83 results match your criteria betanodavirus genotypes


Betanodavirus infection in Kuhlia rupestris and Ambassis marianus and isolation of betanodavirus from infected pond water.

Dis Aquat Organ 2020 Nov 5;142:1-11. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Biosecurity Sciences Laboratory, Biosecurity Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland Government, Block 12, Health and Food Sciences Precinct 39, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia.

This is the first report of betanodavirus infection in 2 species of finfish, Kuhlia rupestris (jungle perch) and Ambassis marianus (estuary perchlet). This report also describes isolation of betanodavirus from infected pond water using the SSN-1 cell line. Histopathology of K. Read More

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November 2020

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy is endemic in wild groupers (genus Epinephelus spp.) of the Algerian coast.

J Fish Dis 2020 Jul 27;43(7):801-812. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Marine Science and Aquaculture, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, Protection, Valorization of Coastal Marine Resources and Molecular Systematics Laboratory, Université Abdelhamid Ibn Badis - Mostaganem, Mostaganem, Algeria.

This work describes betanodavirus infection in two species of groupers (family Serranidae) from the Algerian coast: the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus and the golden grouper Epinephelus costae. At necropsy, characteristic clinical signs, external injuries, clouded eyes and brain congestion, generally associated with viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) infection were observed. The partial sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 from two viral strains were obtained, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype closely related to strains previously detected in groupers in the same geographic area. Read More

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Characterization of betanodavirus quasispecies influences on the subcellular localization and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Aug 21;103:332-341. Epub 2020 May 21.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Department of Biotechnology and Bioindustry Sciences, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Institute of Biotechnology, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Agriculture Biotechnology Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Translational Center for Marine Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; University Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variant coat proteins (CPs) from different quasispecies of betanodavirus on diverse aspects of nodavirus-induced pathogenesis. It is known that variant CPs can acquire either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization, depending on the nodavirus CP genotype, and this variation may arise during viral replication and influence the regulation of host and viral gene transcription. To investigate the role of these variant CPs in pathogenesis, six variant CP expression plasmids were constructed, each containing different quasispecies CP variants from nodavirus genotype red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). Read More

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Near-Complete Genome Sequence of a Fish Nervous Necrosis Virus Isolated from Hybrid Grouper in China.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Apr 9;9(15). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

The genome sequence of nervous necrosis virus strain HGN1910, isolated from hybrid grouper (♀ × ♂), was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. Two near-complete gene segments were obtained, RNA1 and RNA2. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the virus belongs to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus genotype of betanodavirus. Read More

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Betanodavirus and VER Disease: A 30-year Research Review.

Pathogens 2020 Feb 9;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 9.

Departamento de Microbioloxía e Parasitoloxía-Instituto de Acuicultura. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

The outbreaks of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), represent one of the main infectious threats for marine aquaculture worldwide. Since the first description of the disease at the end of the 1980s, a considerable amount of research has gone into understanding the mechanisms involved in fish infection, developing reliable diagnostic methods, and control measures, and several comprehensive reviews have been published to date. This review focuses on host-virus interaction and epidemiological aspects, comprising viral distribution and transmission as well as the continuously increasing host range (177 susceptible marine species and epizootic outbreaks reported in 62 of them), with special emphasis on genotypes and the effect of global warming on NNV infection, but also including the latest findings in the NNV life cycle and virulence as well as diagnostic methods and VER disease control. Read More

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February 2020

Risk factors associated with viral nervous necrosis in hybrid groupers in Malaysia and the high similarity of its causative agent nervous necrosis virus to reassortant red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus/striped jack nervous necrosis virus strains.

Vet World 2019 Aug 21;12(8):1273-1284. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Food Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Background And Aim: Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a serious disease of several marine fish species. VNN causes 100% mortality in the larval stages, while lower losses have been reported in juvenile and adult fish. This study aimed to detect the occurrence of VNN while identifying its associated risk factors and the genotypes of its causative agent in a hybrid grouper hatchery in Malaysia. Read More

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Occurrence and molecular characterization of betanodaviruses in fish and invertebrates of the Greek territorial waters.

J Fish Dis 2019 Dec 21;42(12):1773-1783. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Betanodaviruses are small ssRNA viruses that cause viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, a severe neuropathological infectious disease in marine fish species worldwide. In the present study, the occurrence of betanodaviruses was investigated in wild and cultured populations of fishes and invertebrates of the Greek territorial waters. Betanodaviruses were detected in 35 species belonging to 21 families and 12 orders. Read More

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December 2019

Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus, Linnaeus) is susceptible to viral nervous necrosis: Result of an experimental infection with different genotypes of Betanodavirus.

J Fish Dis 2019 Dec 14;42(12):1667-1676. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

National Institute of Aquatic Resources, EURL for fish and crustacean diseases, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

In recent years, the use of cleaner fish for biological control of sea lice has increased considerably. Along with this, a number of infectious diseases have emerged. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) to Betanodavirus since it was detected in asymptomatic wild wrasses in Norway and Sweden. Read More

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December 2019

Capsid amino acids at positions 247 and 270 are involved in the virulence of betanodaviruses to European sea bass.

Sci Rep 2019 Oct 1;9(1):14068. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Universidad de Málaga, Departamento de Microbiología, Málaga, Spain.

European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is severely affected by nervous necrosis disease, caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV). Two out of the four genotypes of this virus (red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, RGNNV; and striped jack nervous necrosis virus, SJNNV) have been detected in sea bass, although showing different levels of virulence to this fish species. Thus, sea bass is highly susceptible to RGNNV, whereas outbreaks caused by SJNNV have not been reported in this fish species. Read More

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October 2019

Noda-Like RNA Viruses Infecting Nematodes: Sympatry, Diversity, and Reassortment.

J Virol 2019 11 15;93(21). Epub 2019 Oct 15.

IBENS, Department of Biology, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, Inserm, PSL Research University, Paris, France

Three RNA viruses related to nodaviruses were previously described to naturally infect the nematode and its relative, Here, we report on a collection of more than 50 viral variants from wild-caught We describe the discovery of a new related virus, the Mělník virus, infecting , which similarly infects intestinal cells. In France, a frequent pattern of coinfection of by the Santeuil virus and Le Blanc virus was observed at the level of an individual nematode and even a single cell. We do not find evidence of reassortment between the RNA1 and RNA2 molecules of Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses. Read More

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November 2019

Amino acidic substitutions in the polymerase N-terminal region of a reassortant betanodavirus strain causing poor adaptation to temperature increase.

Vet Res 2019 Jun 21;50(1):50. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Instituto de Acuicultura, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología-Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), Genus Betanodavirus, is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neuropathological disease that causes fish mortalities worldwide. The NNV genome is composed of two single-stranded RNA molecules, RNA1 and RNA2, encoding the RNA polymerase and the coat protein, respectively. Betanodaviruses are classified into four genotypes: red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (BFNNV) and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV). Read More

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Complete genome sequence and pathogenic analysis of a new betanodavirus isolated from shellfish.

J Fish Dis 2019 Apr 29;42(4):519-531. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Aquatic Life Medicine, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea.

We determined the complete genomic RNA sequence of a new type of betanodavirus Korea shellfish nervous necrosis virus (KSNNV) isolated from shellfish. Compared with other isolates representing four genotypes of betanodaviruses, the identity of the whole nucleotide sequence of the virus was in the range of 76%-83% with the presence of specific genetic motifs and formed a separate new branch in the phylogenetic analysis. In pathogenic analysis by immersion method, KSNNV-KOR1 shows 100% cumulative mortality like SFRG10/2012BGGa1 (RGNNV) in newly hatched sevenband grouper and mandarin fish, which is clearly different from those found in negative control groups. Read More

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European sea bass brain DLB-1 cell line is susceptible to nodavirus: A transcriptomic study.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Mar 11;86:14-24. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Fish Innate Immune System Group, Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Viral diseases are responsible for high rates of mortality and subsequent economic losses in modern aquaculture. The nervous necrosis virus (NNV) produces viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), which affects the fish central nervous system. It is considered one of the most serious viral diseases in marine aquaculture, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) being amongst the most susceptible. Read More

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Differential antiviral activity of European sea bass interferon-stimulated 15 protein (ISG15) against RGNNV and SJNNV betanodaviruses.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 7;83:148-157. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Universidad de Málaga, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, 29071, Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:

ISG15 is an antiviral protein acting intracellularly, by conjugation to viral or cellular proteins, or extracellularly, as cytokine. In this work, an in vitro system, consisting of E-11 cells over-expressing European sea bass ISG15 (Dl_ISG15_E11 cells), has been developed to evaluate the European sea bass ISG15 protein activity against RGNNV and SJNNV isolates. Regarding RGNNV, RNA2 copy number and viral titres were similar in E-11 and Dl_ISG15_E11 cells, and the cellular survival analyses demonstrated that Dl_ISG15_E11 cells were not protected from this virus. Read More

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December 2018

Betanodavirus infection in primary neuron cultures from sole.

Vet Res 2018 Sep 5;49(1):86. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), G. Betanodavirus, is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, a disease that causes mass mortalities in a wide range of fish species. Betanodaviruses are neurotropic viruses and their replication in the susceptible fish species seems to be almost entirely restricted to nerve tissue. Read More

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September 2018

Betanodavirus infection in bath-challenged Solea senegalensis juveniles: A comparative analysis of RGNNV, SJNNV and reassortant strains.

J Fish Dis 2018 Oct 20;41(10):1571-1578. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Senegalese sole has been shown to be highly susceptible to betanodavirus infection, although virulence differences were observed between strains. To study the mechanisms involved in these differences, we have analysed the replication in brain tissue of three strains with different genotypes during 15 days after bath infection. In addition, possible portals of entry for betanodavirus into sole were investigated. Read More

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October 2018

Genome-wide association and genomic prediction of resistance to viral nervous necrosis in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using RAD sequencing.

Genet Sel Evol 2018 06 8;50(1):30. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

The Roslin Institute¸Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, Scotland, UK.

Background: European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is one of the most important species for European aquaculture. Viral nervous necrosis (VNN), commonly caused by the redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), can result in high levels of morbidity and mortality, mainly during the larval and juvenile stages of cultured sea bass. In the absence of efficient therapeutic treatments, selective breeding for host resistance offers a promising strategy to control this disease. Read More

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Isolation and initial characterization of new betanodaviruses in shellfish.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 13;65(6):1557-1567. Epub 2018 May 13.

Department of Aquatic Life Medicine, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea.

Betanodaviruses cause the disease viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in finfish. Using a novel approach with two consecutive PCRs, detection semi-nested two-step RT-PCR (DSN-2 RT-PCR) and discriminative multiplex two-step RT-PCR (DMT-2 RT-PCR), we have identified the presence of a new type of betanodavirus in shellfish and called it Korean shellfish nervous necrosis virus (KSNNV). Partial nucleotide sequences of the T4 region in RNA2 fragment of KSNNVs were 73%-75% homologous to those of other reported genotypes and formed a new cluster of betanodavirus in phylogenetic tree analysis. Read More

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December 2018

Protein A from orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus triggers type I interferon production in fish cell.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Aug 4;79:234-243. Epub 2018 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Family Nodaviridae consists of two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus, and the latter is classified into four genotypes, including red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus, striped jack nervous necrosis virus, and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus. Type I interferons (IFNs) play a central role in the innate immune system and antiviral responses, and the interactions between IFN and NNV have been investigated in this study. We have found that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), named protein A, was capable of activating IFN promoter in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Read More

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Immuno-related gene transcription and antibody response in nodavirus (RGNNV and SJNNV)-infected European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Jul 25;78:270-278. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Universidad de Málaga, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, 29071 Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:

The immune response of European sea bass to RGNNV and SJNNV infections has been evaluated by quantifying the transcription of some genes involved in the IFN I system, as well as in the inflammatory and adaptive immune mechanisms. The transcription of IFN-I, ISG-12, ISG-15 and MxA genes has been analyzed in brain and head kidney, showing that RGNNV genotype induces a more intense response of the IFN I system than SJNNV in both organs. In addition, the results obtained indicate the importance of the inflammatory response in nodavirus pathogenesis, with the transcription of IL-8 and TNF-α significantly higher in brain than in head kidney, being RGNNV the strongest inductor. Read More

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Detection and molecular characterization of betanodaviruses retrieved from bivalve molluscs.

J Fish Dis 2018 Apr 5;41(4):603-611. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Cesenatico, Forlì-Cesena, Italy.

Betanodaviruses are small ssRNA viruses responsible for viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis, in marine fish worldwide. These viruses can be either horizontally or vertically transmitted and have been sporadically detected in invertebrates, which seem to be one of the possible viral sources. Twenty-eight new betanodavirus strains were retrieved in three molluscs species collected from different European countries between 2008 and 2015. Read More

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Vaccination and immune responses of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) against betanodavirus.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Feb 23;85:78-84. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Department for Innovation in Biological, Agrofood and Forest Systems, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy.

This review summarizes the available knowledge on the immune defences of European sea bass against antigenic preparations derived from the viral encephalopathy and retinopathy virus (betanodavirus), which represents a major threat to the health of this fish species. The nodavirus is widely present and differentiates into several strains that infect invertebrates (in insects, alphanodavirus) and teleost fish, and thus may represent a great problem for farmed fish species. Many efforts have been directed to discovering new immunizations to induce protection in sea bass, especially at young stages, and these efforts have included employing diverse betanodavirus strains, antigen preparation, vaccination routes, and the addition of adjuvants and/or immunostimulants. Read More

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February 2019

High prevalence of betanodavirus barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus as well as red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus genotype in shellfish.

J Fish Dis 2018 Feb 13;41(2):233-246. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Aquatic Life Medicine, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea.

Using two serially executed PCRs, the discriminative multiplex two-step RT-PCR (DMT-2 RT-PCR) following the detection seminested two-step RT-PCR (DSN-2 RT-PCR), we found a high frequency presence of BFNNV genotype as well as RGNNV in various domestic and imported shellfish. This was definitely different from the previous reports of outbreaks and asymptomatic infection only by the RGNNV genotype in cultured finfish in Korea. Cultivation of NNV entrapped in shellfish was performed successfully by a blind passage. Read More

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February 2018

High nervous necrosis virus (NNV) diversity in wild wrasse (Labridae) in Norway and Sweden.

Dis Aquat Organ 2017 09;126(1):43-50

Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, 8049 Bodø, Norway.

Wild goldsinny wrasse Ctenolabrus rupestris, corkwing wrasse Symphodus melops and ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta were collected at 8 sampling sites in Sweden and Norway during summer 2014. Brain tissue from 466 wrasses were analyzed for nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections by real-time RT-PCR, and positive samples were subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial segments of the RNA2 and RNA1 genes. This study shows that NNV is present in wild ballan, corkwing and goldsinny wrasse along the coastline of Sweden and Norway. Read More

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September 2017

Viral nervous necrosis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) caused by reassortant betanodavirus RGNNV/SJNNV: an emerging threat for Mediterranean aquaculture.

Sci Rep 2017 05 2;7:46755. Epub 2017 May 2.

Fish Diseases Diagnostic Service, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) certainly represents the biggest challenge for the sustainability and the development of aquaculture. A large number of economically relevant fish species have proven to be susceptible to the disease. Conversely, gilthead sea bream has generally been considered resistant to VNN, although it has been possible to isolate the virus from apparently healthy sea bream and sporadically from affected larvae and postlarvae. Read More

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Genotype-specific real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting analysis for rapid identification of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus.

Arch Virol 2017 Aug 27;162(8):2315-2328. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 127 Vasilissis Sofias Avenue, 11521, Athens, Greece.

A real-time genotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to assess the most common genotypes of nervous necrosis viruses or nodaviruses. Nodaviruses are the causal agents of viral nervous necrosis infections, which have been wreaking havoc in the aquaculture industry worldwide, with fish mortality up to 100%. The four different genotypes of nodaviruses correlate with differences in viral pathogenicity. Read More

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Molecular Basis for Antigenic Diversity of Genus Betanodavirus.

PLoS One 2016 20;11(7):e0158814. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

OIE Reference Laboratory for Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease for the Mediterranean mariculture. Four different betanodavirus species are recognized, Striped jack-, Redspotted grouper-, Tiger puffer-, and Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV), but there is little knowledge on their antigenic properties. In order to describe the serological relationships among different betanodavirus genotypes, serum neutralization assays were performed using rabbit polyclonal antisera against eight fish nodaviruses that cover a wide species-, temporal-, spatial- and genetic range. Read More

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Genetic characterization and transcription analyses of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) isg15 gene.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2016 Aug 29;55:642-6. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Universidad de Málaga, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, 29071 Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:

Fish interferons are cytokines involved in its resistance to viral infections by inducing the transcription of several interferon-induced genes, such as isg15. The aim of the present study was the genetic characterization of the European sea bass isg15 gene, describing the regulatory motifs found in its sequence. In addition, an in vivo analysis of transcription in response to betanodavirus (RGNNV genotype) and poly I:C has been performed. Read More

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Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax.

Dis Aquat Organ 2016 May;119(3):231-8

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, National Reference Centre for Fish, Mollusk and Crustacean Diseases, Viale dell'Università 10, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the appearance and the severity of VNN disease. Read More

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Understanding the interaction between Betanodavirus and its host for the development of prophylactic measures for viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2016 Jun 17;53:35-49. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Scotland, EH26 0PZ, United Kingdom.

Over the last three decades, the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) disease has become a serious problem of marine finfish aquaculture, and more recently the disease has also been associated with farmed freshwater fish. The virus has been classified as a Betanodavirus within the family Nodaviridae, and the fact that Betanodaviruses are known to affect more than 120 different farmed and wild fish and invertebrate species, highlights the risk that Betanodaviruses pose to global aquaculture production. Betanodaviruses have been clustered into four genotypes, based on the RNA sequence of the T4 variable region of their capsid protein, and are named after the fish species from which they were first derived i. Read More

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