478,329 results match your criteria beta cells

Islet-on-a-chip: Biomimetic micropillar-based microfluidic system for three-dimensional pancreatic islet cell culture.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 2;183:113215. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. Electronic address:

Type 2 diabetes is currently one of the most common metabolic diseases, affecting all ages worldwide. As the incidence of type 2 diabetes increases, a growing number of studies focus on islets of Langerhans. A three-dimensional research model that maps islet morphology and maintains hormonal balance in vivo is still needed. Read More

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The Role of canonical Wnt signaling in dentin bridge formation.

J Oral Biosci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Oral Histology, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hirooka-gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: Wnt signaling has been reported to be involved in dentin bridge formation. However, the detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. We elucidated the localization of canonical Wnt signaling molecules during dentin bridge formation. Read More

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Sex hormones regulate lipid metabolism in adult Sertoli cells: a genome-wide study of estrogen and androgen receptor binding sites.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Apr 9:105898. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neuroendocrinology, ICMR-National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Optimal functioning of Sertoli cells is crucial for spermatogenesis which is under tight regulation of sex hormones, estrogen and androgen. Adult rat Sertoli cells expresses estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and androgen receptor (AR), both of which regulate gene transcription by binding to the DNA. The present study is aimed to acquire a genome-wide map of estrogen- and androgen-regulated genes in adult Sertoli cells. Read More

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Deciphering Legionella effector delivery by Icm/Dot secretion system reveals a new role for c-diGMP signaling.

J Mol Biol 2021 Apr 9:166985. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, (Team: Legionella pathogenesis), Univ Lyon, Inserm, U1111, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, ENS de Lyon, F-69007, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Secretion of bacterial effector proteins into host cells plays a key role in bacterial virulence. Yet, the dynamics of the secretion systems activity remains poorly understood, especially when machineries deal with the export of numerous effectors. We address the question of multi-effector secretion by focusing on the Legionella pneumophila Icm/Dot T4SS that translocates a record number of 300 effectors. Read More

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Unexpected beta-amyloid production by middle doses of resveratrol through stabilization of APP protein and AMPK-mediated inhibition of trypsin-like proteasome activity in a cell model of Alzheimer's disease.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 9:112185. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Korea; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Korea. Electronic address:

Resveratrol is a drug candidate used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and shows beneficial effects in various toxicity and production models, although recent clinical trial data did not show satisfactory results. Here we demonstrated the potential side effects of resveratrol in AD. We demonstrated resveratrol concentration- and time-dependent Aβ production using Aβ secreted cellular model and analyzed resveratrol-related molecular signaling. Read More

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Automated multi-scale cascade of parallel stirred-tank bioreactors for fast protein expression studies.

J Biotechnol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Technical University of Munich, Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748, Garching, Germany. Electronic address:

Automation, parallelization and autonomous operation of standard lab equipment, usually applied for manual bioprocess development, is considered as the key for reduction of bioprocess development time and costs. An automated bioreactor system with 4 stirred-tank bioreactors on a L-scale was combined with a custom-made biomass transfer system to distribute the cell suspensions produced on the L-scale into 48 parallel stirred-tank bioreactors on a mL-scale. Afterwards parallel protein expression studies automated by a liquid handling system with integrated fluorescence reader were performed. Read More

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Novel Peptide-Calix[4]arene Conjugate Inhibits Aβ Aggregation and Rescues Neurons from Aβ's Oligomers Cytotoxicity .

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

CNR-Institute of Crystallography, Via P. Gaifami 18, 95126 Catania, Italy.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition affecting people in the elderly. Targeting aggregation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) is considered a promising approach for the therapeutic treatment of the disease. Peptide based inhibitors of β-amyloid fibrillation are emerging as safe drug candidates as well as interesting compounds for early diagnosis of AD. Read More

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Impact of moderate exercise on fatty acid oxidation in pancreatic β-cells and skeletal muscle.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Centre Européen D'étude du Diabète, Unité Mixte de Recherche de L'Université de Strasbourg « Diabète et Thérapeutique », Strasbourg, France.

Fatty acids (FA) play a crucial role in glycaemia regulation in healthy and metabolic disorders conditions through various mechanisms. FA oxidation is one of the processes involved in lipid metabolism and can be modulated by exercise. Nowadays, physical activity is known to be an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Read More

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Physiological effects of nutrients on insulin release by pancreatic beta cells.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Grupo de investigación en Biología celular y funcional e ingeniería de biomoléculas, Universidad Antonio Nariño-Sede Circunvalar. Cra, 3 Este # 47A - 15, Bl 5, Bogotá, Colombia.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are growing health problems associated with a loss of insulin sensitivity. Both conditions arise from a long-term energy imbalance, and frequently, lifestyle measures can be useful in its prevention, including physical activity and a healthy diet. Pancreatic β-cells are determinant nutrient sensors that participate in energetic homeostasis needs. Read More

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, one gene associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 12:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems, Molecular Cell Biology Section, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

The gene is localized on the X-chromosome and variants in this gene are linked to six different neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., ß-propeller protein associated neurodegeneration, Rett-like syndrome, intellectual disability, and epileptic encephalopathies including developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and West syndrome and potentially also specific malignancies. Read More

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A hederagenin-type triterpene saponin, sumbulianoside a from and its potent immunomodulatory activity against seasonal flu virus H3N2.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Apr 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ege University, Bornova, Turkey.

A new hederagenin-type triterpene saponin; hederagenin 28-O--D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)--D-glucopyranosyl ester named sumbulianoside A (), together with twelve known saponins were isolated from the -butanol extract of (Caprifoliaceae) from which, one known saponin, dipsacus saponin A () was isolated, for the first time from species. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by 1 D and 2 D NMR and HRESIMS analyses. Cytotoxic activities were investigated on A549, Hela, PANC1, SHSY5Y cells and non-cancerous cell HEK293 by MTT method and immunomodulatory activities were evaluated against activated H3N2 seasonal virus in whole blood by measuring IL-4, IFN-, IL-1 cytokine level with ELISA. Read More

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Developing GLP-1 Conjugated Self-Assembling Nanofibers Using Copper-Catalyzed Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition and Evaluation of Their Biological Activity.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba 4102, Australia.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 is a gut-derived peptide secreted from pancreatic β-cells that reduces blood glucose levels and body weight; however, native GLP-1 (GLP-1(7-36)-NH and GLP-1(7-37)) have short circulation half-lives (∼2 min) due to proteolytic degradation and rapid renal clearance due to its low molecular weight (MW; 3297.7 Da). This study aimed to improve the proteolytic stability and delivery properties of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) through modifications that form nanostructures. Read More

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BMS Derivatives C7-Linked to β-Cyclodextrin and Hyperbranched Polyglycerol Retain Activity against R5-HIV-1NLAD8 Isolates and Can Be Deemed Potential Microbicides.

ChemMedChem 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon Servicio de Cardiologia, Laboratorio de Inmunobiologia Molecular, Dr Esquerdo 46, 28007, Madrid, SPAIN.

Amides from indole-3-glyoxylic acid and 4 - benzoyl-2-methyl-piperazine, which are related to entry inhibitors developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), have been synthesized with aliphatic chains located at the C7 position of the indole ring. These spacers contain an azido group suitable for the well-known Cu(I)-catalyzed (3+2)-cycloaddition or an activated triple bond for the less known nucleophilic addition of thiols under physiological conditions. Reaction with polyols (β-cyclodextrin and hyperbranched polyglycerol) decorated with complementary click partners has afforded polyol-BMS-like conjugates that are not cytotoxic (TZM. Read More

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Effects of long-acting analogues of lamprey GLP-1 and paddlefish glucagon on alpha- to beta-cell transdifferentiation in an insulin-deficient transgenic mouse model.

J Pept Sci 2021 Apr 11:e3328. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Diabetes Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, UK.

The abilities of the long-acting, dual-agonist anti-diabetic peptides [D-Ala ]palmitoyl-lamprey GLP-1 and [D-Ser ]palmitoyl-paddlefish glucagon to induce α-cell to β-cell transdifferentiation were investigated in Glu ;ROSA26-eYFP mice. These animals have been genetically engineered so that yellow fluorescent protein is specifically expressed in glucagon-producing α-cells, thereby allowing cell lineage tracing. Insulin deficiency was produced by treatment of the mice with multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Read More

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Comparison of Cytokine Expression in Human PBMCs Stimulated with Normal and Heat-Shocked Lactobacillus plantarum Cell Lysate.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Biotechnology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1417614411, Tehran, Iran.

Regulation of immune responses is among the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of normal and heat-shocked Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1058 cell lysate on cytokine expression by human PBMCs. The mid-exponential phase L. Read More

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Inhibitory Smads suppress pancreatic stellate cell activation through negative feedback in chronic pancreatitis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):384

Institute of Pancreas, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is a key cause of chronic pancreatitis (CP), while inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling renders PSCs inactive. Inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) impede TGF-β intracellular signaling and may provide a way to alleviate CP. Thus, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of I-Smads in CP animals and freshly-isolated PSCs. Read More

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RUNX2 promotes vascular injury repair by activating miR-23a and inhibiting TGFBR2.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):363

Department of General & Vascular Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Previous evidence has suggested that the transcription factor, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), promotes the repair of vascular injury and activates the expression of microRNA-23a (miR-23a). TGF-β receptor type II (TGFBR2) has been found to mediate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) following arterial injury. However, the interactions among RUNX2, miR-23a and TGFBR2 in vascular injury have not been investigated thoroughly yet. Read More

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Comparable Function of Human Liver-Derived and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Implications for Cell-Based Therapy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:641792. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

William J. von Liebig Center for Transplantation and Clinical Regeneration, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been investigated extensively for their immunotherapeutic and regenerative properties, which may differ by cell source. In MSCs harvested from donors matched for sex, age, and body mass index, we compared the proliferative and migration functions of liver-derived MSCs (L-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (A-MSCs) ( = 6 donors each). Cellular senescence was evaluated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase enzyme activity and expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors using real-time quantitative polymerase chain and by western blot assay. Read More

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Demethylated miR-216a Regulates High Mobility Group Box 3 Promoting Growth of Esophageal Cancer Cells Through Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:622073. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cause of cancer-associated mortality in humans. Recent studies have revealed the important roles of microRNAs (miRs) in mediating tumor initiation and progression. miR-216a has been found to be involved in the progression of EC, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Read More

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3,3'-Diindolylmethane Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression β-TrCP-Mediated NF-κB Activation in Gastric Cancer-Derived MSCs.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:603533. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Stem Cell, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Gastric cancer is a malignant tumor characterized by high morbidity and invasion. Surgery combined with chemo-radiotherapy is the most common treatment for gastric cancer, while multiple drug resistance always results in treatment failure. Once the anti-tumor drugs enter the tumor foci, tumor cells as well as those found in the microenvironment are affected. Read More

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Red cell alloantibodies in beta-thalassaemia major patients' blood referring to the regional blood transfusion center of Tehran, Iran.

Bioimpacts 2021 20;11(2):129-133. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Departments of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Thalassemia is associated with a genetic decline in the rate of synthesis of one or more types of natural hemoglobin polypeptide chains. One of the major complications in thalassemia patients is alloimmunization, which is antibody production by the patient against transfused red blood cells (RBCs). These RBCs are unknown by the recipient and the formed antibodies against them are called alloantibodies. Read More

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The effect of inhibiting exosomes derived from adipose-derived stem cells via the TGF-β1/Smad pathway on the fibrosis of keloid fibroblasts.

Gland Surg 2021 Mar;10(3):1046-1056

Department of Plastic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, China.

Background: The main mechanism of keloid formation is that keloid fibroblasts (KFs) apoptosis is inhibited, leading to excessive proliferation. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a key signal molecule in the process of regulating cell fibrosis. This paper discusses the effect of adipose-derived stem cell exosomes (ADSCs-EXO) on the proliferation and apoptosis of KFS and its possible mechanism, in order to provide reference for the clinical intervention of hypertrophic scar. Read More

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A Non-obese, Treatment-Naive Japanese Diabetic Patient With Elevated Insulin Clearance and Hyperglycemia Under Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity and Increased Insulin Secretion: Elevated Insulin Clearance as Type 2 Japanese Diabetes Mellitus (T2JDM).

Cureus 2021 Apr 7;13(4):e14354. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Diabetes Care Center, Jinnouchi Hospital, Kumamoto, JPN.

Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous and complex metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia secondary to either resistance to insulin actions on the liver and peripheral tissues, insufficient insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, or both. An integrated balance between blood insulin levels and whole-body insulin sensitivity could theoretically provide the clinical effectiveness of insulin action. Peripheral blood insulin concentrations might be determined by the capacity of endogenous pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion and the degree of the whole body insulin clearance. Read More

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A proline-rich motif in the large intracellular loop of the glycine receptor α1 subunit interacts with the Pleckstrin homology domain of collybistin.

J Adv Res 2021 Mar 8;29:95-106. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Biochemistry, German University in Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR), a mediator of fast synaptic inhibition, is located and held at neuronal synapses through the anchoring proteins gephyrin and collybistin. Stable localization of neurotransmitter receptors is essential for synaptic function. In case of GlyRs, only beta subunits were known until now to mediate synaptic anchoring. Read More

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Endogenous sulfur dioxide is a novel inhibitor of hypoxia-induced mast cell degranulation.

J Adv Res 2021 Mar 8;29:55-65. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Mast cell (MC) degranulation is an important step in the pathogenesis of inflammatory reactions and allergies; however, the mechanism of stabilizing MC membranes to reduce their degranulation is unclear.

Methods: SO content in MC culture supernatant was measured by HPLC-FD. The protein and mRNA expressions of the key enzymes aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AAT1) and AAT2 and intracellular AAT activity were detected. Read More

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Ca-activated Cl channel TMEM16A inhibition by cholesterol promotes angiogenesis in endothelial cells.

J Adv Res 2021 Mar 15;29:23-32. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Ion Channel Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China.

Introduction: Ca-activated Cl channel TMEM16A is expressed in endothelial cells, and contributes to many diseases such as hypertension, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and pulmonary hypertension. It remains unclear whether TMEM16A regulates endothelial angiogenesis, which participates in many physiological and pathological processes. Cholesterol regulates many ion channels including TMEM16A, and high cholesterol levels contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Read More

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Anticancer property of Hemp Bioactive Peptides in Hep3B liver cancer cells through Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 9;9(4):1833-1841. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Daqing Branch of the Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences Daqing China.

Foodborne protein hydrolysates exhibit biological activity that may be therapeutic in a number of human disease settings. Hemp peptides (HP) generated by controlled hydrolysis of hemp proteins have a number of health benefits and are of pharmaceutical value. In the present study, we produce small molecular weight HP from hemp seed and investigate its anticancer properties in Hep3B human liver cancer cells. Read More

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Inhibition of CXCR4 ameliorates hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1458-1470. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China.

Pulmonary vascular remodeling due to aberrant proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is the main characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). CXCR4 is a specific stem cell surface receptor of cytokine CXCL12 which could regulate homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells and their mobilization. There is evidence that bone marrow-derived CXCR4 proangiogenic cell accumulation take an important part in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms still remain unknown. Read More

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lncRNA transcription factor 7 is related to deteriorating clinical features and poor prognosis in multiple myeloma, and its knockdown suppresses disease progression by regulating the miR-203-mediated Jagged1-Notch1 signaling pathway.

Oncol Lett 2021 May 22;21(5):412. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, P.R. China.

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains a challenge to treat, and its precise pathogenic mechanisms have not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation between long non-coding RNA transcription factor 7 (lnc-TCF7) and clinical features, as well as the prognosis of patients with MM, and to determine the effects of lnc-TCF7-knockdown on the regulation (and regulatory mechanisms) of MM progression. lnc-TCF7 expression was detected in the bone marrow plasma cells of 86 patients with MM and 30 healthy controls. Read More

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Licochalcone B Ameliorates Liver Cancer via Targeting of Apoptotic Genes, DNA Repair Systems, and Cell Cycle Control.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(4):372-386

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Egypt.

Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein required in the DNA base excision repair pathway and a noteworthy reducing-oxidizing factor that regulates the activity of various transcription factors. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) assume a key role in directing the progression of the cell- cycle. The present study evaluated the synergistic efficacy of using licochalcone B (LCB) and fullerene C (FnC) nanoparticles against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma in rats and relevant signaling pathways, with APE1/Ref-1 and CDK-4, as novel anti-cancer- targeting. Read More

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January 2020