learning method for distinguishing children with CAKUT from controls based on their clinical ultrasound images, aiming to automatic diagnose the CAKUT in children based on ultrasound imaging data. Read More

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Back to the future in traumatic fracture shapes of lumbar spine: An analysis of risk of kyphosis after conservative treatment.

J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2021 Jan-Mar;12(1):38-43. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, Spine Surgery Unit, Orthopaedic and Traumatology Hospital, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Introduction: Nonosteoporotic burst vertebral fracture could commonly be treated with conservative or surgical approach. Currently, decision-making process is based on thoracolumbar (TL) AO spine severity injury score. However, some factors could affect posttraumatic kyphosis (PTK) and could be taken into account. Read More

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Evaluation of Radicular Dentin Microcracks Formation after Instrumentation with NiTi Hand and Rotary File System: A Stereomicroscopic Study.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Nov 1;21(11):1233-1237. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Aim And Objective: The present study aimed to assess the formation of microcracks in root dentin post-instrumentation with nickel-titanium (NiTi) hand and rotary file system.

Materials And Methods: Totally, 80 freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth with single roots were chosen for this study. Access opening was performed and #10 K-file was used to attain patency of canal. Read More

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November 2020

Interferon-Independent Restriction of RNA Virus Entry and Replication by a Class of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns.

mBio 2021 04 13;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Harvard Medical School and Division of Gastroenterology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Mammalian cells detect microbial molecules known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as indicators of potential infection. Upon PAMP detection, diverse defensive responses are induced by the host, including those that promote inflammation and cell-intrinsic antimicrobial activities. Host-encoded molecules released from dying or damaged cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), also induce defensive responses. Read More

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Utility of Caudal Angulation for Venous Access under Fluoroscopic Guidance during Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation.

Cardiology 2021 Apr 13:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Axillary venous access is preferred for CIED implantation. The procedure is usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance in anteroposterior (A-P) view. However, there is a lack of perception of depth in this view with a fear of creating complications. Read More

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Research progress and application opportunities of nanoparticle-protein corona complexes.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 10;139:111541. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences and School of Pharmacy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.

Nanoparticles (NPs) can be used to design for nanomedicines with different chemical surface properties owing to their size advantages and the capacity of specific delivery to targeted sites in organisms. The discovery of the presence of protein corona (PC) has changed our classical view of NPs, stimulating researchers to investigate the in vivo fate of NPs as they enter biological systems. Both NPs and PC have their specificity but complement each other, so they should be considered as a whole. Read More

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A comparative study of glottis visualization according to the method of lifting the epiglottis in video laryngoscopy: indirect and direct lifting methods.

Anesth Pain Med (Seoul) 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.

Background: The direct entry of the camera under the epiglottis may provide a better view of the glottis than the indirect lifting of the epiglottis by placing the Macintosh blade tip on the vallecula when using the video laryngoscope. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of two different methods of lifting the epiglottis during the visualization of glottis using video laryngoscopy in the same patient.

Methods: This prospective study enrolled 60 patients who underwent general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. Read More

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Brazilian Portuguese versions and cross-cultural adaptation of two instruments to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the COVID‑19 pandemic in the Brazilian population.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: Studies based on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) theory are conducted to identify ways to improve strategies aimed at preventing and combatting certain conditions or diseases, to understand the way how behavioral changes are assimilated by the populations, and to reorient interventions. In view of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic, studies based on KAP theory have been useful to better understand certain behaviors, such as adherence to prevention measures and control of the spread of the virus.

Objective: To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of two complementary instruments for assessing KAP regarding the COVID‑19 pandemic in the Brazilian population. Read More

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Data Extrapolation from Learned Prior Images for Truncation Correction in Computed Tomography.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Apr 12;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Data truncation is a common problem in computed tomography (CT). Truncation causes cupping artifacts inside the field-of-view (FOV) and anatomical structures missing outside the FOV. Deep learning has achieved impressive results in CT reconstruction from limited data. Read More

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Alzheimer's pathogenic mechanisms and underlying sex difference.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

AD is a neurodegenerative disease, and its frequency is often reported to be higher for women than men: almost two-thirds of patients with AD are women. One prevailing view is that women live longer than men on average of 4.5 years, plus there are more women aged 85 years or older than men in most global subpopulations; and older age is the greatest risk factor for AD. Read More

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Perceiving dynamic emotions expressed simultaneously in the face and body minimizes perceptual differences between young and older adults.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Objectives: It is commonly argued that older adults show difficulties in standardized tasks of emotional expression perception, yet most previous works relied on classic sets of static, decontextualized, and stereotypical facial expressions. In real-life, facial expressions are dynamic and embedded in a rich context, two key factors that may aid emotion perception. Specifically, body language provides important affective cues that may disambiguate facial movements. Read More

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Object discrimination performance and dynamics evaluated by inferotemporal cell population activity.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 25;10:171-177. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Dept. of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan.

We have previously reported an increase in response tolerance of inferotemporal cells around trained views. However, an inferotemporal cell usually displays different response patterns in an initial response phase immediately after the stimulus onset and in a late phase from approximately 260 ms after stimulus onset. This study aimed to understand the difference between the two time periods and their involvement in the view-invariant object recognition. Read More

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Non-intubated video-assisted thoracic surgery for subxiphoid anterior mediastinal tumor resection.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):403

Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Subxiphoid approach for mediastinal tumor resection was reported to provide a better view and less postoperative pain. Non-intubated video-assisted thoracic surgery (NI-VATS) without muscle relaxant would decrease the possibility of postoperative airway collapse for anterior mediastinal mass operation. Herein, we sought to describe the use of NI-VATS through subxiphoid approach for anterior mediastinal tumor resection. Read More

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Understanding photosynthesis in a spatial-temporal multiscale: The need for a systemic view.

Theor Exp Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 4:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

LABPLANT, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Ceará, Av. Humberto Monte SN, Campus do Pici, Bl. 907, Fortaleza, CE CEP 60451-970 Brazil.

In October 2020, at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, a group of young Brazilian photosynthesis researchers organized the 1st Brazilian Symposium on Photosynthesis. The event was free and online, with the presence of important guest speakers from all over the world, who discussed their recent works on topics related to the future and perspectives of photosynthesis research. Summarizing the expectations of this symposium we highlighted the importance of adopting a systemic perspective for a better understanding of photosynthesis as a complex and dynamic process. Read More

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Kinetics of dehydration and appreciation of the physicochemical properties of osmo-dehydrated plum.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 18;9(4):2203-2216. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Postharvest Technology Division Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute Gazipur Bangladesh.

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the dehydration kinetics and quantify its effect on the various physicochemical properties of the osmo-dehydrated plum during storage at an ambient condition. The six treatments with a combination of three different sucrose-sodium chloride concentrations and two peeling conditions were selected in the experiment. Among the treatments, peeled plum dipped into 5% NaCl solution exhibited a faster drying rate. Read More

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Current Trends on Role of Biological Treatment in Integrated Treatment Technologies of Textile Wastewater.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:651025. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Biochemical Engineering Group, Institute of Science and Technology of Food and Environment (INCITAA), Faculty of Engineering, National University of Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata, Argentina.

Wastewater discharge is a matter of concern as it is the primary source of water pollution. Consequently, wastewater treatment plays a key role in reducing the negative impact that wastewater discharge produce into the environment. Particularly, the effluents produced by textile industry are composed of high concentration of hazardous compounds such as dyes, as well as having high levels of chemical and biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, variable pH, and high concentration of salt. Read More

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A Novel Brain MRI Image Segmentation Method Using an Improved Multi-View Fuzzy -Means Clustering Algorithm.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:662674. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Computer and Artificial Intelligence, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China.

The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image segmentation method mainly refers to the division of brain tissue, which can be divided into tissue parts such as white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The segmentation results can provide a basis for medical image registration, 3D reconstruction, and visualization. Generally, MRI images have defects such as partial volume effects, uneven grayscale, and noise. Read More

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Effects of Hearing Aid Noise Reduction on Early and Late Cortical Representations of Competing Talkers in Noise.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:636060. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.

Objectives: Previous research using non-invasive (magnetoencephalography, MEG) and invasive (electrocorticography, ECoG) neural recordings has demonstrated the progressive and hierarchical representation and processing of complex multi-talker auditory scenes in the auditory cortex. Early responses (<85 ms) in primary-like areas appear to represent the individual talkers with almost equal fidelity and are independent of attention in normal-hearing (NH) listeners. However, late responses (>85 ms) in higher-order non-primary areas selectively represent the attended talker with significantly higher fidelity than unattended talkers in NH and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. Read More

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A randomized controlled trial comparing McGRATH series 5 videolaryngoscope with the Macintosh laryngoscope for nasotracheal intubation.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2020 Oct-Dec;36(4):477-482. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Anaesthesia Critical Care and Pain, Tata Memorial Centre, Dr Ernest Borges Road, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background And Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of McGRATH series 5 videolaryngoscope (VL) with Macintosh laryngoscope for nasotracheal intubation (NTI) in patients without anticipated difficult airways undergoing head and neck cancer surgeries.

Material And Methods: We randomized 60 adult patients for NTI by experienced anesthetists with either Macintosh laryngoscope or McGRATH series 5 VL (VL group). The primary objective was to compare time taken for intubation (TTI). Read More

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January 2021

A roadmap for a Plastisphere.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 8;167:112322. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Spectroscopy and Intermolecular Interactions, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland; University of Warsaw Biological and Chemical Research Centre, Żwirki i Wigury 101 st., 02-089 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

The constantly growing production of synthetic materials and their presence in the environment gradually transform our Blue Planet into the Plastic One. Microplastics (MPs) enlarge significantly their surface during fragmentation processes. Undoubtedly, nanoplastics (NPs), emerging contaminants, and the Plastisphere, the total available surface of debris, are currently on the edge of science. Read More

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The importance of a functional approach on benthic communities for aquaculture environmental assessment: Trophic groups - A polychaete view.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 8;167:112309. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Escuela de Ciencias del Mar, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

Polychaetes were studied to assess the effect of aquaculture activity on the seafloor. Very high biodiversity of species was recorded associated with aquaculture centres with Cirratulidae, Spionidae and Paraonidae families being the most diverse and abundant families. The spatial distribution of polychaete trophic groups was the best descriptor for detecting changes on the benthos. Read More

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Paediatric kidney transplantation in under-resourced regions-a panoramic view.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Pediatric Nephrology, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Kidney transplantation is the ideal choice of kidney replacement therapy in children as it offers a low risk of mortality and a better quality of life. A wide variance in the access to kidney replacement therapies exists across the world with only 21% of low- and low-middle income countries (LLMIC) undertaking kidney transplantation. Pediatric kidney transplantation rates in these under-resourced regions are reported to be as low as < 4 pmcp [per million child population]. Read More

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A staggered 3-layer DOI PET detector using BaSOreflector for enhanced crystal identification and inter-crystal scattering event discrimination capability.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Chiba, 263-8555, JAPAN.

The spatial resolution of small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanners can be improved by the use of crystals with fine pitch and rejection of inter-crystal scattering (ICS) events, which leads to a better quantification of radiopharmaceuticals. On the other hand, depth-of-interaction (DOI) information is essential to preserve the spatial resolution at the PET field-of-view (FOV) periphery while keeping the sensitivity. In this study we proposed a novel staggered 3-layer DOI detector using BaSO4 reflector material for an enhanced crystal identification performance as well as ICS event rejection capability over those of ESR reflector based DOI detectors. Read More

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Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Implant Surface: An In Vitro Study.

Biomed Res Int 2021 23;2021:3582342. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphological and Functional Imaging, Messina University, Messina 98100, Italy.

In the field of biology and medicine, one hears often about stem cells and their potential. The dental implant new surfaces, subjected to specific treatments, perform better and allow for quicker healing times and better clinical performance. The purpose of this study is to evaluate from a biological point of view the interaction and cytotoxicity between stem cells derived from dental pulp (DPSCs) and titanium surfaces. Read More

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