63,282 results match your criteria behavior αΑ66-80


Individual differences in the engagement of habitual control over alcohol seeking predict the development of compulsive alcohol seeking and drinking.

Addict Biol 2021 May 6:e13041. Epub 2021 May 6.

Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Excessive drinking is an important behavioural characteristic of alcohol addiction, but not the only one. Individuals addicted to alcohol crave alcoholic beverages, spend time seeking alcohol despite negative consequences and eventually drink to intoxication. With prolonged use, control over alcohol seeking devolves to anterior dorsolateral striatum, dopamine-dependent mechanisms implicated in habit learning and individuals in whom alcohol seeking relies more on these mechanisms are more likely to persist in seeking alcohol despite the risk of punishment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dorsal Periaqueductal gray ensembles represent approach and avoidance states.

Elife 2021 May 6;10. Epub 2021 May 6.

Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States.

Animals must balance needs to approach threats for risk-assessment and to avoid danger. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) controls defensive behaviors, but it is unknown how it represents states associated with threat approach and avoidance. We identified a dPAG threat-avoidance ensemble in mice that showed higher activity far from threats such as the open arms of the elevated plus maze and a live predator. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Calcium-permeable AMPA receptor activity and GluA1 trafficking in the basolateral amygdala regulate operant alcohol self-administration.

Addict Biol 2021 May 5:e13049. Epub 2021 May 5.

Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Addiction is viewed as maladaptive glutamate-mediated neuroplasticity that is regulated, in part, by calcium-permeable AMPA receptor (CP-AMPAR) activity. However, the contribution of CP-AMPARs to alcohol-seeking behavior remains to be elucidated. We evaluated CP-AMPAR activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) as a potential target of alcohol that also regulates alcohol self-administration in C57BL/6J mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Associations between rs9939609 polymorphism, serum vitamin D, mental health, and eating behaviors in overweight adults.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 May 3:1-9. Epub 2021 May 3.

Student Research Committee, Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Despite the significant role of the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) gene in obesity, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Besides, vitamin D deficiency and obesity are mostly seen together, and it can be hypothesized that this nutrient may have an impact in the role of FTO genotype in adiposity. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association of FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism with eating behaviors, eating disorders, and general mental health in overweight adults, considering their vitamin D intake as a mediate confounding factor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

NiCoS microflowers as peroxidase mimic: A multi-functional platform for colorimetric detection of glucose and evaluation of antioxidant behavior.

Talanta 2021 Aug 23;230:122337. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemical Analysis, College of Chemistry, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, PR China. Electronic address:

The regular design of atomic composition of materials endows a diverse range of enzyme mimics types and increases a broader application prospect. In this study, we designed a nickel-cobalt mixed metal sulfide and demonstrated that the as-prepared NiCoS microflowers possessed intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. Nickel-cobalt sulfide (NiCoS) possessed high electron transfer capacity, which lead to good peroxidase-like activity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Young Adults Underestimate How Well Peers Adhere to COVID-19 Preventive Behavioral Guidelines.

J Prim Prev 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

To combat the rampant spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has provided Americans with empirically supported preventive behavioral guidelines (e.g., wearing a face mask). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolic changes in the brain and blood of rats following acoustic trauma, tinnitus and hyperacusis.

Prog Brain Res 2021 19;262:399-430. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Research New Zealand, Dunedin, New Zealand; Eisdell Moore Centre for Hearing and Balance Research, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

It has been increasingly recognized that tinnitus is likely to be generated by complex network changes. Acoustic trauma that causes tinnitus induces significant changes in multiple metabolic pathways in the brain. However, it is not clear whether those metabolic changes in the brain could also be reflected in blood samples and whether metabolic changes could discriminate acoustic trauma, hyperacusis and tinnitus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Fatigue in Women with Fibromyalgia: A Gene-Physical Activity Interaction Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 28;10(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology III, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18010 Granada, Spain.

Fatigue is a cardinal symptom in fibromyalgia. Fatigue is assumed to be the result of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. We aimed at examining the role of genetic susceptibility for fatigue in southern Spanish women with fibromyalgia, by looking at single nucleotide polymorphisms in 34 fibromyalgia candidate-genes, at the interactions between genes, and at the gene-physical activity interactions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Preparation and Characterization of Biobased Lignin-Co-Polyester/Amide Thermoplastics.

Molecules 2021 Apr 22;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Forest, Rangeland and Fire Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA.

More than 23 million tonnes of lignin are produced annually in the US from wood pulping and 98% of this lignin is burnt. Therefore, creating products from lignin, such as plastics, offers an approach for obtaining sustainable materials in a circular economy. Lignin-based copolymers were synthesized using a single pot, solvent free, melt condensation reaction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Preparation, Characterization, Swelling Potential, and In-Vitro Evaluation of Sodium Poly(Styrene Sulfonate)-Based Hydrogels for Controlled Delivery of Ketorolac Tromethamine.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan.

The objective of the current study work was to fabricate sodium poly(styrene sulfonate-co-poly acrylic acid) (SPSPAA) hydrogels by using a free radical co-polymerization method for controlled delivery of ketorolac tromethamine (KT). Polymer (sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (SPS) polymerized with monomer acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of initiator ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS) and cross-linker ','-Methylene bisacrylamide (MBA). Different combinations of polymer, cross-linker and monomer, were employed for development of polymeric hydrogels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Kaolin-Enhanced Superabsorbent Composites: Synthesis, Characterization and Swelling Behaviors.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, China.

One type of low-cost and eco-friendly organic‒inorganic superabsorbent composite (SAPC) was synthesized by free radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), starch (ST), sodium alginate (SA) and kaolin (KL) in aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the SAPC were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The influence of different reaction conditions on water absorption of SAPC, i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent Perspectives on Sex Differences in Compulsion-Like and Binge Alcohol Drinking.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Alcohol use disorder remains a substantial social, health, and economic problem and problem drinking levels in women have been increasing in recent years. Understanding whether and how the underlying mechanisms that drive drinking vary by sex is critical and could provide novel, more targeted therapeutic treatments. Here, we examine recent results from our laboratories and others which we believe provide useful insights into similarities and differences in alcohol drinking patterns across the sexes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L3 gene variants: Statistically significant association observed in the male Indo-caucasoid Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder probands.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Manovikas Biomedical Research and Diagnostic Centre, Manovikas Kendra, 482 Madudah, Plot I-24, Sector J, EM Bypass, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700107, India.

Primary symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are age inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Caucasoid individuals showed increased susceptibility to ADHD and disruptive behaviour in presence of Adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor L3 (ADGRL3) gene variants. We investigated ADGRL3 rs1868790, rs6551665, rs2345039 in Indo-Caucasoid families with ADHD probands (N = 249) and controls (N = 350). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Truncating SRCAP variants outside the Floating-Harbor syndrome locus cause a distinct neurodevelopmental disorder with a specific DNA methylation signature.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20251 Hamburg, Germany.

Truncating variants in exons 33 and 34 of the SNF2-related CREBBP activator protein (SRCAP) gene cause the neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) Floating-Harbor syndrome (FLHS), characterized by short stature, speech delay, and facial dysmorphism. Here, we present a cohort of 33 individuals with clinical features distinct from FLHS and truncating (mostly de novo) SRCAP variants either proximal (n = 28) or distal (n = 5) to the FLHS locus. Detailed clinical characterization of the proximal SRCAP individuals identified shared characteristics: developmental delay with or without intellectual disability, behavioral and psychiatric problems, non-specific facial features, musculoskeletal issues, and hypotonia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A closer look at alcohol-induced changes in the ghrelin system: novel insights from preclinical and clinical data.

Addict Biol 2021 Apr 27:e13033. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Translational Addiction Medicine Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Ghrelin is a gastric-derived peptide hormone with demonstrated impact on alcohol intake and craving, but the reverse side of this bidirectional link, that is, the effects of alcohol on the ghrelin system, remains to be fully established. To further characterize this relationship, we examined (1) ghrelin levels via secondary analysis of human laboratory alcohol administration experiments with heavy-drinking participants; (2) expression of ghrelin, ghrelin receptor, and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) genes (GHRL, GHSR, and MBOAT4, respectively) in post-mortem brain tissue from individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) versus controls; (3) ghrelin levels in Ghsr knockout and wild-type rats following intraperitoneal (i.p. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Short-Term Consequences of Sex: Contextual Predictors and Change Across College.

Arch Sex Behav 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA.

Although sexual experiences are normative by young adulthood, individuals continue to explore and develop their sexual behaviors and cognitions across the college years. Thus, perceived consequences of sexual experiences may change. Similarly, characteristics of sexual experiences such as partner type, alcohol use, and sexual behavior type predict perceived consequences, and these associations may change over time. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Common variants of the autism-associated CNTNAP2 gene contribute to the modulatory effect of social function mediated by temporal cortex.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 24;409:113319. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230022, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Cognition and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Hefei, 230022, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Mental Health, Hefei, 230022, China; School of Mental Health and Psychological Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230022, China; Institute of Artificial Intelligence, Hefei Comprehensive National Science Center, Hefei, 230022, China. Electronic address:

Autistic traits are highly heritable and characterized by social deficits. Common genetic variants of the autism-related CNTNAP2 gene have been linked with social impairments, but the neural substrates are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the genetic effect of common variants of CNTNAP2 (rs2710102 and rs7794745) on gray matter volume and its association with social performance among 442 healthy participants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Studying Sex Differences in Rodent Models of Addictive Behavior.

Curr Protoc 2021 Apr;1(4):e119

Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience and Behavior, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

Animal models of addictive behaviors are useful for uncovering neural mechanisms involved in the development of dependence and for identifying risk factors for drug abuse. One such risk factor is biological sex, which strongly moderates drug self-administration behavior in rodents. Female rodents are more likely to acquire drug self-administration behaviors, consume higher amounts of drug, and reinstate drug-seeking behavior more readily. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of Eye Gaze in Regulating Turn Taking in Conversations: A Systematized Review of Methods and Findings.

Front Psychol 2021 7;12:616471. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Samsung AI Center, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Eye gaze plays an important role in communication but understanding of its actual function or functions and the methods used to elucidate this have varied considerably. This systematized review was undertaken to summarize both the proposed functions of eye gaze in conversations of healthy adults and the methodological approaches employed. The eligibility criteria were restricted to a healthy adult population and excluded studies that manipulated eye gaze behavior. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Outcomes of Implementing in the Real World the Women's Health CoOp Intervention in Cape Town, South Africa.

AIDS Behav 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Substance Use, Gender, and Applied Research Program, RTI International, 3040 E. Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709-2194, USA.

Women in South Africa living with HIV who use alcohol may not adhere to ART, affecting the country's 90-90-90 targets. The Women's Health CoOp (WHC), a woman-focused HIV intervention, has shown efficacy in numerous trials with key populations of women in South Africa who use alcohol and drugs. In a hybrid implementation effectiveness study, the WHC was implemented in usual care clinics by healthcare providers in a modified stepped-wedge design. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radiological evaluation of ex novo high grade glioma: velocity of diametric expansion and acceleration time study.

Radiol Oncol 2020 Dec 3;55(1):26-34. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosciences, Policlinico "G. Rodolico", University Hospital, Catania, Italy.

Background: One of the greatest neuro-oncological concern remains the lack of knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and physiopathology of gliomas. Several studies reported a strict correlation between radiological features and biological behaviour of gliomas; in this way the velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) correlate with lower grade glioma aggressiveness. However, there are no the same strong evidences for high grade gliomas (HGG) because of the lack of several preoperative MRI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

An Examination of Psychiatric Severity and Social Cohesion Outcomes within Oxford Houses.

Community Ment Health J 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

DePaul University, Chicago, USA.

It is estimated that nearly 20 million adults in the United States have a substance use disorder (SUD), and 8.4 million of those adults have a comorbid mental disorder. Roughly half of those adults with a SUD and a psychiatric comorbidity fail to receive adequate treatment for either the SUD or the mental disorder (combined or separately). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

FMRI-based prediction of naltrexone response in alcohol use disorder: a replication study.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Addictive Behavior and Addiction Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg, Square J5, 68159, Mannheim, Germany.

Pharmacological treatment in alcohol use disorder suffers from modest effect sizes. Efforts have been undertaken to identify patient characteristics that help to select individuals that benefit from pharmacological treatment. Previous studies indicated that neural alcohol cue-reactivity (CR) might provide a marker that identifies patients, which benefit from naltrexone treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Introducing CASCADEPOP: an open-source sociodemographic simulation platform for us health policy appraisal.

Int J Microsimul 2020 ;13(2):21-60

Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK.

Largescale individual-level and agent-based models are gaining importance in health policy appraisal and evaluation. Such models require the accurate depiction of the jurisdiction's population over extended time periods to enable modeling of the development of non-communicable diseases under consideration of historical, sociodemographic developments. We developed CASCADEPOP to provide a readily available sociodemographic micro-synthesis and microsimulation platform for US populations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

Looking Back and Moving Forward: The Evolution and Potential Opportunities for the Future of Alcohol Outlet Density Measurement.

Addict Res Theory 2021 6;29(2):117-128. Epub 2020 May 6.

Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Health Law, Policy, and Management, Boston, MA 02118.

The literature consistently finds that areas with greater density of alcohol outlets (places that sell alcohol) tend to have higher levels of public health harms. However, conflicting findings arise when researchers drill down to identify the type(s) of alcohol outlets with the strongest associations with harms and the mechanisms that explain these associations. These disagreements could be a result of the outdated methods commonly used to quantify the alcohol environment: counts of the number of outlets in an area. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Machine learning prediction of blood alcohol concentration: a digital signature of smart-breathalyzer behavior.

NPJ Digit Med 2021 Apr 20;4(1):74. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Excess alcohol use is an important determinant of death and disability. Machine learning (ML)-driven interventions leveraging smart-breathalyzer data may help reduce these harms. We developed a digital phenotype of long-term smart-breathalyzer behavior to predict individuals' breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels trained on data from a smart breathalyzer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impurity-induced nematic-isotropic transition of liquid crystals.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr 31;23(14):8825-8835. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.

Complex fluids made of liquid crystals (LCs) and small molecules, surfactants, nanoparticles or 1D/2D nanomaterials show novel and interesting features, making them suitable materials for various applications starting from optoelectronics to biosensing. While these additives (impurities) introduce new features in the complex fluids, they may also alter the phase transition behaviour of LCs depending on the physiochemical properties of the added impurity. This article reports on the phase transition of 4-cyano-4'-alkylbiphenyl (nCB) LCs in the presence of an associative impurity, i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The combination of fluoxetine and environmental enrichment reduces postpartum stress-related behaviors through the oxytocinergic system and HPA axis in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8518. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Salari Institute of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders (SICBD), Karaj, Alborz, Iran.

Gestational stress can increase postpartum depression in women. To treat maternal depression, fluoxetine (FLX) is most commonly prescribed. While FLX may be effective for the mother, at high doses it may have adverse effects on the fetus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of prolonged sitting and physical activity breaks on cognitive performance, perceivable benefits, and cardiometabolic health in overweight/obese adults: The role of meal composition.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 9;40(4):2259-2269. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Department of Physiology, Radboud university medical center, Radboudumc, Department of Physiology (392), P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Background & Aims: Physical activity (PA) breaks may effectively attenuate the detrimental impact of prolonged sitting on acute cognitive performance, perceivable benefits (e.g. mood), vascular function, and metabolic health. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Convicted drinking and driving offenders: Comparing alcohol use before and after the pandemic outbreak.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton, MD, USA.

Background: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, very little was known about the impact of social isolation on individuals' alcohol use and misuse. This study examines how socially isolated individuals with a history of heavy drinking used alcohol during the pandemic.

Methods: Data for this study came from an add-on to the Managing Heavy Drinking (MHD) longitudinal study of drivers convicted of DWI that was conducted in Erie County, New York. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF