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Sleep-related problems and eating habits during COVID-19 lockdown in a southern Brazilian youth sample.

Sleep Med 2021 Jul 7;85:150-156. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Sports and Computer Science, Universidad Pablo de Olavide (UPO), 41013 Seville, Spain; PDU EFISAL, Centro Universitario Regional Noreste, Universidad de la República (UDELAR), 40000 Rivera, Uruguay. Electronic address:

The pandemic has affected children's behaviors and this fact has an effect on their healthy habits, such as sleep and diet. The aim of the current study was to determinate the prevalence of sleep-related problems and its relationship with eating habits in children from the south of Brazil during the pandemic. Parents/legal guardians of 3-17 years old participants responded to a online survey distributed using the snowball sampling strategy in Brazil. Read More

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Mindfulness-based interventions for medication adherence: A systematic review and narrative synthesis.

J Psychosom Res 2021 Jul 26;149:110585. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Inadequate medication adherence is a significant limitation for achieving optimal health outcomes across chronic health conditions. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been increasingly applied to promote medical regimen adherence as MBIs have been shown to improve patient-level barriers to adherence (i.e. Read More

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A randomized placebo-controlled intranasal oxytocin study on first impressions and reactions to social rejection.

Biol Psychol 2021 Jul 28:108164. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, POB 431, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Oxytocin is central to pair-bonding in non-human animals. We assessed effects of intranasal oxytocin on bond formation between two opposite-sex strangers. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 50 pairs of one man and one woman received oxytocin or placebo spray intranasally. Read More

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Maternal immune activation leads to atypical turning asymmetry and reduced DRD2 mRNA expression in a rat model of schizophrenia.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 28:113504. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Experimental and Molecular Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Preventive Medicine, LWL University Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Atypical asymmetries have been reported in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, linking higher symptom severity to weaker lateralization. Furthermore, both lateralization and schizophrenia are influenced by the dopaminergic system. However, whether a direct link between the etiology of schizophrenia and atypical asymmetries exists is yet to be investigated. Read More

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Targeting Executive Function for Weight Loss in Adults with Overweight or Obesity.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jul 28:113540. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, San Diego, CA 92093 USA.

Obesity is associated with a multitude of negative health sequalae. Behavioral weight loss (BWL) is currently the recommended behavioral treatment for obesity; however, it is not effective for approximately half of the individuals who participate. BWL requires individuals to carry out many tasks requiring executive function (EF; i. Read More

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Elimination of vision-guided target attraction in Aedes aegypti using CRISPR.

Curr Biol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and the Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Electronic address:

Blood-feeding insects, such as the mosquito, Aedes (Ae.) aegypti, use multiple senses to seek out and bite humans. Upon exposure to the odor of CO, the attention of female mosquitoes to potential targets is greatly increased. Read More

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3D migration of human amniotic fluid stem cells involves mesenchymal and amoeboid modes and is regulated by mTORC1.

Stem Cells 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute of Medical Genetics, Center of Pathobiochemistry and Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

3D cell migration is an integral part of many physiologic processes. Although being well studied in the context of adult tissue homeostasis and cancer development, remarkably little is known about the invasive behavior of human stem cells. Using two different kinds of invasion assays, this study aimed at investigating and characterizing the 3D migratory capacity of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs), a well-established fetal stem cell type. Read More

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Short-term impacts of COVID-19 on family caregivers: Emotion regulation, coping, and mental health.

J Clin Psychol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

Background: The negative mental health impact of coronavirus disease 2019-related stressors may be heightened for those caring for children, who bear responsibity for their welfare during disasters.

Aim: Based on the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, we inquired whether caregivers' emotion regulation and coping behavior were associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS).

Materials & Methods: Data were collected through a national online survey in April 2020, and again 60 days later. Read More

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The relationship between digit ratio (2D:4D) and muscular fitness: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Jul 31:e23657. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Education, Health and Behavior Studies, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA.

Background: Digit ratio (2D:4D), a marker of prenatal testosterone exposure, is a weak negative correlate of sports/athletic/fitness performance. While numerous studies have examined the relationship between 2D:4D and physical fitness, there has never been a comprehensive study that has synthesized studies examining relationships between 2D:4D and muscular fitness.

Objectives: To systematically review and meta-analyze the relationship between 2D:4D and muscular fitness measured as handgrip strength (HGS). Read More

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Occurrence, distribution, and prediction of iron and manganese in groundwater of opencast mines: an example from Inner Mongolia, China.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jul 31;193(8):544. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, People's Republic of China.

Based on the geological and hydrologic data, the generation, enrichment, and transportation of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) ions in Yimin open-pit mining area were investigated using water quality analysis of groundwater samples, Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) principal component analysis, and geostatistics analysis by Geographic Information System (GIS). The water quality test results showed that the groundwater of this area was mainly the Na-Ca-HCO type, and the content of Fe and Mn ions significantly exceeded the national standard. The groundwater in the mining area was strongly affected by human activity, deep groundwater mixing effect, and water-rock interaction associated with mining activities. Read More

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Chitosan/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds to modulate osteogenic and inflammatory response.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials-National Research Council of Italy (IPCB-CNR), Naples, Italy.

Considerable attention has been given to the use of chitosan (CS)-based materials reinforced with inorganic bioactive signals such as hydroxyapatite (HA) to treat bone defects and tissue loss. It is well known that CS/HA based materials possess minimal foreign body reactions, good biocompatibility, controlled biodegradability and antibacterial property. Herein, the bioactivity of these composite systems was analyzed on in vitro bone cell models for their applications in the field of bone tissue engineering (BTE). Read More

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Intrinsic functional connectivity of the frontoparietal network predicts inter-individual differences in the propensity for costly third-party punishment.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.

Humans are motivated to give norm violators their just deserts through costly punishment even as unaffected third parties (i.e., third-party punishment, TPP). Read More

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Micro-structural investigations on oppositely charged mixed surfactant gels with potential dermal applications.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15527. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Chemistry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, 721102, West Bengal, India.

Dicarboxylic amino acid-based surfactants (N-dodecyl derivatives of -aminomalonate, -aspartate, and -glutamate) in combination with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) form a variety of aggregates. Composition and concentration-dependent mixtures exhibit liquid crystal, gel, precipitate, and clear isotropic phases. Liquid crystalline patterns, formed by surfactant mixtures, were identified by polarizing optical microscopy. Read More

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DEPDC1B regulates the progression of human chordoma through UBE2T-mediated ubiquitination of BIRC5.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 30;12(8):753. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 2000 Jiangyue Road, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Chordoma is a rare bone malignancy with a high rate of local recurrence and distant metastasis. Although DEP domain-containing protein 1B (DEPDC1B) is implicated in a variety of malignancies, its relationship with chordoma is unclear. In this study, the biological role and molecular mechanism of DEPDC1B in chordoma were explored. Read More

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Genetic association study of childhood aggression across raters, instruments, and age.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Jul 30;11(1):413. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children aged between 1. Read More

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History modulates early sensory processing of salient distractors.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego.

To find important objects, we must focus on our goals, ignore distractions, and take our changing environment into account. This is formalized in models of visual search whereby goal-driven, stimulus-driven and history-driven factors are integrated into a priority map that guides attention. Stimulus history robustly influences where attention is allocated even when the physical stimulus is the same: when a salient distractor is repeated over time, it captures attention less effectively. Read More

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Learning and Representation of Hierarchical Concepts in Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

A key aspect of conceptual knowledge is that it can be flexibly applied at different levels of abstraction, implying a hierarchical organization. It is yet unclear how this hierarchical structure is acquired and represented in the brain. Here we investigate the computations underlying the acquisition and representation of the hierarchical structure of conceptual knowledge in the hippocampal-prefrontal system of 32 human participants (22 females). Read More

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Reactivation of single-episode pain patterns in the hippocampus and decision making.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Aversive and rewarding experiences can exert a strong influence on subsequent behavior. While decisions are often supported by the value of single past episodes, most research has focused on the role of well-learned value associations. Recent studies have begun to investigate the influence of reward-associated episodes, but it is unclear if these results generalize to negative experiences such as pain. Read More

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Quality of life of children and adolescents with clinical obesity, perspectives of children and parents.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, P.O. Box 9025, Ede, 6710 HN, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background/objectives: Childhood obesity can have important psychological impacts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity. The participants were referred to an outpatient hospital-based obesity treatment. Read More

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Physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with spinal cord injury: Mitigation strategies during COVID-19 on behalf of ACSM-EIM and HL-PIVOT.

Disabil Health J 2021 Jul 24:101177. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL - PIVOT) Network, Chicago, IL, USA.

People with spinal cord injury (SCI) face unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, including greater risk of poor COVID-19-related outcomes, increased social isolation, and restricted access to important services. Furthermore, COVID-19 related restrictions have decreased already low levels of physical activity (PA) in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this commentary is to: 1) address the impact of COVID-19 on PA and sedentary behavior (SB) in people with SCI; 2) provide potential SB reduction strategies to guide future research; and 3) provide recommendations to increase PA and reduce SB on behalf of the American College of Sports Medicine Exercise is Medicine (ACSM-EIM) and Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) using a social-ecological model targeting the individual-, social environment-, physical environment-, and policy-level determinants of behavior in people with SCI. Read More

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A digital health peri-operative cognitive-behavioral intervention to prevent transition from acute to chronic postsurgical pain in adolescents undergoing spinal fusion (SurgeryPal): study protocol for a multisite randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jul 30;22(1):506. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Background: Spinal fusion surgery is associated with severe acute postsurgical pain and high rates of chronic postsurgical pain in adolescents. Psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and low pain self-efficacy predict higher acute pain and likelihood of developing chronic postsurgical pain. Interventions targeting baseline psychosocial risk factors have potential to interrupt a negative trajectory of continued pain and poor health-related quality of life (HRQL) over time but have not yet been developed and evaluated. Read More

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The use of Web-based interactive technology to promote HPV vaccine uptake among young females: a randomized controlled trial.

Authors:
Qi Wang Wen Zhang

BMC Womens Health 2021 Jul 30;21(1):277. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Journalism and Culture Communication, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, 182 Nanhu Avenue, Wuhan, 430073, People's Republic of China.

Background: Currently no study has investigated whether Web-based interactive technology can influence females to adopt healthy behaviors. We investigated how and under what conditions do Web-based interactivity influence vaccination intentions among young females.

Methods: In this randomized controlled trail, we conduct a 2 (mode of information presentation: narrative vs. Read More

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Self-assembled micelles of the (lipo) glycopeptides, teicoplanin, as taxane nanocarriers.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Centro de Excelencia en Productos y Procesos Cordoba, Pabellon Ceprocor. Santa Maria de Punilla, Cordoba, 5004, ARGENTINA.

The use of nanoparticles is one of the strategies currently studied to minimize the toxicity and lack of tissue specificity of many cancer drugs used in chemotherapy. In this research the physicochemical and biological behavior of a novel self-assembled nanostructure of the antibiotic Teicoplanin (Teico) was characterized as a nanocarrier system for solubilizing highly hydrophobic drugs like Paclitaxel (Ptx) in aqueous media. The Teico micelles were loaded with Ptx in DMSO or PEG-400. Read More

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Influence of excessive daily sleeping and sleep quality on BDNF and NGF serum levels in adolescents.

Sleep Med 2021 Jun 26;84:415-423. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Public Health Department, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil.

Introduction: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neural growth factor (NGF) are widely expressed in the brain and play an important role in neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, and increased neuronal connections. Previous studies have shown that reduced serum levels of these proteins are associated with disorders in human sleep.

Objective: Current study evaluates the prevalence in adolescents of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep quality, and analyzes the influence of these factors on BDNF and NGF serum levels. Read More

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Juvenile stress increases cocaine-induced impulsivity in female rats.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 27:113488. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Neuroscience, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, 44074, United States.

In humans, adverse childhood experiences are associated with an increased risk of developing a neuropsychiatric disorder. Changes in social behavior and cognitive function are hallmarks of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we examined the effects of exposure to variable stress during the juvenile period on social behavior, reward, and cognitive function (as measured in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT)) in rats. Read More

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Human neuronal networks on micro-electrode arrays are a highly robust tool to study disease-specific genotype-phenotype correlations in vitro.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, 6500 HB Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department of Clinical Genomics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) are increasingly used to characterize neuronal network activity of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons. Despite their gain in popularity, MEA recordings from hiPSC-derived neuronal networks are not always used to their full potential in respect to experimental design, execution, and data analysis. Therefore, we benchmarked the robustness of MEA-derived neuronal activity patterns from ten healthy individual control lines, and uncover comparable network phenotypes. Read More

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Irisin restores high glucose-induced cell injury in vascular endothelial cells by activating Notch pathway via Notch receptor 1.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of TCM, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University; Jiamusi University.

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a vascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been confirmed that irisin is closely related to DM. However, the effect of irisin on DFU is obscure and needs further study. Read More

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Application of co-pyrolysis biochar for the adsorption and immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated environmental substrates.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 16;420:126655. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Engineering Centre for Cleaner Technology of Iron-steel Industry, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, 38 Tongyan Road, Jinnan District, Tianjin 300350, China. Electronic address:

Heavy metal pollution has been considered as a serious threat to the environment and human in the past decades due to its toxic and unbiodegradable properties. Recently, extensive studies have been carried out on the removal of heavy metals, and various adsorption materials have been successfully developed. Among, biochar is a promising option because of its advantages of various biomass sources, abundant microporous channels and surface functional groups, as well as its attractive economic feasibility. Read More

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