7,190 results match your criteria behaviour herbivore

Changes in plant responses induced by an arthropod influence the colonization behavior of a subsequent herbivore.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Entomology and Acarology, Luis de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil.

Plants in nature can be sequentially attacked by different arthropod herbivores. Feeding by one arthropod species may induce plant-defense responses that might affect the performance of a later-arriving herbivorous species. Understanding these interactions can help in developing pest-management strategies. Read More

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The ecological importance of habitat complexity to the Caribbean coral reef herbivore Diadema antillarum: three lines of evidence.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 30;11(1):9382. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Operation Wallacea, Wallace House, Old Bolingbroke, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, PE23 4EX, UK.

When Caribbean long-spined sea urchins, Diadema antillarum, are stable at high population densities, their grazing facilitates scleractinian coral dominance. Today, populations remain suppressed after a mass mortality in 1983-1984 caused a loss of their ecosystem functions, and led to widespread declines in ecosystem health. This study provides three lines of evidence to support the assertion that a lack of habitat complexity on Caribbean coral reefs contributes to their recovery failure. Read More

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Responses of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to Rice and Corn Plants, Fed and Oviposited by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Neotrop Entomol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Ethology and Insect Chemical Ecology Lab, Federal Univ of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

The search behavior and parasitism of trichogrammatids can be affected by volatile compounds emitted by plants under herbivory and/or oviposition. Our aim was to evaluate the chemotactic behavior and parasitism rates of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females against two varieties of corn and one of rice that underwent herbivory or oviposition by Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a glass Y-tube olfactometer, the parasitoids were given the choice between plants damaged by either herbivory or oviposition, with and without sentinel eggs, against those without damage. Read More

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Plant volatiles as regulators of plant defense and herbivore immunity: molecular mechanisms and unanswered questions.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland.

Plants release distinct blends of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) upon herbivore attack. HIPVs have long been known to influence the behavior of herbivores and natural enemies. In addition, HIPVs can act as physiological regulators that induce or prime plant defenses. Read More

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Host phylogeny and host ecology structure the mammalian gut microbiota at different taxonomic scales.

Anim Microbiome 2021 Apr 23;3(1):33. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

The gut microbiota is critical for host function. Among mammals, host phylogenetic relatedness and diet are strong drivers of gut microbiota structure, but one factor may be more influential than the other. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the relative contributions of host phylogeny and host diet in structuring the gut microbiotas of 11 herbivore species from 5 families living sympatrically in southwest Kenya. Read More

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Plant-associated CO mediates long-distance host location and foraging behaviour of a root herbivore.

Elife 2021 04 20;10. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Insect herbivores use different cues to locate host plants. The importance of CO in this context is not well understood. We manipulated CO perception in western corn rootworm (WCR) larvae through RNAi and studied how CO perception impacts their interaction with their host plant. Read More

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Microbiota, pathogens, and parasites as mediators of tritrophic interactions between insect herbivores, plants, and pollinators.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Apr 15:107589. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, 3050 Maile Way, Gilmore Hall 310, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA. Electronic address:

Insect-associated microbes, including pathogens, parasites, and symbionts, influence the interactions of herbivorous insects and pollinators with their host plants. Moreover, herbivory-induced changes in plant resource allocation and defensive chemistry can influence pollinator behavior. This suggests that the outcomes of interactions between herbivores, their microbes and host plants could have implications for pollinators. Read More

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Dietary plasticity of North American herbivores: a synthesis of stable isotope data over the past 7 million years.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Apr 14;288(1948):20210121. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA.

Palaeoecological interpretations are based on our understanding of dietary and habitat preferences of fossil taxa. While morphology provides approximations of diets, stable isotope proxies provide insights into the realized diets of animals. We present a synthesis of the isotopic ecologies (C from tooth enamel) of North American mammalian herbivores since approximately 7 Ma. Read More

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Poplar protease inhibitor expression differs in an herbivore specific manner.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 9;21(1):170. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology (MPI-CE), Hans-Knöll-Str. 8, 07745, Jena, Germany.

Background: Protease inhibitors are defense proteins widely distributed in the plant kingdom. By reducing the activity of digestive enzymes in insect guts, they reduce the availability of nutrients and thus impair the growth and development of the attacking herbivore. One well-characterized class of protease inhibitors are Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors (KTIs), which have been described in various plant species, including Populus spp. Read More

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Electrical signalling on Bt and non-Bt cotton plants under stress by Aphis gossypii.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249699. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Entomology and Acarology, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (ESALQ), University of São Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

Plants have developed various mechanisms to respond specifically to each biotrophic attack. It has been shown that the electrical signals emitted by plants are associated with herbivory stress responses and can lead to the activation of multiple defences. Bt cotton is a genetically modified pest-resistant plant that produces an insecticide from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to control Lepidopteran species. Read More

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Effects of exogenous spermidine on poplar resistance to leaf and root herbivory as affected by soil cadmium stress.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 7;288:112467. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of National Forestry & Grassland Administration on Forest Resources Conservation and Ecological Safety in the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, College of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 611130, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Elemental defense hypothesis (EDH) proposed that metal accumulation in plants could increase plant resistance to herbivores. However, the over-accumulation of metals in low-accumulators such as woody plants will cause adverse effects on plant health. Thus, the application of EDH on low-accumulators in metal contaminated areas is strongly limited. Read More

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Collapsing ecosystem functions on an inshore coral reef.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 31;289:112471. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Research Hub for Coral Reef Ecosystem Functions, College of Science and Engineering and ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, 4811, Australia.

Ecosystem functions underpin productivity and key services to humans, such as food provision. However, as the severity of environmental stressors intensifies, it is becoming increasingly unclear if, and to what extent, critical functions and services can be sustained. This issue is epitomised on coral reefs, an ecosystem at the forefront of environmental transitions. Read More

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Aversive responses of Queensland fruit flies towards larval-infested fruits are modified by fruit quality and prior experience.

J Insect Physiol 2021 Mar 30;131:104231. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Biology and Environmental Science, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane City, Queensland 4001, Australia.

For frugivorous fruit flies, the decision whether to accept or reject a host fruit for oviposition is influenced by a variety of fruit quality factors. Additionally, ovipositing flies may be influenced by the presence of eggs or larvae already within the host fruit. Species of the genus Bactrocera have been shown to avoid ovipositing into larval-infested fruits. Read More

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Range-wide variations in common milkweed traits and their effect on monarch larvae.

Am J Bot 2021 03;108(3):388-401

Department of Biology, William & Mary, 540 Landrum Drive, Williamsburg, VA, 23185, USA.

Premise: Leaf economic spectrum (LES) theory has historically been employed to inform vegetation models of ecosystem processes, but largely neglects intraspecific variation and biotic interactions. We attempt to integrate across environment-plant trait-herbivore interactions within a species at a range-wide scale.

Methods: We measured traits in 53 populations spanning the range of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and used a common garden to determine the role of environment in driving patterns of intraspecific variation. Read More

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Pre-dispersal seed predators boost seed production in a short-lived plant.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 31;195(4):971-982. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Departamento de Zoología, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

Pre-dispersal seed predation diminishes fitness and population growth rate of many plant species. Therefore, plants have developed multiple strategies to reduce the harmful effects of this type of herbivory. The present study aims to determine the effect of pre-dispersal seed predators (PSPs) on the fitness of a short-lived herb, and to discern the mechanisms allowing the plants to reduce the impact of pre-dispersal seed predation. Read More

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Increasing shrub damage by invertebrate herbivores in the warming and drying tundra of West Greenland.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 31;195(4):995-1005. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Ecology, Evolution, Ecosystems and Society Graduate Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.

Rapid warming is predicted to increase insect herbivory across the tundra biome, yet how this will impact the community and ecosystem dynamics remains poorly understood. Increasing background invertebrate herbivory could impede Arctic greening, by serving as a top-down control on tundra vegetation. Many tundra ecosystems are also susceptible to severe insect herbivory outbreaks which can have lasting effects on vegetation communities. Read More

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Differential outcomes of novel plant-herbivore associations between an invading planthopper and native and invasive Spartina cordgrass species.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 31;195(4):983-994. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK.

Non-native plants may benefit, briefly or permanently, from natural enemy release in their invaded range, or may form novel interactions with native enemy species. Likewise, newly arrived herbivores may develop novel associations with native plants or, where their hosts have arrived ahead of them, re-establish interactions that existed previously in their ancestral ranges. Predicting outcomes from this diversity of novel and re-established interactions between plants and their herbivores presents a major challenge for invasion biology. Read More

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New slow release mixture of (E)-β-farnesene with methyl salicylate to enhance aphid biocontrol efficacy in wheat ecosystem.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, China.

Semiochemical use is a promising way to reduce damage from pests by improving natural control in agro-ecosystems. The aphid alarm pheromone (E)-β-farnesene (EβF) and herbivore-induced methyl salicylate (MeSA) are two volatile cues to induce changes in aphid behavior with functional significance. Because of limitations related to the volatility and oxidization of EβF and MeSA under natural conditions, slow-release and antioxidant techniques should be developed and optimized before application. Read More

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Risky movements? Natal dispersal does not decrease survival of a large herbivore.

Ecol Evol 2021 Mar 4;11(6):2731-2740. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Bureau of Wildlife Management Pennsylvania Game Commission Harrisburg PA USA.

Natal dispersal is assumed to be a particularly risky movement behavior as individuals transfer, often long distances, from birth site to site of potential first reproduction. Though, because this behavior persists in populations, it is assumed that dispersal increases the fitness of individuals despite the potential for increased risk of mortality. The extent of dispersal risk, however, has rarely been tested, especially for large mammals. Read More

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The transfer of trace metals in the soil-plant-arthropod system.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 8;779:146260. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK.

Essential and non-essential trace metals are capable of causing toxicity to organisms above a threshold concentration. Extensive research has assessed the behaviour of trace metals in biological and ecological systems, but has typically focused on single organisms within a trophic level and not on multi-trophic transfer through terrestrial food chains. This reinforces the notion of metal toxicity as a closed system, failing to consider one trophic level as a pollution source to another; therefore, obscuring the full extent of ecosystem effects. Read More

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Indirect predator effects influence behaviour but not morphology of juvenile coral reef Ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis.

J Fish Biol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

A 6-week laboratory experiment exposed juvenile Ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis to visual and chemical cues of either a predator, a herbivore or a null control (sea water) and found no effect of predator cues on prey morphology (proportion of ocellus to eye diameter, body depth, standard length and fin area). Nonetheless, behaviour was significantly affected by predator presence, with prey less active and taking half as many feeding strikes when exposed to predators compared to fish from the null control. The presence of a herbivore also affected prey behaviour similar to that of the predator, suggesting that the presence of a non-predator may have important effects on development. Read More

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Sex differences in condition dependence of natal dispersal in a large herbivore: dispersal propensity and distance are decoupled.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Mar 10;288(1946):20202947. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino 50019, Italy.

Evolution should favour plasticity in dispersal decisions in response to spatial heterogeneity in social and environmental contexts. Sex differences in individual optimization of dispersal decisions are poorly documented in mammals, because species where both sexes commonly disperse are rare. To elucidate the sex-specific drivers governing dispersal, we investigated sex differences in condition dependence in the propensity and distance of natal dispersal in one such species, the roe deer, using fine-scale monitoring of 146 GPS-collared juveniles in an intensively monitored population in southwest France. Read More

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Fungi and insects compensate for lost vertebrate seed predation in an experimentally defaunated tropical forest.

Nat Commun 2021 03 12;12(1):1650. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, 534 Goddard Hall, St. Lucia, QLD, Australia.

Overhunting reduces important plant-animal interactions such as vertebrate seed dispersal and seed predation, thereby altering plant regeneration and even above-ground biomass. It remains unclear, however, if non-hunted species can compensate for lost vertebrates in defaunated ecosystems. We use a nested exclusion experiment to isolate the effects of different seed enemies in a Bornean rainforest. Read More

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Brown Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Damage to Seedling Corn and Impact on Grain Yield.

J Insect Sci 2021 Mar;21(2)

Vernon James Research and Extension Center, North Carolina State University, Plymouth, NC, USA.

Brown stink bugs, Euschistus servus, are an important early-season pest of field corn in the southeastern United States. Feeding in the early stages of corn development can lead to a number of growth deformities and deficiencies and, ultimately, a reduction in yield. An observational and two experimentally manipulated trials were conducted in 2017 and 2018 to 1) determine optimal timing for assessing brown stink bug damage, 2) assess the level of damage from which yield compensation can occur, and 3) examine the relationship between brown stink bug density and early-season damage and yield. Read More

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Urbanization as a disrupter and facilitator of insect herbivore behaviors and life cycles.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2021 Mar 3;45:97-105. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Electronic address:

Insect herbivores require a variety of habitats across their life cycle, with behavior often mediating transitions between life stages or habitats. Human management strongly alters urban habitats, yet herbivore behavior is rarely examined in cities. We review the existing literature on several key behaviors: host finding, feeding, egg placement and pupation location, and antipredator defense. Read More

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Picking sides: feeding on the abaxial leaf surface is costly for caterpillars.

Planta 2021 Mar 4;253(4):77. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Biology, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, 78539, USA.

Main Conclusion: The study provides us with the evidence that caterpillars tend to feed on the abaxial leaf surface despite the damage caused to them because of higher trichome density. To defend against herbivory, plants have evolved physical and chemical defense mechanisms, including trichomes (hair like appendages on leaves and stem) being one of them. Caterpillars, a major group of insect herbivores are generally found to occupy the abaxial (underside) leaf surface, considered as an avoidance mechanism from biotic and abiotic stresses. Read More

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Fermented food consumption in wild nonhuman primates and its ecological drivers.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Objectives: Although fermented food use is ubiquitous in humans, the ecological and evolutionary factors contributing to its emergence are unclear. Here we investigated the ecological contexts surrounding the consumption of fruits in the late stages of fermentation by wild primates to provide insight into its adaptive function. We hypothesized that climate, socioecological traits, and habitat patch size would influence the occurrence of this behavior due to effects on the environmental prevalence of late-stage fermented foods, the ability of primates to detect them, and potential nutritional benefits. Read More

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The influence of juvenile dinosaurs on community structure and diversity.

Science 2021 Feb;371(6532):941-944

Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Despite dominating biodiversity in the Mesozoic, dinosaurs were not speciose. Oviparity constrained even gigantic dinosaurs to less than 15 kg at birth; growth through multiple morphologies led to the consumption of different resources at each stage. Such disparity between neonates and adults could have influenced the structure and diversity of dinosaur communities. Read More

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February 2021

Loss of predation risk from apex predators can exacerbate marine tropicalization caused by extreme climatic events.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Coastal Oceans Research, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

Extreme climatic events (ECEs) and predator removal represent some of the most widespread stressors to ecosystems. Though species interactions can alter ecological effects of climate change (and vice versa), it is less understood whether, when and how predator removal can interact with ECEs to exacerbate their effects. Understanding the circumstances under which such interactions might occur is critical because predator loss is widespread and ECEs can generate rapid phase shifts in ecosystems which can ultimately lead to tropicalization. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of grazing on C:N:P stoichiometry attenuate from soils to plants and insect herbivores in a semi-arid grassland.

Oecologia 2021 Mar 22;195(3):785-795. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology/Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, Institute of Grassland Science/School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024, Jilin, China.

Understanding the processing of limiting nutrients among organisms is an important goal of community ecology. Less known is how human disturbances may alter the stoichiometric patterns among organisms from different trophic levels within communities. Here, we investigated how livestock grazing affects the C:N:P ecological stoichiometry of soils, plants (Leymus chinensis), and grasshoppers (Euchorthippus spp. Read More

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