75,242 results match your criteria behavioral problems


Implementation of six degree-of-freedom high-precision robotic phantom on commercial industrial robotic manipulator.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine, 1 Chome-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube-city, Ube, Yamaguchi, 755-8505, JAPAN.

This technical note discloses our implementation of a six degree-of-freedom (DOF) high-precision robotic phantom on a commercially available industrial robot manipulator. These manipulators are designed to optimize their set point tracking accuracy as it is the most important performance metric for industrial manipulators. Their in-house controllers are tuned to suppress its error less than a few tens of micrometers. Read More

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Linear and nonlinear profiles of weak behavioral and neural differentiation of numerical operations in children with math learning difficulties.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Jul 27:107977. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences; Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences; Stanford Neuroscience Institute; Symbolic Systems Program, Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, California, USA. Electronic address:

Mathematical knowledge is constructed hierarchically during development from a basic understanding of addition and subtraction, two foundational and inter-related, but semantically distinct, numerical operations. Early in development, children show remarkable variability in their numerical problem-solving skills and difficulties in solving even simple addition and subtraction problems are a hallmark of math learning difficulties. Here, we use novel quantitative analyses to investigate whether less distinct representations are associated with poor problem-solving abilities in children during the early stages of math-skill acquisition. Read More

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Long-term functional stability of problem behavior exposed to psychotropic medications.

J Appl Behav Anal 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Psychopharmacological and behavioral interventions are often combined in the treatment of problem behavior in people with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). However, little is known about the interaction between medication pharmacodynamics and behavior function. A better understanding of these mechanisms could serve as the conceptual foundation for combined interventions. Read More

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Quantum Behavior of a Heavy Impurity Strongly Coupled to a Bose Gas.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jul;127(3):033401

School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia.

We investigate the problem of an infinitely heavy impurity interacting with a dilute Bose gas at zero temperature. When the impurity-boson interactions are short-ranged, we show that boson-boson interactions induce a quantum blockade effect, where a single boson can effectively block or screen the impurity potential. Since this behavior depends on the quantum granular nature of the Bose gas, it cannot be captured within a standard classical-field description. Read More

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Self-Propelled Aerogel Solar Evaporators for Efficient Solar Seawater Purification.

Langmuir 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Chemical Engineering & Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116, PR China.

A solar evaporator is regarded as a prospective approach to solve the problem of water shortage. Here, we report an aerogel-based solar evaporator with self-propulsion and self-healing behavior to achieve efficient desalination and enhanced heavy-metal removal. The aerogel solar evaporator is prepared from a Schiff-base hydrogel with an asymmetric Au deposition layer via a simple freeze-drying method. Read More

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The problem of heterogeneity in autism: Response to Mottron (2021) "Aradical change in our autism research strategy is needed: Back to prototypes".

Authors:
Lynn Waterhouse

Autism Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Child Behavior Study, The College of New Jersey, Pennington Road, Ewing, New Jersey, USA.

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Workplace bullying, occupational burnout, work-life imbalance, and perceived medical errors among nurses in Oman: A cluster analysis.

J Nurs Manag 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Aims: To explore whether different profiles exist in a cohort of nurses regarding demographic and occupational outcomes.

Background: Nurses will facing many occupational problems, including workplace bullying, work-life imbalance, burnout, and medical errors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study included 232 nurses working in a hospital in Oman. Read More

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Caseworker assessment of child risk and functioning and their relation to service use in the child welfare system.

Child Youth Serv Rev 2019 Apr 22;99:81-86. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Prevention and Community Research & The Consultation Center, Yale School of Medicine, 389 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.

Children within the child welfare system are more likely to experience emotional and behavioral problems than children not involved with the system. Many states have adopted standardized risk and assessment measures to inform decision-making on appropriate levels of care related to placement or service intensity for children within the system. This study examined the relationship of caseworker ratings of risk across multiple domains to youth functioning and service use for a sample of children open to the child welfare system. Read More

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Nature of dynamic gradients, glass formation, and collective effects in ultrathin freestanding films.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620;

Molecular, polymeric, colloidal, and other classes of liquids can exhibit very large, spatially heterogeneous alterations of their dynamics and glass transition temperature when confined to nanoscale domains. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the related problem of near-interface relaxation and diffusion in thick films. However, the origin of "nanoconfinement effects" on the glassy dynamics of thin films, where gradients from different interfaces interact and genuine collective finite size effects may emerge, remains a longstanding open question. Read More

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Prenatal and Infancy Home Visiting in Germany: 7-Year Outcomes of a Randomized Trial.

Pediatrics 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute for Employment Research, Federal Employment Agency, Nuremberg, Germany.

Objectives: Given the lasting positive effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting in the United States on disadvantaged mothers and children at school age, we analyzed the follow-up effects of a German home visiting program (). We hypothesized improvements in 3 domains at child age 7 years: (1) child development and life satisfaction, (2) maternal mental health and life satisfaction, and (3) adverse parenting, abusive parenting, and neglectful parenting.

Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of home visiting, enrolling 755 pregnant, low-income women with no previous live births. Read More

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Intercellular Arc Signaling Regulates Vasodilation.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080

Injury responses require communication between different cell types in the skin. Sensory neurons contribute to inflammation and can secrete signaling molecules that affect non-neuronal cells. Despite the pervasive role of translational regulation in nociception, the contribution of activity-dependent protein synthesis to inflammation is not well understood. Read More

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Behavioral and mental health problems in adolescents with ADHD: Exploring the role of family resilience.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 22;294:450-458. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Family, Youth, and Community Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Background: Family resilience and its role in behavioral and mental health problems has not been well documented among U.S. adolescents, especially those with ADHD. Read More

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Predicting pain among female survivors of recent interpersonal violence: A proof-of-concept machine-learning approach.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0255277. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America.

Interpersonal violence (IPV) is highly prevalent in the United States and is a major public health problem. The emergence and/or worsening of chronic pain are known sequelae of IPV; however, not all those who experience IPV develop chronic pain. To mitigate its development, it is critical to identify the factors that are associated with increased risk of pain after IPV. Read More

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Exploring predictors at toddler age of distinct profiles of attentional functioning in 6-year-old children born moderate-to-late preterm and full term.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0254797. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Objective: Examining relationships of toddler abilities in attention, cognitive, motor, and language development, and behavioral problems, with distinct attention profiles at 6 years of age in children born moderate-to-late preterm and full term.

Method: Longitudinal study with a cohort of 88 moderate-to-late preterm and 83 full term born children. At 18 months attention abilities were assessed. Read More

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Rational design of complex phenotype via network models.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 29;17(7):e1009189. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Mathematics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey, United States of America.

We demonstrate a modeling and computational framework that allows for rapid screening of thousands of potential network designs for particular dynamic behavior. To illustrate this capability we consider the problem of hysteresis, a prerequisite for construction of robust bistable switches and hence a cornerstone for construction of more complex synthetic circuits. We evaluate and rank most three node networks according to their ability to robustly exhibit hysteresis where robustness is measured with respect to parameters over multiple dynamic phenotypes. Read More

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Post-acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Subjective Memory Problems.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2119335. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

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Interrogating theoretical models of neural computation with emergent property inference.

Elife 2021 Jul 29;10. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Statistics, Columbia University, New York, United States.

A cornerstone of theoretical neuroscience is the circuit model: a system of equations that captures a hypothesized neural mechanism. Such models are valuable when they give rise to an experimentally observed phenomenon -- whether behavioral or a pattern of neural activity -- and thus can offer insights into neural computation. The operation of these circuits, like all models, critically depends on the choice of model parameters. Read More

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Increase your Confidence in Opioid Prescribing: Marketing Messages in Continuing Medical Education Activities on ER/LA Opioids.

Pain Physician 2021 Aug;24(5):E529-E538

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC.

Background: Overprescription of opioids has fueled an epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths. The FDA required manufacturers of extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids to fund continuing medical education (CME) on opioids as part of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS).

Objectives: We sought to determine whether industry-funded REMS on long-acting opioids were consistent with the FDA's goal to reduce serious, adverse outcomes resulting from inappropriate prescribing, misuse, and abuse. Read More

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[Study on the Relationship between First-Time Complementary Feeding Practice and the Nutritional Status of Infants and Young Children in the Multi-Ethnic Rural Areas of Sichuan Province].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Jul;52(4):655-661

Department of Health Related Social and Behavioral Science, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To evaluate the current status of first food supplement and the nutrition of infants and young children in rural areas inhabited by people of Han, Tibetan, and Yi ethnicities in Sichuan Province, and to explore the relationship between the first ever feeding of food supplement and the nutritional status.

Methods: Using a multi-stage randomized cluster sampling method, we selected 2 Han counties, 2 Tibetan counties and 2 Yi counties in rural areas of Sichuan Province. These counties were previously defined as economically poor counties, but had since been lifted out of poverty. Read More

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Clinician-Identified Factors in Success of Parent-Directed Behavioral Therapy for Children's Tantrums.

Adm Policy Ment Health 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are the most common behavioral health problems in young American children. When not well-managed in early childhood, DBD can progress to lifetime mental health problems with personal, economic, as well as societal impacts. The evidence-based intervention of choice for DBD is outpatient parent-directed behavioral therapy (PDT). Read More

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Systematic Review of the Military Career Impact of Mental Health Evaluation and Treatment.

Mil Med 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Air Force Medical Readiness Agency, United States Air Force (via a contract with Analytical Services and Materials [USA]), JBSA Lackland AFB, TX 78236-1025, USA.

Introduction: Military leaders are concerned that active duty members' fear of career impact deters mental health (MH) treatment-seeking. To coalesce research on the actual and perceived consequences of MH treatment on service members' careers, this systematic review of literature on the U.S. Read More

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Cross-Linguistic Trade-Offs and Causal Relationships Between Cues to Grammatical Subject and Object, and the Problem of Efficiency-Related Explanations.

Authors:
Natalia Levshina

Front Psychol 2021 12;12:648200. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Neurobiology of Language Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Cross-linguistic studies focus on inverse correlations (trade-offs) between linguistic variables that reflect different cues to linguistic meanings. For example, if a language has no case marking, it is likely to rely on word order as a cue for identification of grammatical roles. Such inverse correlations are interpreted as manifestations of language users' tendency to use language efficiently. Read More

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Prevalence of Emotional and Behavioral Problems among School-Going Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Indian J Community Med 2021 Apr-Jun;46(2):232-235. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Social Work, School of Social Sciences, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, India.

Background: Adolescence is a period of several emotional, mental, and behavioral changes, and many adolescent problems are manifested in the form of emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer-related problems. The objectives of the current study are to assess the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems across gender and location. It analyzes the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total score with sociodemographic details among school-going adolescents in Kollam district. Read More

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Risk and Resilience Factors for Youth Homelessness in Western Countries: A Systematic Review.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 Jul 29:appips202000133. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Davis School of Medicine (Grattan, Tryon, Lara, Niendam), and Center for Healthcare Policy and Research (Melnikow), University of California, Sacramento, Sacramento; ISN Innovations, Institute for Social Neuroscience, Melbourne, Australia (Grattan); Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (Gabrielian); Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles (Gabrielian).

Objectives: The experience of homelessness for young people can affect social, emotional, and physical development, resulting in poorer physical and mental health outcomes. To reduce rates of youth homelessness, a better understanding of both risk and resilience is needed to inform future intervention development. This article presents a systematic review of published research reporting risk or resilience factors related to homelessness among young people in Western countries. Read More

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Family Burden in Adolescents With Refractory Postconcussion Symptoms.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Neurosciences Program, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (Dr Brooks); Departments of Paediatrics (Dr Brooks), Clinical Neurosciences (Dr Brooks), and Psychology (Dr Brooks), Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute (Dr Brooks and Mr Virani), Hotchkiss Brain Institute (Dr Brooks), Faculty of Nursing (Ms Kumari), and Faculty of Kinesiology (Mr Virani), University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objective: A significant minority of adolescents will have persistent postconcussion symptoms after an injury, potentially having a negative impact on family functioning. However, the reasons for a family's negative impact are not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether preinjury/demographic factors, injury characteristics, and/or worse postinjury symptoms are associated with higher levels of family stress in youth with refractory postconcussion symptoms. Read More

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Predicting the environmental suitability for onchocerciasis in Africa as an aid to elimination planning.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 28;15(7):e0008824. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana.

Recent evidence suggests that, in some foci, elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa may be feasible with mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. To achieve continental elimination of transmission, mapping surveys will need to be conducted across all implementation units (IUs) for which endemicity status is currently unknown. Using boosted regression tree models with optimised hyperparameter selection, we estimated environmental suitability for onchocerciasis at the 5 × 5-km resolution across Africa. Read More

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Relations Among Gambling Behavior, Associated Problems, Game Type, and Risk Factors in a Rural, African American, Adolescent Sample.

J Gambl Stud 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Human Development and Family Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Problem gambling is a rising concern among adolescent populations; youth gamble more frequently than adults, and those who gamble are more susceptible than adults to maladaptive outcomes. Research shows that gambling problems are exacerbated among minorities, despite lower rates of gambling frequency. Minority youth are at especially high risk for problematic gambling outcomes, though they have not been widely studied. Read More

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Goal Attainment Scaling: An Idiographic Measure Sensitive to Parent and Teacher Report of IEP Goal Outcome Assessment for Students with ASD.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.

Young students with ASD have instructional needs in social, communication, and learning skills that should be reflected in their Individualized Education Program (IEP). Research suggests that many of these goal areas present a challenge for special educators because of problems with measurability. The current study utilized an idiographic approach called Goal attainment scaling (GAS) for measuring IEP progress of individualized skills. Read More

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Cognitive crafting and work engagement: A study among remote and frontline health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Health Care Manage Rev 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Indy Wijngaards, MSc, Erasmus Happiness Economics Research Organization and Erasmus School of Health & Policy Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands. E-mail: Florie R. Pronk, MSc, Erasmus Happiness Economics Research Organization, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Arnold B. Bakker, PhD, Center of Excellence for Positive Organizational Psychology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Martijn J. Burger, PhD, Erasmus Happiness Economics Research Organization and Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to a profound change in the organization of work in the health care sector. As frontline health care workers are essential in battling the pandemic and their work is appreciated in society, we argue that health care workers who are forced to work from home are likely to perceive their jobs as less meaningful, which in turn may negatively affect their engagement at work. Cognitive crafting, or the altering of the perceptions one has about their tasks and relationships with the aim to enhance the meaningfulness of work, may be a fruitful cognitive strategy to counter the problems remote health care workers face. Read More

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Men's Knowledge of and Behavior toward Mammography Screening: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 1;22(7):2251-2257. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is a public health problem that affects many populations worldwide. Women's health care behavior, including seeking mammography screening, might be affected by men, especially in conservative Arab societies. Few studies have investigated men's behavior toward mammography for female relatives. Read More

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