414,158 results match your criteria beta cell

Multilevel proteomics reveals host perturbations by SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV.

Nature 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Technical University of Munich, School of Medicine, Institute of Virology, 81675, Munich, Germany.

The global emergence of SARS-CoV-2 urgently requires an in-depth understanding of molecular functions of viral proteins and their interactions with the host proteome. Several individual omics studies have extended our knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology. Integration of such datasets to obtain a holistic view of virus-host interactions and to define the pathogenic properties of SARS-CoV-2 is limited by the heterogeneity of the experimental systems. Read More

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Islet-on-a-chip: Biomimetic micropillar-based microfluidic system for three-dimensional pancreatic islet cell culture.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 2;183:113215. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. Electronic address:

Type 2 diabetes is currently one of the most common metabolic diseases, affecting all ages worldwide. As the incidence of type 2 diabetes increases, a growing number of studies focus on islets of Langerhans. A three-dimensional research model that maps islet morphology and maintains hormonal balance in vivo is still needed. Read More

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Identification of a five-gene signature of the RGS gene family with prognostic value in ovarian cancer.

Genomics 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, PR China; Key Laboratory of Maternal-Fetal Medicine of Liaoning Province, Key Laboratory of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Higher Education of Liaoning Province, PR China. Electronic address:

The RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) gene family, which includes negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptors, comprises important drug targets for malignant tumors. It is thus of great significance to explore the value of RGS family genes for diagnostic and prognostic prediction in ovarian cancer. The RNA-seq, immunophenotype, and stem cell index data of pan-cancer, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, and GTEx data of ovarian cancer were downloaded from the UCSC Xena database. Read More

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Deciphering Legionella effector delivery by Icm/Dot secretion system reveals a new role for c-diGMP signaling.

J Mol Biol 2021 Apr 9:166985. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, (Team: Legionella pathogenesis), Univ Lyon, Inserm, U1111, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, ENS de Lyon, F-69007, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Secretion of bacterial effector proteins into host cells plays a key role in bacterial virulence. Yet, the dynamics of the secretion systems activity remains poorly understood, especially when machineries deal with the export of numerous effectors. We address the question of multi-effector secretion by focusing on the Legionella pneumophila Icm/Dot T4SS that translocates a record number of 300 effectors. Read More

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Unexpected beta-amyloid production by middle doses of resveratrol through stabilization of APP protein and AMPK-mediated inhibition of trypsin-like proteasome activity in a cell model of Alzheimer's disease.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 9:112185. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Korea; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Korea. Electronic address:

Resveratrol is a drug candidate used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and shows beneficial effects in various toxicity and production models, although recent clinical trial data did not show satisfactory results. Here we demonstrated the potential side effects of resveratrol in AD. We demonstrated resveratrol concentration- and time-dependent Aβ production using Aβ secreted cellular model and analyzed resveratrol-related molecular signaling. Read More

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Automated multi-scale cascade of parallel stirred-tank bioreactors for fast protein expression studies.

J Biotechnol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Technical University of Munich, Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748, Garching, Germany. Electronic address:

Automation, parallelization and autonomous operation of standard lab equipment, usually applied for manual bioprocess development, is considered as the key for reduction of bioprocess development time and costs. An automated bioreactor system with 4 stirred-tank bioreactors on a L-scale was combined with a custom-made biomass transfer system to distribute the cell suspensions produced on the L-scale into 48 parallel stirred-tank bioreactors on a mL-scale. Afterwards parallel protein expression studies automated by a liquid handling system with integrated fluorescence reader were performed. Read More

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Valdecoxib improves lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance via simultaneous suppression of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 9:114557. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Valdecoxib (VAL), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and menstrual pain. It is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. The suppressive effects of VAL on cardiovascular diseases and neuroinflammation have been documented; however, its impact on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle has not been studied in detail. Read More

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The Human Islet: Mini-organ with Mega-impact.

Endocr Rev 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

This review focuses on the human pancreatic islet - including its structure, cell composition, development, function, and dysfunction. After providing a historical timeline of key discoveries about human islets over the past century, we describe new research approaches and technologies that are being used to study human islets and how these are providing insight into human islet physiology and pathophysiology. We also describe changes or adaptations in human islets in response to physiologic challenges such as pregnancy, aging, and insulin resistance and discuss islet changes in human diabetes of many forms. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 as a superantigen in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).

J Clin Invest 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, United States of America.

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a rare but deadly new disease in children that rapidly progresses to hyperinflammation, shock, and can lead to multiple organ failure if unrecognized. It has been found to be temporally associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and is often associated with SARS-CoV-2 exposure in children. In this issue of the JCI, Porritt, Paschold, and Rivas et al. Read More

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Attenuation of Human Lysozyme Amyloid Fibrillation by ACE Inhibitor Captopril: A Combined Spectroscopy, Microscopy, Cytotoxicity, and Docking Study.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

RI-B-NT Research Institute of Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology, Franziusallee 177, 24148 Kiel, Germany.

Misfolding proteins could form oligomers or amyloid fibers, which can cause a variety of amyloid-associated diseases. Thus, the inhibition of protein misfolding and fibrillation is a promising way to prevent and treat these diseases. Captopril (CAP) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) that is widely used to treat diseases such as hypertension and heart failure. Read More

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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children and adolescents: The EXPeRT/PARTNER diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Apr 12:e29018. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

SIREDO Oncology Center (Care, Innovation and Research for Children and AYA with Cancer), PSL Research University, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare pediatric tumor. Collaborative studies performed over the last decades showed improved results compared to historical data, but standardized guidelines for diagnosis and management of pediatric NPC are still unavailable. This study presents a European consensus guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric NPC developed by the European Cooperative Study Group for Pediatric Rare Tumors (EXPeRT). Read More

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RNA Sequencing and Pathways Analyses of Middle Ear Epithelia From Patients With Otitis Media.

Laryngoscope 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

Objectives: Otitis media (OM) is the most common pediatric diagnosis in the United States. However, our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM remains relatively poor. Investigation of molecular pathways involved in OM may improve the understanding of this disease process and elucidate novel therapeutic targets. Read More

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Impact of moderate exercise on fatty acid oxidation in pancreatic β-cells and skeletal muscle.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Centre Européen D'étude du Diabète, Unité Mixte de Recherche de L'Université de Strasbourg « Diabète et Thérapeutique », Strasbourg, France.

Fatty acids (FA) play a crucial role in glycaemia regulation in healthy and metabolic disorders conditions through various mechanisms. FA oxidation is one of the processes involved in lipid metabolism and can be modulated by exercise. Nowadays, physical activity is known to be an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Read More

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Physiological effects of nutrients on insulin release by pancreatic beta cells.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Grupo de investigación en Biología celular y funcional e ingeniería de biomoléculas, Universidad Antonio Nariño-Sede Circunvalar. Cra, 3 Este # 47A - 15, Bl 5, Bogotá, Colombia.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are growing health problems associated with a loss of insulin sensitivity. Both conditions arise from a long-term energy imbalance, and frequently, lifestyle measures can be useful in its prevention, including physical activity and a healthy diet. Pancreatic β-cells are determinant nutrient sensors that participate in energetic homeostasis needs. Read More

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, one gene associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 12:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems, Molecular Cell Biology Section, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

The gene is localized on the X-chromosome and variants in this gene are linked to six different neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., ß-propeller protein associated neurodegeneration, Rett-like syndrome, intellectual disability, and epileptic encephalopathies including developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and West syndrome and potentially also specific malignancies. Read More

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A hederagenin-type triterpene saponin, sumbulianoside a from and its potent immunomodulatory activity against seasonal flu virus H3N2.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Apr 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ege University, Bornova, Turkey.

A new hederagenin-type triterpene saponin; hederagenin 28-O--D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)--D-glucopyranosyl ester named sumbulianoside A (), together with twelve known saponins were isolated from the -butanol extract of (Caprifoliaceae) from which, one known saponin, dipsacus saponin A () was isolated, for the first time from species. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by 1 D and 2 D NMR and HRESIMS analyses. Cytotoxic activities were investigated on A549, Hela, PANC1, SHSY5Y cells and non-cancerous cell HEK293 by MTT method and immunomodulatory activities were evaluated against activated H3N2 seasonal virus in whole blood by measuring IL-4, IFN-, IL-1 cytokine level with ELISA. Read More

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Effects of long-acting analogues of lamprey GLP-1 and paddlefish glucagon on alpha- to beta-cell transdifferentiation in an insulin-deficient transgenic mouse model.

J Pept Sci 2021 Apr 11:e3328. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Diabetes Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, UK.

The abilities of the long-acting, dual-agonist anti-diabetic peptides [D-Ala ]palmitoyl-lamprey GLP-1 and [D-Ser ]palmitoyl-paddlefish glucagon to induce α-cell to β-cell transdifferentiation were investigated in Glu ;ROSA26-eYFP mice. These animals have been genetically engineered so that yellow fluorescent protein is specifically expressed in glucagon-producing α-cells, thereby allowing cell lineage tracing. Insulin deficiency was produced by treatment of the mice with multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Read More

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Comparison of Cytokine Expression in Human PBMCs Stimulated with Normal and Heat-Shocked Lactobacillus plantarum Cell Lysate.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Biotechnology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1417614411, Tehran, Iran.

Regulation of immune responses is among the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of normal and heat-shocked Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1058 cell lysate on cytokine expression by human PBMCs. The mid-exponential phase L. Read More

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Inhibitory Smads suppress pancreatic stellate cell activation through negative feedback in chronic pancreatitis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):384

Institute of Pancreas, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is a key cause of chronic pancreatitis (CP), while inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling renders PSCs inactive. Inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) impede TGF-β intracellular signaling and may provide a way to alleviate CP. Thus, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of I-Smads in CP animals and freshly-isolated PSCs. Read More

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RUNX2 promotes vascular injury repair by activating miR-23a and inhibiting TGFBR2.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):363

Department of General & Vascular Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Previous evidence has suggested that the transcription factor, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), promotes the repair of vascular injury and activates the expression of microRNA-23a (miR-23a). TGF-β receptor type II (TGFBR2) has been found to mediate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) following arterial injury. However, the interactions among RUNX2, miR-23a and TGFBR2 in vascular injury have not been investigated thoroughly yet. Read More

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Comparable Function of Human Liver-Derived and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Implications for Cell-Based Therapy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:641792. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

William J. von Liebig Center for Transplantation and Clinical Regeneration, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been investigated extensively for their immunotherapeutic and regenerative properties, which may differ by cell source. In MSCs harvested from donors matched for sex, age, and body mass index, we compared the proliferative and migration functions of liver-derived MSCs (L-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (A-MSCs) ( = 6 donors each). Cellular senescence was evaluated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase enzyme activity and expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors using real-time quantitative polymerase chain and by western blot assay. Read More

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Therapeutic Efficacy of Excretory-Secretory Products of Adult Worms on Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury in a Mouse Model.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:653843. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Basic Medical College, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication of systemic inflammation or sepsis with high morbidity and mortality. Although many studies have confirmed that helminth-derived proteins had strong immunomodulatory functions and could be used to treat inflammatory diseases, there is no report on the therapeutic effect of excretory-secretory products of adult worms (-AES) on sepsis-induced ALI. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of -AES on sepsis-induced ALI and the underlying immunological mechanism and the signaling pathway were investigated. Read More

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Properties of Mucoid Serotype 3 From Children in China.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:648040. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Microbiology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of hosts, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of mucoid serotype 3 () isolated from children in China.

Method: isolates collected between January 2016 and December 2019 were analyzed. isolates with mucoid phenotype were selected visually, and serotype 3 isolates were confirmed by Quellung reaction. Read More

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Sickle Cell Trait Modulates the Proteome and Phosphoproteome of -Infected Erythrocytes.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:637604. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Université de Paris, MERIT, IRD, Paris, France.

The high prevalence of sickle cell disease in some human populations likely results from the protection afforded against severe malaria and death by heterozygous carriage of HbS. remodels the erythrocyte membrane and skeleton, displaying parasite proteins at the erythrocyte surface that interact with key human proteins in the Ankyrin R and 4.1R complexes. Read More

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Comparison of Two Approaches for the Metataxonomic Analysis of the Human Milk Microbiome.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 25;11:622550. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Recent work has demonstrated the existence of large inter-individual and inter-population variability in the microbiota of human milk from healthy women living across variable geographical and socio-cultural settings. However, no studies have evaluated the impact that variable sequencing approaches targeting different 16S rRNA variable regions may have on the human milk microbiota profiling results. This hampers our ability to make meaningful comparisons across studies. Read More

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Early Life Microbiota Colonization at Six Months of Age: A Transitional Time Point.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:590202. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Laboratory, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Early life gut microbiota is involved in several biological processes, particularly metabolism, immunity, and cognitive neurodevelopment. Perturbation in the infant's gut microbiota increases the risk for diseases in early and later life, highlighting the importance of understanding the connections between perinatal factors with early life microbial composition. The present research paper is aimed at exploring the prenatal and postnatal factors influencing the infant gut microbiota composition at six months of age. Read More

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Demethylated miR-216a Regulates High Mobility Group Box 3 Promoting Growth of Esophageal Cancer Cells Through Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:622073. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cause of cancer-associated mortality in humans. Recent studies have revealed the important roles of microRNAs (miRs) in mediating tumor initiation and progression. miR-216a has been found to be involved in the progression of EC, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Read More

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3,3'-Diindolylmethane Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression β-TrCP-Mediated NF-κB Activation in Gastric Cancer-Derived MSCs.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:603533. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Stem Cell, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Gastric cancer is a malignant tumor characterized by high morbidity and invasion. Surgery combined with chemo-radiotherapy is the most common treatment for gastric cancer, while multiple drug resistance always results in treatment failure. Once the anti-tumor drugs enter the tumor foci, tumor cells as well as those found in the microenvironment are affected. Read More

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Red cell alloantibodies in beta-thalassaemia major patients' blood referring to the regional blood transfusion center of Tehran, Iran.

Bioimpacts 2021 20;11(2):129-133. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Departments of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Thalassemia is associated with a genetic decline in the rate of synthesis of one or more types of natural hemoglobin polypeptide chains. One of the major complications in thalassemia patients is alloimmunization, which is antibody production by the patient against transfused red blood cells (RBCs). These RBCs are unknown by the recipient and the formed antibodies against them are called alloantibodies. Read More

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The effect of inhibiting exosomes derived from adipose-derived stem cells via the TGF-β1/Smad pathway on the fibrosis of keloid fibroblasts.

Gland Surg 2021 Mar;10(3):1046-1056

Department of Plastic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, China.

Background: The main mechanism of keloid formation is that keloid fibroblasts (KFs) apoptosis is inhibited, leading to excessive proliferation. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a key signal molecule in the process of regulating cell fibrosis. This paper discusses the effect of adipose-derived stem cell exosomes (ADSCs-EXO) on the proliferation and apoptosis of KFS and its possible mechanism, in order to provide reference for the clinical intervention of hypertrophic scar. Read More

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