603,781 results match your criteria best knowledge


Rotational Thromboelastometry in Neonates Admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Large Cross-sectional Study.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, "Attikon" Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The aim of the present study was to assess the coagulation profile in neonatal critical illness using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and to investigate its association with disease severity and its potential prognostic role in this clinical setting. Over a period of 67 months (July 2014-February 2020) 423 critically ill neonates with confirmed or suspected sepsis, perinatal hypoxia, or respiratory distress syndrome, hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded on admission day and arterial blood was analyzed on ROTEM analyzer using the standard extrinsically activated rotational thromboelastometry assay (EXTEM). Read More

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Sexual Development and the Environment: Conclusions from 40 Years of Theory.

Sex Dev 2021 Jun 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

In this review, we consider the insight that has been gained through theoretical examination of environmental sex determination (ESD) and thermolability - how theory has progressed our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics associated with ESD, the transitional pathways between different modes of sex determination, and the underlying mechanisms. Following decades of theory on the adaptive benefits of ESD, several hypotheses seem promising. These hypotheses focus on the importance of differential fitness (sex-specific effects of temperature on fitness) in generating selection for ESD, but highlight alternative ways differential fitness arises: seasonal impacts on growth, sex-specific ages of maturation, and sex-biased dispersal. Read More

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Convolutional neural networks to identify malformations of cortical development: A feasibility study.

Seizure 2021 May 31;91:81-90. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA.

Objective: To develop and test a deep learning model to automatically detect malformations of cortical development (MCD).

Methods: We trained a deep learning model to distinguish between diffuse cortical malformation (CM), periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We trained 4 different convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. Read More

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Development and validation of a novel ferroptosis-related gene signature for predicting prognosis and immune microenvironment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 12;98:107789. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; Department of Hearing and Speech Science, Xinhua College, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Ferroptosis plays an important role across variable cancer types. However, few studies have focused on the prognostic patterns of ferroptosis-related genes in HNSCC. Cohorts with mRNA expression profiles, as well as corresponding clinical data of HNSCC patients from published studies, were collected and consolidated from public databases. Read More

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Comparison of the sorption capacity of basic, acid, direct and reactive dyes by compost in batch conditions.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 12;294:113005. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Electronic address:

Research on biosorption of organic dyes is an important subject for the development of clean technologies for the treatment of textile wastewater. In this work, the process of sorption of four textile dyes of different natures, namely Basic Violet 10 (BV10), Acid Red 27 (AR27), Direct Blue 151 (DB151) and Reactive Violet 4 (RV4) onto two composts, pine bark compost and municipal solid waste compost, has been studied. For this, sorption kinetics and equilibrium sorption at different solution pH values (3. Read More

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Performance of the EarlyCDT® Lung test in detection of lung cancer and pulmonary metastases in a high-risk cohort.

Lung Cancer 2021 Jun 10;158:85-90. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, J.B. Winsløws Vej 19, 3, 5000 Odense C, Denmark; Department of Internal Medicine, Vejle Hospital, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Beriderbakken 4, 7100 Vejle, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objectives: Early detection of lung cancer is pivotal for an optimal prognosis. CT screening is currently implemented in USA. To decrease the amount of CT scans, the application of a blood-based biomarker as part of screening criteria is desirable. Read More

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Development and validation of a novel sepsis biomarker based on amino acid profiling.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 21;40(6):3668-3676. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Sepsis is a potentially fatal condition influenced by pathogens and host factors. Current sepsis biomarkers such as white blood cell count and C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels show unsatisfactory performance in terms of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in clinical practice. Thus, we developed and validated a new sepsis biomarker based on amino acid profiling. Read More

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Feature engineering and machine learning for causality assessment in pharmacovigilance: Lessons learned from application to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 8;135:104517. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Our objective was to support the automated classification of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) reports for their usefulness in assessing the possibility of a causal relationship between a drug product and an adverse event.

Method: We used a data set of 326 redacted FAERS reports that was previously annotated using a modified version of the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre criteria for drug causality assessment by a group of SEs at the FDA and supported a similar study on the classification of reports using supervised machine learning and text engineering methods. We explored many potential features, including the incorporation of natural language processing on report text and information from external data sources, for supervised learning and developed models for predicting the classification status of reports. Read More

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Development and external validation of a risk calculator to predict internalising symptoms among Ugandan youths affected by HIV.

Psychiatry Res 2021 May 28;302:114028. Epub 2021 May 28.

International Center for Child Health and Development, Masaka, Uganda.

The aim of the study was to develop and externally validate a model to predict individualized risk of internalizing symptoms among AIDS-affected youths in low-resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Longitudinal data from 558 Ugandan adolescents orphaned by AIDS was used to develop our predictive model. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator logistic regression was used to select the best subset of predictors using 10-fold cross-validation. Read More

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Patterns of Narcotic Utilization in Women Undergoing Hysterectomy for Benign Indications.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 Jun 12:102181. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC.

Objective: To determine whether perioperative narcotic utilization at the time of hysterectomy has decreased since 2012.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Academic university hospital. Read More

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ONLINE INFORMATION ABOUT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SHOULDER SURGERY IS NOT EVIDENCE-BASED: A CONTENT ANALYSIS.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute for Musculoskeletal Health, The University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: To summarise the proportion of consumer webpages on subacromial decompression and rotator cuff repair surgery that make an accurate portrayal of the evidence for these surgeries (primary outcome), mention the benefits and harms of surgery, outline alternatives to surgery, and make various surgical recommendations.

Design: Content analysis.

Setting: Online consumer information about subacromial decompression and rotator cuff repair surgery. Read More

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Unraveling the Interplay of Image Formation, Data Representation and Learning in CT-based COPD Phenotyping Automation: The Need for a Meta-Strategy.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Siemens Healthineers, CT R&D Image Analytics, Forchheim, Germany.

Purpose: In the literature on automated phenotyping of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), there is a multitude of isolated classical machine learning and deep learning techniques, mostly investigating individual phenotypes, with small study cohorts and heterogeneous meta-parameters, e.g. different scan protocols or segmented regions. Read More

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Predicting ACL Reinjury from Return to Activity Assessments at 6-months Post-Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Athl Train 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Kinesiology. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Context: Return to activity(RTA) assessments are commonly administered following ACL-Reconstruction(ACLR) to manage post-operative progressions back to activity. To date, there is little knowledge on the clinical utility of these assessments to predict patient outcomes such as secondary ACL injury once returned to activity.

Objective: To identify what measures of patient function at 6-months post-ACLR best predict return to activity and second ACL injury at a minimum of 2-years following ACLR. Read More

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Going Beyond the State Law: Investigating High School Sport-Related Concussion Protocols.

J Athl Train 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

A.T. Still University, Athletic Training Programs, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, 5850 E Still Circle, Mesa, Arizona 85206, United States,

Context: State laws provide general guidelines for sport-related concussion (SRC) management, but do not comprehensively address the multiple layers of management for this complex injury. While high schools are encouraged to develop a SRC protocol that includes both state law tenets and additional management practices, the execution of this warrants examination.

Objective: To investigate state law compliance and practice components included in high school SRC protocols, and determine whether the degree of sports medicine coverage influenced protocol quality. Read More

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Hydraulic performance prediction and optimization of an engine cooling water pump using computational fluid dynamic analysis.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253309. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

In current research, the hydraulic performance prediction and optimization of an engine cooling water pump was conducted by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis. Through CFD simulation, the pump head, shaft power and efficiency for the original pump at volume flow rate 25 L/min and impeller rotating speed 4231 r/min were 3.87 m, 66. Read More

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Two-dimensional vector accelerometer based on orthogonal Bragg gratings inscribed in a standard single-mode fiber cladding.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2992-2995

We propose and demonstrate a novel, to the best of our knowledge, two-dimensional vector accelerometer based on orthogonal cladding fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) inscribed in a standard single-mode fiber (SMF). The cladding FBGs are written by a femtosecond laser point-by-point technique and run parallel with the core. We experimentally demonstrate that the two orthogonal components of acceleration can be directly detected using simplified power-referenced detection. Read More

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Gigahertz-bandwidth optical memory in Pr:YSiO.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2948-2951

We experimentally study a broadband implementation of the atomic frequency comb (AFC) rephasing protocol with a cryogenically cooled : crystal. To allow for storage of broadband pulses, we explore a novel, to the best of our knowledge, regime where the input photonic bandwidth closely matches the inhomogeneous broadening of the material (∼5), thereby significantly exceeding the hyperfine ground and excited state splitting (∼10). Through an investigation of different AFC preparation parameters, we measure a maximum efficiency of 10% after a rephasing time of 12. Read More

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Beyond near-infrared lossy mode resonances with fluoride glass optical fiber.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2892-2895

The objective of this Letter consists of the exploration of the lossy mode resonance (LMR) phenomenon beyond the near-infrared region and specifically in the short wave infrared region (SWIR) and medium wave infrared region (MWIR). The experimental and theoretical results show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, not only LMRs in these regions, but also the utilization of fluoride glass optical fiber associated with this phenomenon. The fabricated devices consist of a nanometric thin-film of titanium dioxide used as LMR generating material, which probed extraordinary sensitivities to external refractive index (RI) variations. Read More

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Experimental investigation of 16.6 Gbps SDM-WDM visible light communication based on a neural network receiver and tricolor mini-LEDs.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2888-2891

Visible light communication (VLC) based on a light-emitting diode (LED) suffers from a limited bandwidth of commercial LED, device nonlinearity, channel distortion, and transmitted power caused by a complex free-space channel, power amplifier, and illuminant devices resulting in a limited data rate. In this Letter, to provide an alternative high-speed solution, we first designed and fabricated three 175 µm tricolor mini-LEDs with various wavelengths. They are used to set up a spatial division multiplexing-wavelength division multiplexing VLC system over a 2 m link. Read More

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Spinning pupil aberration measurement for anisoplanatic deconvolution.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2884-2887

The aberrations in an optical microscope are commonly measured and corrected at one location in the field of view, within the so-called isoplanatic patch. Full-field correction is desirable for high-resolution imaging of large specimens. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, a novel wavefront detector, based on pupil sampling with subapertures, measuring the aberrated wavefront phase at each position of the specimen. Read More

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Single-objective selective-volume illumination microscopy enables high-contrast light-field imaging.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2860-2863

The performance of light-field microscopy is improved by selectively illuminating the relevant subvolume of the specimen with a second objective lens. Here we advance this approach to a single-objective geometry, using an oblique one-photon illumination path or two-photon illumination to accomplish selective-volume excitation. The elimination of the second orthogonally oriented objective to selectively excite the volume of interest simplifies specimen mounting; yet, this single-objective approach still reduces the out-of-volume background, resulting in improvements in image contrast, effective resolution, and volume reconstruction quality. Read More

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Design of a Littrow-type diode laser with independent control of cavity length and grating rotation.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2840-2843

We present a novel, to the best of our knowledge, extended-cavity diode laser based on a modified Littrow configuration. The coarse wavelength adjustment via the rotation of a diffraction grating is decoupled from the fine tuning of the external cavity modes by positioning a piezo transducer behind the diode laser, making the laser robust against misalignment and hysteresis even with long external cavities. Two laser prototypes with external cavities of different lengths were tested with a 780 nm laser diode, and locked to an atomic reference. Read More

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C and L band room-temperature continuous-wave InP-based microdisk lasers grown on silicon.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2836-2839

Quantum-dot (QD) and quantum-dash (QDash) have been shown to be promising gain materials for lasers directly grown on Si due to their better tolerance to crystal defects and thermal stability. Here we report optically pumped InP-based InAs QDash microdisk lasers (MDLs) directly grown on on-axis (001) Si. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of room-temperature continuous-wave lasing of a QDash MDL on Si in the C band and L band. Read More

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Resource efficient single photon source based on active frequency multiplexing.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2832-2835

We propose a new, to the best of our knowledge, single photon source based on the principle of active multiplexing of heralded single photons, which, unlike previously reported architecture, requires a limited amount of physical resources. We discuss both its feasibility and the purity and indistinguishability of single photons as a function of the key parameters of a possible implementation. Read More

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40 GHz high-efficiency Michelson interferometer modulator on a silicon-rich nitride and thin-film lithium niobate hybrid platform.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2811-2814

We propose and demonstrate a Michelson interferometer modulator with integrated Bragg reflectors on a silicon-rich nitride-thin-film lithium niobate hybrid platform. High-reflectivity Bragg reflectors are placed at the ends of both arms, which double the electro-optic (E-O) interaction length and reduce the velocity mismatch between the microwave and optical wave. The presented Michelson interferometer modulator achieves a measured half-wave voltage length product as low as 1. Read More

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Birefringence and scattering characterization using polarization sensitive quantum optical coherence tomography.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2799-2802

Polarization sensitive quantum optical coherence tomography (PS-QOCT) is used to characterize birefringence, scattering/absorption and path length differences in a flat transparent plastic sample. In this Letter, we present the first, to the best of our knowledge, experimental technique of PS-QOCT imaging and characterization of a birefringent material. Polarization sensitive coincidence rate of the entangled photons measured for each pixel and the 2D cross-sectional images are reconstructed. Read More

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Use of a Tourniquet and Spinal Anesthesia Increases Satisfactory Outcomes After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Study.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care, and Pain Medicine, Peijas Hospital, HUS Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is usually performed successfully with or without a tourniquet and under spinal anesthesia (SA) or general anesthesia (GA). However, 10% to 34% of patients experience dissatisfaction and pain after TKA. We aimed to compare the effects of tourniquet use and SA or GA on TKA outcomes. Read More

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The Last Bastion of Paternalism? A Reflection on Proceduralism, Power, and Privilege.

J Clin Ethics 2021 ;32(2):173-181

Center for Bioethics and Humanities, SUNY Upstate Medical, 618 Irving Ave., Syracuse, New York 13210 USA.

The two cases presented here may at first seem very different: one patient was an adult, making autonomous decisions for herself and her fetus; the other was a child too young to meaningfully participate in the most significant decisions regarding his health. In both cases, healthcare professionals had to determine the extent to which the parents of a dying fetus or child should be permitted to make agonizing choices about how long to maintain hope and what that death will look like; and in both, health professionals' prognostications influenced their judgments about the patients' best interests and whether they were candidates for certain interventions. While members of both healthcare teams questioned the patients' and families' ability to objectively consider the risks and benefits, the families were focused on the need to be able to live with the decisions made, regardless of outcome. Read More

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January 2021

Defining Death: Reasonableness and Legitimacy.

J Clin Ethics 2021 ;32(2):109-113

Neurocritical Care, Departments of Neurology/Neurosurgery, MacLean Center for Clinical Ethics, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave|MC 2030, Chicago, Illinois 60637 USA.

The recently published World Brain Death Project aims in alleviating inconsistencies in clinical guidelines and practice in the determination of death by neurologic criteria. However, critics have taken issue with a number of epistemic and metaphysical assertions that critics argue are either false, ad hoc, or confused. In this commentary, I discuss the nature of a definition of death; the plausibility of neurologic criteria as a sensible social, medical, and legal policy; and within a Rawlsian liberal framework, reasons for personal choice or accommodation among neurologic and circulatory definitions. Read More

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January 2021

Multi-Resolution Aitchison Geometry Image Denoising for Low-Light Photography.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Jun 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

In the low-photon imaging regime, noise in the image sensors is dominated by shot noise, best modeled statistically as Poisson distribution. In this work, we show that the Poisson likelihood function is very well matched with the Bayesian estimation of the "difference of log of contrast of pixel intensities." More specifically, our work is rooted in statistical compositional data analysis, whereby we reinterpret the Aitchison geometry as a multi-resolution analysis in the log-pixel domain. Read More

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