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Dorsal root ganglion stimulation of injured sensory neurons in rats rapidly eliminates their spontaneous activity and relieves spontaneous pain.

Pain 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Abstract: Dorsal root ganglion field stimulation (GFS) relieves evoked and spontaneous neuropathic pain by use-dependent blockade of impulse trains through the sensory neuron T-junction, which becomes complete within less than 1 minute for C-type units, also with partial blockade of Aδ units. We used this tool in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rat model to selectively block sensory neuron spontaneous activity (SA) of axotomized neurons at the fifth lumbar (L5) level vs blockade of units at the L4 level that remain uninjured but exposed to inflammation. In vivo dorsal root single-unit recordings after SNL showed increased SA in L5 units but not L4 units. Read More

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The state of telemedicine for persons with Parkinson's disease.

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology, Center of Expertise for Parkinson & Movement Disorders Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Scientific Center for Quality of Healthcare, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: The COVID-pandemic has facilitated the implementation of telemedicine in both clinical practice and research. We highlight recent developments in three promising areas of telemedicine: teleconsultation, telemonitoring, and teletreatment. We illustrate this using Parkinson's disease as a model for other chronic neurological disorders. Read More

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Feasibility and Efficacy of Delivering Cognitive Behaviour Therapy through Online Psychotherapy Tool (OPTT) for Depression: Protocol.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Hotel Dieu Hospital166 Brock Street, Kingston, CA.

Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and debilitating mental health disorder. Among different therapeutic approaches (e.g. Read More

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If we build it, they will come: Caregiver decision to use an accessible outpatient psychiatric service for children and adolescents in Nigeria.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 7;279:113972. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Ibadan, College of Medicine, Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Ibadan, Nigeria; University College Hospital, Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Objective: If child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) services were accessible in lower-middle-income countries (LMIC) such as Nigeria, what individual and socio-cultural factors would influence caregivers' willingness to use these services when they are needed?

Methods: To address this question, we conducted structured interviews with a stratified random sampling of 442 adult caregivers of children aged 5 to 19-years who lived within 10 km of an established CAP outpatient service in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Results: Based on structural equation modeling, our cross-sectional findings indicated that caregivers were generally willing to use the accessible outpatient CAP service for a narrow range of overtly disruptive and developmentally atypical child behavior. However, their decisions were not influenced by their recognition of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) conditions, competing life stressors, caregiver wellness, nor stigma as we had initially hypothesized. Read More

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The relationship between density of drug outlets, crime hot spots and family factors on the consumption of drugs and delinquent behaviour of male adolescent Mexican students.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 4;279:113985. Epub 2021 May 4.

Public Health Department, Medicine School, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi, Av. Venustiano Carranza 2405, Col. Los Filtros, zip code, 78210, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Electronic address:

This study examined the relationship between community risk factors (drug outlets density and crime hot spots) and family factors on the risk behaviours (drugs consumption and delinquent behaviour) of male adolescent Mexican students. Results were obtained based on data bank analysis and direct collection of information regarding family factors and risk behaviours of adolescents attending school. Spatial and statistical analysis was performed. Read More

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Patient satisfaction with partial hospital telehealth treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: Comparison to in-person treatment.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 26;301:113966. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

From the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown Medical School, and the Department of Psychiatry, Rhode Island Hospital, 146 West River Street, Providence, RI 02904.

Most research evaluating telehealth psychiatric treatment has been conducted in outpatient settings. There is a lack of research assessing the efficacy of telehealth treatment in more acute, intensive treatment settings such as a partial hospital. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, much of ambulatory behavioral health treatment has transitioned to a telehealth, or virtual, format. Read More

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Investigation of hierarchically porous zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for highly efficient dye removal.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 5;417:126011. Epub 2021 May 5.

Lab of Applied Biocatalysis, School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; South China Institute of Collaborative Innovation, Dongguan 221116, China. Electronic address:

Treatment of textile water containing organic molecules as contaminants still remains a challenge and has become a central issue for environment remediation. Here, a nucleotide incorporated zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (NZIF) featuring hierarchically porous structure served as a potential adsorbent for removal of organic dye molecules. Adsorption isotherms of organic dyes were accurately described by Langmuir adsorption model with correlation coefficients of 0. Read More

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Can neural signals override cellular decisions in the presence of DNA damage?

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Apr 20;103:103127. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Merced, USA; Health Sciences Research Institute, University of California, Merced, USA. Electronic address:

Cells within an organism are in constant crosstalk with their surrounding environment. Short and long-range signals influence cellular behavior associated with division, differentiation, and death. This crosstalk among cells underlies tissue renewal to guarantee faithful replacement of old or damaged cells over many years. Read More

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What factors affect the water saving behaviors of farmers in the Loess Hilly Region of China?

J Environ Manage 2021 May 11;292:112683. Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Lab of Pollution Ecology & Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China; College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China. Electronic address:

Water shortage has become one of the most serious challenges faced by humans. Thus, improving water use behaviors and saving water are critical. In this paper, based on the extended Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory, we used the structural equation model and the survey data of 558 households in the Loess Hilly Region to analyze the key factors affecting water saving behaviors of farmers. Read More

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Calcaneus fracture in a Middle Holocene individual from the eastern Pampa-Patagonian transition (Argentina).

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 May 11;120:104568. Epub 2021 May 11.

INCUAPA-CONICET-UNICEN. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Avda. del Valle 5737, Olavarría, 7400, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Calcaneus fractures are scarcely reported in archaeological assemblages worldwide. The main goal of this paper is to present a study case related to a calcaneus fracture and a set of bone lesions recorded in an adult individual dated in the Middle Holocene (ca. 6000-3000 years BP). Read More

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Tumor rejection properties of gp100-specific T cells correlate with T cell receptor binding affinity towards the wild type rather than anchor-modified antigen.

Mol Immunol 2021 May 11;135:365-372. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry and the Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Although there are exceptions and outliers, T cell functional responses generally correlate with the affinity of a TCR for a peptide/MHC complex. In one recently described outlier case, the most promising clinical candidate in a series of TCRs specific for the gp100 melanoma antigen bound with the weakest solution affinity and produced the least amount of cytokine in vitro. Hypotheses for this outlier behavior included unusual cytokine expression patterns arising from an atypical TCR binding geometry. Read More

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Change in outdoor walking behavior during the coronavirus disease pandemic in Japan: A longitudinal study.

Gait Posture 2021 May 9;88:42-46. Epub 2021 May 9.

Taiyo Life Insurance Company, 2-7-1 Nihonbashi, Chuo-Ku, Tokyo 103-6031, Japan.

Background: Due to the high infectivity and seriousness of coronavirus disease, people's daily activities were restricted in countries worldwide; governments implemented lockdown measures and advised individuals to perform self-restraint in terms of leaving the house. However, there have been few scientific reports on the effects of such behavioral restrictions on walking parameters.

Research Question: Did behavioral restrictions during the state of emergency in Japan effect walking parameters in daily life outdoor walking?

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, four walking parameters, namely, the average number of steps taken, walking speed, step length, and cadence, were measured using a smartphone application among 3901 participants (mean age ± standard deviation: 60. Read More

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Hepatic metabolomics of the compatibility effect of Xiaoyaosan on CUMS-induced depression based on the TCM theory of "Treating Diseases via Regulating the Liver's Function".

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 May 7;201:114123. Epub 2021 May 7.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006, China; Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006, China; Key Laboratory of Effective Substances Research and Utilization in Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan, 030006, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to demonstrate the scientific connotations and compatibility effects of Xiaoyaosan (XYS) based on the theory of "Treating Diseases via Regulating the Liver's Function" by hepatic metabolomics. XYS was divided into two efficacy groups, i.e. Read More

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Change in normative eating self-efficacy is associated with six-month weight restoration following inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa.

Eat Behav 2021 May 8;42:101518. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by rigid and restrictive eating behaviors, resulting in significantly low body weight. While specialized behavioral intensive treatment programs can reliably support individuals with AN to normalize eating and weight control behaviors and achieve weight restoration, prognostic factors predicting relapse following treatment are unclear. We examined whether changes in (i) normative eating self-efficacy, (ii) body image self-efficacy, (iii) drive for thinness, and (iv) body dissatisfaction from inpatient admission to six-month follow-up were associated with weight restoration status at program discharge and at six-month follow-up. Read More

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Role of cation size on swelling pressure and free energy of mica pores.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 20;599:694-705. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

The ion exchange capacity of clay plays an important role in many industrial applications ranging from radioactive waste disposal to cosmetics. However, swelling or shrinking of clay platelets due to water and ions adsorption in the interstitial zone is also a well-known phenomenon. For their applications, it is crucial to understand the stability of these layered materials, especially after exchange of interstitial ions with surrounding ions having different properties. Read More

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Brief cognitive behavioral therapy in pregnant women at risk of postpartum depression: Pre-post therapy study in a city in southern Brazil.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 30;290:15-22. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Catholic University of Pelotas, Brazil; PQ CNPq, Brazil.

Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) affects a high number of women, often the first manifestation of a mood disorder that will occur later in life, bringing serious consequences for the patient and her offspring. Depression today is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a preventive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for PPD. Read More

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Endothelium-derived Cdk5 deficit aggravates air pollution-induced peripheral vasoconstriction through ATR upregulation.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 11;219:112314. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China. Electronic address:

PM infiltrates into circulation and increases the risk of systemic vascular dysfunction. As the first-line barrier against external stimuli, the molecular mechanism of the biological response of vascular endothelial cells to PM exposure remains unclear. In this study, 4-week-old mice were exposed to Hangzhou 'real' airborne PM for 2 months and were found to display bronchial and alveolar damage. Read More

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Selective attention to the mouth of a talker in Japanese-learning infants and toddlers: Its relationship with vocabulary and compensation for noise.

Cortex 2021 Apr 21;140:145-156. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Social Sciences, Japan Women's University, Kanagawa, Japan.

Infants increasingly gaze at the mouth of talking faces during the latter half of the first postnatal year. This study investigated mouth-looking behavior of 120 full-term infants and toddlers (6 months-3 years) and 12 young adults (21-24 years) from Japanese monolingual families. The purpose of the study included: (1) Is such an attentional shift to the mouth in infancy similarly observed in Japanese environment where contribution of visual speech is known to be relatively weak? (2) Can noisy conditions increase mouth-looking behavior of Japanese young children? (3) Is the mouth-looking behavior related to language acquisition? To this end, movies of a talker speaking short phrases were presented while manipulating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR: Clear, SN+4, and SN-4). Read More

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Elucidating reasons of COVID-19 re-infection and its management strategies.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 May 7;15(3):1001-1006. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, 110076, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Reinfection is gradually being recognised after symptomatic or asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. We try to elucidate various explanations behind COVID-19 reinfection and suggest possible strategies to counteract this threat.

Methods: We carried out a comprehensive review of the literature using suitable keywords such as 'COVID-19', 'Pandemics', 'Reinfection', 'Vaccines' and 'India' on the search engines of PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and Research Gate in March 2021 and first half of April 2021 during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Chromatographic and adsorptive behavior of a bivalent bispecific antibody and associated fragments.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Apr 27;1648:462181. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. Electronic address:

The elution and adsorptive behavior of a bivalent bispecific antibody (BiSAb), comprising an IgG1 framework with a scFv domain genetically fused to each heavy chain C-terminus via flexible linkers, and of two associated fragments were studied on two cation exchange chromatography media - ProPac WCX-10, which is pellicular and suitable for analytical use, and Nuvia HR-S, which is macroporous and suitable for preparative and process scale uses. Both fragments were identified by MS as missing one of the two scFv domains and its flexible linker, but one of them also contains an additional C-terminal lysine. The separation of these fragments on both resins occurs as a result of differences in non-specific ligand-protein interactions that are modulated by the salt concentration. Read More

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A comprehensive review and analysis of supervised-learning and soft computing techniques for stress diagnosis in humans.

Comput Biol Med 2021 May 5;134:104450. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of CSA, DAVU, India. Electronic address:

Stress is the most prevailing and global psychological condition that inevitably disrupts the mood and behavior of individuals. Chronic stress may gravely affect the physical, mental, and social behavior of victims and consequently induce myriad critical human disorders. Herein, a review has been presented where supervised learning (SL) and soft computing (SC) techniques used in stress diagnosis have been meticulously investigated to highlight the contributions, strengths, and challenges faced in the implementation of these methods in stress diagnostic models. Read More

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Stability to oxidation and interfacial behavior at the air/water interface of minimally-processed versus processed walnut oil-bodies.

Food Chem 2021 May 1;360:129880. Epub 2021 May 1.

IPR Institute of Physics, UMR UR1 CNRS 5261, Rennes 1 University, France; Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, ScanMAT - UMS 2001 F-35042 Rennes, France. Electronic address:

Oil bodies (OB), the form of triacylglycerol storage in seeds, are interesting natural assemblies for nutritional applications. In walnuts, OB contain an important amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids that could be interesting food ingredients but may be prone to oxidation. The oxidative and interfacial behavior of walnut OB, either minimally-processed or after processing, were compared with processed complex walnut juice. Read More

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Preparation of mesoporous batatas biochar via soft-template method for high efficiency removal of tetracycline.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 29;787:147397. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450046, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Treatment, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450046, China. Electronic address:

In this contribution, we apply a soft-template-assisted hydrothermal route using polyethylene-polypropylene glycol (F127) as soft-template agent and biomass batatas as carbon precursor to synthesis a novel hydrothermal mesoporous biochar (HMC-800) for adsorptive removal of tetracycline (TC) from wastewater. We use the biochar prepared without F127 and direct pyrolytic biochar for comparison. The physicochemical properties of all the studied biochar samples are measured using a suite of characterization techniques. Read More

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Study on the relationship between crisis awareness and medical waste separation behavior shown by residents during the COVID-19 epidemic.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 5;787:147522. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Business, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, PR China.

Specific awareness is an important factor that affects individual behavioral decisions. This study explored the relationship between crisis awareness and medical waste separation behavior shown by urban residents during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. The results of a questionnaire survey data (N = 668) were subjected to statistical analyses, regression analyses, and cross-analyses. Read More

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Obese-asthma phenotype self-management: A literature review.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 May 11;60:154-163. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville: College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences, United States of America. Electronic address:

Problem: Recent identification of the early-onset obese-asthma phenotype has spurred exploration of ways to promote effective, long-term management behaviors for children with this comorbid presentation. Few studies have examined the needs of children with both asthma and obesity and little is known about optimal management options for this unique population. Therefore, the authors aimed to review, critique, and synthesize existing published research on health-management programs designed for children with comorbid asthma and obesity in order to describe the state of the science and recommend next steps in creating pediatric management programs. Read More

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An observational field study on the effects of changes in shadow contrasts and noise on cattle movement in a small abattoir.

Meat Sci 2021 May 6;179:108539. Epub 2021 May 6.

Colorado State University, Department of Animal Sciences, 350 W Pitkin St., Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Electronic address:

This observational field study examined the effect of changes in shadow contrasts on the floor and noise on balking behavior during handling. Seventy-four Bos taurus beef cattle were observed during handling at a small abattoir. Shadow contrast type (none, soft, sharp) was recorded during three stages of handling (unloading, lairage to single-file alley and into stun box). Read More

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Sonothermogenetics for noninvasive and cell-type specific deep brain neuromodulation.

Brain Stimul 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, 63130, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, 63108, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Critical advances in the investigation of brain functions and treatment of brain disorders are hindered by our inability to selectively target neurons in a noninvasive manner in the deep brain.

Objective: This study aimed to develop sonothermogenetics for noninvasive, deep-penetrating, and cell-type-specific neuromodulation by combining a thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 with focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced brief, non-noxious thermal effect.

Methods: The sensitivity of TRPV1 to FUS sonication was evaluated in vitro. Read More

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Increasing muscle activity correlations during spontaneous movements in the first six months of life.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 11:135957. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratory of Neuromotor Physiology, Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy.

Spontaneous muscle activity in the first months of life is an important prerequisite to developing voluntary motor skills and to adapting sensorimotor circuits and muscle tone to body and environmental changes. Even though high variability is a characteristic of early development, several studies have reported significant correlations of limb movements. These assessments were typically made based on kinematics, while the analysis of lower and upper limb muscle activity may provide additional information about maturation of the neuromuscular control. Read More

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Central amygdala circuits in valence and salience processing.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 11:113355. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States; Department of Pharmacology,University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States. Electronic address:

Behavioral responses to environmental stimuli are dictated by the affective valence of the stimulus, good (positive valence) or bad (negative valence). These stimuli can innately elicit an affective response that promotes approach or avoidance behavior. In addition to innately valenced stimuli, valence can also be assigned to initially neutral stimuli through associative learning. Read More

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Prospective and retrospective timing in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 11:113354. Epub 2021 May 11.

Université Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, EPSYLON EA 4556, F34000, Montpellier, France.

Performance on timing tasks changes with age. Whether these changes reflect a real "clock" problem due to aging or a secondary effect of the reduced cognitive resources of older adults still remains an unsettled question. Research on processing of time in aged populations marked by severe mnemonic and/or attentional deficits, such as patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), may help elucidate the role of cognitive resources in age-related temporal distortions. Read More

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