50,489 results match your criteria behavioral deficits

Lesion loci of impaired affective prosody: A systematic review of evidence from stroke.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jun 9;152:105759. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Cognitive Science, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States.

Affective prosody, or the changes in rate, rhythm, pitch, and loudness that convey emotion, has long been implicated as a function of the right hemisphere (RH), yet there is a dearth of literature identifying the specific neural regions associated with its processing. The current systematic review aimed to evaluate the evidence on affective prosody localization in the RH. One hundred and ninety articles from 1970 to February 2020 investigating affective prosody comprehension and production in patients with focal brain damage were identified via database searches. Read More

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The effect of photoperiod and high fat diet on the cognitive response in photoperiod-sensitive F344 rats.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jun 9:113496. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Chemistry and Bioscience, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Richmond Road, Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK. Electronic address:

In many species, seasonal changes in day length (photoperiod) have profound effects on physiology and behavior. In humans, these include cognitive function and mood. Here we investigated the effect of photoperiod and high fat diets on cognitive deficits, as measured by novel object recognition, in the photoperiod-sensitive F344 rat, which exhibits marked natural changes in growth, body weight and food intake in response to photoperiod. Read More

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Q134R: Small chemical compound with NFAT inhibitory properties improves behavioral performance and synapse function in mouse models of amyloid pathology.

Aging Cell 2021 Jun 12:e13416. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

Inhibition of the protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN) ameliorates pathophysiologic and cognitive changes in aging rodents and mice with aging-related Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology. However, concerns over adverse effects have slowed the transition of common CN-inhibiting drugs to the clinic for the treatment of AD and AD-related disorders. Targeting substrates of CN, like the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs), has been suggested as an alternative, safer approach to CN inhibitors. Read More

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Detecting functional connectivity disruptions in a translational pediatric traumatic brain injury porcine model using resting-state and task-based fMRI.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12406. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, University of Georgia, 500 D.W. Brooks Drive Rm 119, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has significant potential to evaluate changes in brain network activity after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and enable early prognosis of potential functional (e.g., motor, cognitive, behavior) deficits. Read More

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Locomotion is impacted differently according to the perinatal brain injury model: Meta-analysis of preclinical studies with implications for cerebral palsy.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jun 8;360:109250. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Posgraduate Program in Neuropsychiatry and Behavior Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; Studies in Nutrition and Phenotypic Plasticity Unit, Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Nutrition, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; Department of Nursing, CAV, Federal University of Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Different approaches to reproduce cerebral palsy (CP) in animals, contribute to the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanism of this disease and provide a basis for the development of intervention strategies. Locomotion and coordination are the main cause of disability in CP, however, few studies highlight the quantitative differences of CP models, on locomotion parameters, considering the methodologies to cause brain lesions in the perinatal period.

Methods: Studies with cerebral palsy animal models that assess locomotion parameters were systematically retrieved from Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, LILACS, and Web of Science. Read More

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"Turn-On" Quinoline-Based Fluorescent Probe for Selective Imaging of Tau Aggregates in Alzheimer's Disease: Rational Design, Synthesis, and Molecular Docking.

ACS Sens 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Neuro-Medicine, Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea.

Tau aggregation is believed to have a strong association with the level of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, optical brain imaging of tau aggregates has recently gained substantial attention as a promising tool for the early diagnosis of AD. However, selective imaging of tau aggregates is a major challenge due to sharing similar β-sheet structures with homologous Aβ fibrils. Read More

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Timing and Intertemporal Choice Behavior in the Valproic Acid Rat Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

St. Lawrence University, Canton, USA.

Recently it has been proposed that impairments related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may reflect a more fundamental disruption in time perception. Here, we examined whether in utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) can generate specific behavioral deficits related to ASD and time perception. Pups from control and VPA groups were tested using fixed-interval (FI) temporal bisection, peak interval, and intertemporal choice tasks. Read More

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[The sensorimotor domain in the research domain criteria system: progress and perspectives].

Nervenarzt 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Zentrum für Psychosoziale Medizin, Klinik für Allgemeine Psychiatrie, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Deutschland.

Over the past three decades research interest in hypokinetic, hyperkinetic, sensorimotor and psychomotor abnormalities in mental disorders has steadily increased. This development has led to an increasing number of scientific initiatives that have not only highlighted the clinical need for early detection of extrapyramidal motor symptoms, tardive dyskinesia and catatonia but also provided numerous neurobiological findings and clinically relevant results based on the pathology of the sensorimotor system in patients with mental disorders. In view of these developments in January 2019 the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research domain criteria (RDoC) initiative introduced a sixth domain called the sensorimotor domain to address deficits in the sensorimotor system and associated behavioral abnormalities. Read More

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Movement-Related Gamma Synchrony Differentially Predicts Behavior in the Presence of Visual Interference Across the Lifespan.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute for Human Neuroscience, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE 68010, USA.

The ability to allocate neural resources to task-relevant stimuli, while inhibiting distracting information in the surrounding environment (i.e., selective attention) is critical for high-level cognitive function, and declines in this ability have been linked to functional deficits in later life. Read More

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Gene Deletion and Sleep Depletion: Exploring the Relationship Between Sleep and Affect in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

J Genet Psychol 2021 Jun 11:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Psychology, College of Engineering, Science and Environment, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 22. Sleep problems have been reported in this population, and psychiatric disorders and affect dysregulation are common to the behavioral phenotype of 22q11DS. Read More

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Post-stress glucose consumption facilitates hormesis and resilience to severe stress.

Stress 2021 Jun 11:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Departmentof Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Oral ingestion of a glucose solution following severe stress is a simple and effective way of preventing several of the negative sequelae of stress in rats. Similar resilience is obtained through hormetic training - pre-exposure to mild-to-moderate stress prior to severe stress. Here, we examined whether hormetic training is facilitated when a glucose solution is available following each hormetic training session. Read More

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Halstead Category Test sensitivity to neurocognitive deficits in prenatal alcohol exposed and cognitively impaired children.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 11:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

: The Halstead Category Test (HCT) has been demonstrated to be sensitive to executive dysfunction in adults and children. Children with a history of significant prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) typically show deficits in executive functions in such areas as abstract reasoning, concept formation abilities, and cognitive flexibility. However, earlier research has not taken into account the demographic variables of age, sex, and ethnicity. Read More

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Lrig1 deficiency affects hippocampal dendrite complexity and impairs cognitive function.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Instituto de Biología Celular y Neurociencias "Prof. E. De Robertis"(IBCN)- CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) transmembrane proteins have been directly linked to neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. We have previously shown that the LRR transmembrane protein Lrig1 is a physiological regulator of dendrite complexity of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and social behavior. In this study, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate spatial memory and cognitive capabilities in Lrig1 mutant mice. Read More

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Goal-directed behavior in individuals with mild Parkinson's disease: Role of self-efficacy and self-regulation.

Clin Park Relat Disord 2020 1;3. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Yale School of Medicine, Yale Stress Center, 2 Church St South, Suite 209, New Haven, CT 06519, USA.

Introduction: Deficits in goal-directed behavior are common in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have been ascribed to apathy. In addition to apathy, individuals' beliefs in their competence (self-efficacy) and capacity to regulate emotions, thoughts, and actions (self-regulation) are critical skills for goal-directed behavior. We investigated these skills and their relationship to motor and non-motor symptoms in individuals with PD. Read More

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Microbiota and Microglia Interactions in ASD.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:676255. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Snyder Institute of Chronic Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious, highly variable neurodevelopmental disorders, commonly characterized by the manifestation of specific behavioral abnormalities, such as stereotypic behaviors and deficits in social skills, including communication. Although the neurobiological basis for ASD has attracted attention in recent decades, the role of microglial cells, which are the main resident myeloid cell population in the brain, is still controversial and underexplored. Microglia play several fundamental roles in orchestrating brain development and homeostasis. Read More

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Screening to Assessment Pathways in Evaluating Functional Cognition in Older Adults.

OTJR (Thorofare N J) 2021 Jun 11:15394492211021851. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, USA.

Identification of functional cognitive deficits can facilitate intervention to improve outcomes among older adults. We aimed to determine if impairments on screening tests of cognition are associated with deficits in performance on a more extensive functional cognitive assessment. Using a cross-sectional study design we administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Mini-Cog, the Menu Task, and Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA) to a convenience sample of 277 community-dwelling older adults (55-93 years old). Read More

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Use of coffee grounds to test olfaction for predicting cognitive dysfunction and decline.

J Neurol Sci 2021 May 31;427:117516. Epub 2021 May 31.

University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Neurology, 12469 East 17(th) Place, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America; University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Psychiatry, 13001 East 17(th) Place, Q20-C2000, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America; University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Behavioral Neurology Section, Department of Neurology, 12469 East 17(th) Place, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America; University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Alzheimer's and Cognition Center, Mail Stop F429, Building 400, 12469 East 17th Place, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America; University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Marcus Institute for Brain Health, 12348 E Montview Blvd., Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America.

Introduction: Our objective was to determine whether non-standardized testing of olfaction may provide useful information for predicting cognitive dysfunction and decline in patients with neurobehavioral disorders.

Methods: We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of 82 patients who presented to a Memory Clinic with a chief complaint of cognitive deficits using non-standardized odor identification testing (nSOIT). Each patient was classified as having intact or impaired olfaction based on the ability to identify and name the odor of coffee grounds. Read More

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Prenatal and breastfeeding exposure to low dose of diethylhexyl phthalate induces behavioral deficits and exacerbates oxidative stress in rat hippocampus.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 7;154:112322. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most important derivatives of phthalate that has devastating effects on nervous system function. In this study, the effects of exposure with low doses of DEHP during pregnancy and lactation periods have been evaluated in rat's puppies. DEHP at doses 5, 40, 400 μg/kg/day and 300 mg/kg/day was given to mothers by gavage during pregnancy and lactation. Read More

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Khat and neurobehavioral functions: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252900. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychology, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Dos Hermanas, Sevilla, Spain.

Background: Khat is a plant that is used for its amphetamine-like stimulant properties. However, although khat is very popular in Eastern Africa, Arabian Peninsula, and the Middle East, there is still a lack of studies researching the possible neurobehavioral impairment derived from khat use.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that assessed the effects of khat use on neurobehavioral functions. Read More

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Longitudinal Psychiatric and Developmental Outcomes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Jun-Jul 01;42(5):415-427

Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.

Objective: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common genetic deletion syndrome associated with psychiatric disorders and developmental delays. A significant amount of 22q11DS research literature is published annually; here, we focus exclusively on longitudinal data that have been published in the past 5 years regarding psychiatric disorders and/or cognitive and social development. Read More

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Genetic and morphological estimates of androgen exposure predict social deficits in multiple neurodevelopmental disorder cohorts.

Mol Autism 2021 Jun 9;12(1):43. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

Background: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display a strong male bias. Androgen exposure is profoundly increased in typical male development, but it also varies within the sexes, and previous work has sought to connect morphological proxies of androgen exposure, including digit ratio and facial morphology, to neurodevelopmental outcomes. The results of these studies have been mixed, and the relationships between androgen exposure and behavior remain unclear. Read More

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Hand gesture performance is impaired in major depressive disorder: A matter of working memory performance?

J Affect Disord 2021 May 28;292:81-88. Epub 2021 May 28.

University of Bern, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Translation Research Center, Bern, Switzerland.

Objective: Individuals with depression exhibit numerous interpersonal deficits. As effective use of gestures is critical for social communication, it is possible that depressed individuals' interpersonal deficits may be due to deficits in gesture performance. The present study thus compared gesture performance of depressed patients and controls and examined whether these deficits relate to cognitive and other domains of dysfunction. Read More

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Road-Crossing Behavior in Complex Traffic Situations: A Comparison of Children With and Without ADHD.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Sq., PO Box: 1518, 9177948974, Mashhad, Iran.

All children are vulnerable to pedestrian injuries, but previous research suggests children diagnosed with ADHD may have elevated risk. Child pedestrian injury risk also increases with increasing traffic volume and speed. The current study examined three hypotheses: (a) Pedestrian behavior of children with ADHD is riskier than that of typically-developing children; (b) Children's pedestrian behavior is riskier with increased traffic complexity; and (c) Pedestrian behavior of children with ADHD is influenced more by complex traffic situations than behavior of typically-developing children. Read More

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Natural Killer Cells Are Present in Rag1 Mice and Promote Tissue Damage During the Acute Phase of Ischemic Stroke.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurology With Institute of Translational Neurology, University of Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

Rag1 mice, lacking functional B and T cells, have been extensively used as an adoptive transfer model to evaluate neuroinflammation in stroke research. However, it remains unknown whether natural killer (NK) cell development and functions are altered in Rag1 mice as well. This connection has been rarely discussed in previous studies but might have important implications for data interpretation. Read More

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The Intersection of Dissemination Research and Acupuncture: Applications for Chronic Low Back Pain.

Glob Adv Health Med 2021 24;10:2164956120980694. Epub 2021 May 24.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Dissemination research is the study of distributing information and intervention materials to a specific clinical practice or public health audience. Acupuncture, a healthcare practice involving the stimulation of certain body points, often with thin needles, is considered an evidence-based treatment for low back pain (LBP), but is underutilized in the United States. We will use the example of acupuncture for LBP to identify opportunities to leverage dissemination research to increase utilization of acupuncture. Read More

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Changing Academic Support in the Home for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Family-Based Clinical Protocol for Improving School Performance.

Cogn Behav Pract 2016 Feb 25;23(1):14-30. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Ohio University.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adolescent clinical populations and associated with myriad deficits in school functioning. Yet, behavior therapists have few developmentally appropriate tools for addressing school problems in this group. This article introduces a behavioral protocol designed to fill the gap: Changing Academic Support in the Home for Adolescents with ADHD (CASH-AA). Read More

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February 2016

Catalpol ameliorates depressive-like behaviors in CUMS mice via oxidative stress-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome and neuroinflammation.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8;11(1):353. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether catalpol exhibited neuroprotective effects in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mice through oxidative stress-mediated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin-domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and neuroinflammation. Deficits in behavioral tests, including open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and elevated plus-maze test (EPM), were ameliorated following catalpol administration. To study the potential mechanism, western blots, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis and immunofluorescence imaging were performed on the hippocampus samples. Read More

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Subtyping Autism Spectrum Disorder via Joint Modeling of Clinical and Connectomic Profiles.

Brain Connect 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of California Riverside, 8790, Center for Advanced NeuroImaging, Riverside, California, United States;

Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a highly heterogeneous developmental disorder with diverse clinical manifestations. Neuroimaging studies have explored functional connectivity (FC) of ASD through resting-state functional MRI studies, however the findings have remained inconsistent, thus reflecting the possibility of multiple subtypes. Identification of the relationship between clinical symptoms and FC measures may help clarify the inconsistencies in earlier findings and advance our understanding of ASD subtypes. Read More

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Current Approaches to the Treatment of Post-Stroke Aphasia.

J Stroke 2021 May 31;23(2):183-201. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Aphasia, impairment of language after stroke or other neurological insult, is a common and often devastating condition that affects nearly every social activity and interaction. Behavioral speech and language therapy is the mainstay of treatment, although other interventions have been introduced to augment the effects of the behavioral therapy. In this narrative review, we discuss advances in aphasia therapy in the last 5 years and focus primarily on properly powered, randomized, controlled trials of both behavioral therapies and interventions to augment therapy for post-stroke aphasia. Read More

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