5,410 results match your criteria bat cells

The Role of Brown Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 25;12:652246. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT), consisted of brown adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction, which includes endothelial cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts and stem cells, plays a vital role in regulating cardiovascular health and diseases. As a thermogenic organ, BAT can influence body through strengthening energy expenditure by promoting glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, BAT is also an endocrine organ which is able to secret adipokines in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. Read More

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Body size affects immune cell proportions in birds and non-volant mammals, but not bats.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Powered flight has evolved several times in vertebrates and constrains morphology and physiology in ways that likely have shaped how organisms cope with infections. Some of these constraints likely have impacts on aspects of immunology, such that larger fliers might prioritize risk reduction and safety. Addressing how the evolution of flight may have driven relationships between body size and immunity could be particularly informative for understanding the propensity of some taxa to harbor many virulent and sometimes zoonotic pathogens without showing clinical disease. Read More

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Perilipin 5 links mitochondrial uncoupled respiration in brown fat to healthy white fat remodeling and systemic glucose tolerance.

Nat Commun 2021 06 3;12(1):3320. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Exposure of mice or humans to cold promotes significant changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) with respect to histology, lipid content, gene expression, and mitochondrial mass and function. Herein we report that the lipid droplet coat protein Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) increases markedly in BAT during exposure of mice to cold. To understand the functional significance of cold-induced PLIN5, we created and characterized gain- and loss-of-function mouse models. Read More

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Aerobic exercise promotes the functions of brown adipose tissue in obese mice via a mechanism involving COX2 in the VEGF signaling pathway.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jun 3;18(1):56. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

China Institute of Sport and Health Science, Beijing Sport University, Xinxi Road 48, Haidian District, Beijing, 100084, China.

Background: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity causes immune cells to infiltrate adipose tissue, leading to chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can dissipate the energy produced by lipid oxidation as heat, thereby counteracting obesity. Aerobic exercise activates BAT, but the specific underlying mechanism is still unclear. Read More

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Treatment and Prevention of Histoplasmosis in Adults Living with HIV.

David S McKinsey

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 May 28;7(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Metro Infectious Disease Consultants, Kansas City, MO 64132, USA.

Histoplasmosis causes life-threatening disseminated infection in adult patients living with untreated HIV. Although disease incidence has declined dramatically in countries with access to antiretroviral therapy, histoplasmosis remains prevalent in many resource-limited regions. A high index of suspicion for histoplasmosis should be maintained in the setting of a febrile multisystem illness in severely immunosuppressed patients, particularly in persons with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Read More

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Nipah Virus Efficiently Replicates in Human Smooth Muscle Cells without Cytopathic Effect.

Cells 2021 May 25;10(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA.

Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic virus with a broad species tropism, originating in pteropid bats. Human outbreaks of NiV disease occur almost annually, often with high case-fatality rates. The specific events that lead to pathogenesis are not well defined, but the disease has both respiratory and encephalitic components, with relapsing encephalitis occurring in some cases more than a year after initial infection. Read More

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SIRT5 Inhibition Induces Brown Fat-Like Phenotype in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

Cells 2021 May 7;10(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00163 Rome, Italy.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity plays a key role in regulating systemic energy. The activation of BAT results in increased energy expenditure, making this tissue an attractive pharmacological target for therapies against obesity and type 2 diabetes. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) affects BAT function by regulating adipogenic transcription factor expression and mitochondrial respiration. Read More

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The Role of AMPK Signaling in Brown Adipose Tissue Activation.

Cells 2021 May 6;10(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Obesity is becoming a pandemic, and its prevalence is still increasing. Considering that obesity increases the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases, research efforts are focusing on new ways to combat obesity. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a possible target to achieve this for its functional role in energy expenditure by means of increasing thermogenesis. Read More

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The Functional Characterization of Bat and Human P[3] Rotavirus VP8*s.

Virol Sin 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

National Health Commission Key Laboratory for Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, Beijing, 102206, China.

P[3] rotavirus (RV) has been identified in many species, including human, simian, dog, and bat. Several glycans, including sialic acid, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are reported as RV attachment factors. The glycan binding specificity of different P[3] RV VP8*s were investigated in this study. Read More

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Functional Parameters of Prestin Are Not Correlated With the Best Hearing Frequency.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:638530. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Among the vertebrate lineages with different hearing frequency ranges, humans lie between the low-frequency hearing (1 kHz) of fish and amphibians and the high-frequency hearing (100 kHz) of bats and dolphins. Little is known about the mechanism underlying such a striking difference in the limits of hearing frequency. Prestin, responsible for cochlear amplification and frequency selectivity in mammals, seems to be the only candidate to date. Read More

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Replication and virulence of chimeric bat influenza viruses in mammalian and avian cells and in mice.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 25;157:104992. Epub 2021 May 25.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), China; Animal Influenza and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Innovation Team, China. Electronic address:

Previous studies have shown that chimeric bat influenza viruses can be generated by reverse genetic system. However, the roles of the surface or internal genes of chimeric bat influenza viruses in viral replication and virulence in different host species were still not completely understood. In this study, we generated a chimeric H9N2 bat virus with both HA and NA surface genes from the avian A2093/H9N2 virus and compared its replication and virulence with the chimeric H1N1 bat virus with both HA and NA from the PR8/H1N1 virus in vitro and in mice. Read More

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Culture, expansion, and flow-cytometry-based functional analysis of pteropid bat MR1-restricted unconventional T cells.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 18;2(2):100487. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Biopharmaceutical and Health Engineering, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, People's Republic of China.

Bats harbor viruses of global public health significance. Understanding bat immune systems may provide intervention strategies to prevent zoonotic disease transmission and identify therapeutic targets. This protocol describes how to culture and expand pteropid bat unconventional T cells, restricted by the MHC-I-related protein 1 (MR1), an MHC-I-like protein. Read More

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LMO3 reprograms visceral adipocyte metabolism during obesity.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. We recently identified LIM domain only 3 (LMO3) in human mature visceral adipocytes; however, its function in these cells is currently unknown. Read More

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The Protective Effects of Sulforaphane on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice Through Browning of White Fat.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:665894. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate naturally occurring in cruciferous vegetables, is a potent indirect antioxidant and a promising agent for the control of metabolic disorder disease. The glucose intolerance and adipogenesis induced by diet in rats was inhibited by SFN. Strategies aimed at induction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) could be a potentially useful way to against obesity. Read More

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First case of lethal encephalitis in Western Europe due to European bat lyssavirus type 1.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Sorbonne Université, Brain Institute (ICM; INSERM, UMRS 1127; CNRS, UMR 7225), Paris, France.

Background: Inaccurate diagnosis of encephalitis is a major issue as immunosuppressive treatments can be deleterious in case of viral infection. The European bat lyssavirus type 1, a virus related to rabies virus, is endemic in European bats. No human case has yet been reported in Western Europe. Read More

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Computational optimization of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding-motif affinity for human ACE2.

Biophys J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, CY1678, Nicosia, Cyprus. Electronic address:

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and the closely related SARS-CoV coronavirus enter cells by binding at the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). The stronger hACE2 affinity of SARS-CoV-2 has been connected with its higher infectivity. In this work, we study hACE2 complexes with the receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the human SARS-CoV-2 and human SARS-CoV viruses, using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and Computational Protein Design (CPD) with a physics-based energy function. Read More

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Mechanism of MRX inhibition by Rif2 at telomeres.

Nat Commun 2021 05 12;12(1):2763. Epub 2021 May 12.

Université de Paris, Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, CEA, Institut de Biologie François Jacob, iRCM, UMR Stabilité Génétique Cellules Souches et Radiations, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Specific proteins present at telomeres ensure chromosome end stability, in large part through unknown mechanisms. In this work, we address how the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORC-related Rif2 protein protects telomere. We show that the small N-terminal Rif2 BAT motif (Blocks Addition of Telomeres) previously known to limit telomere elongation and Tel1 activity is also sufficient to block NHEJ and 5' end resection. Read More

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Peripheral-specific Y1 receptor antagonism increases thermogenesis and protects against diet-induced obesity.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2622. Epub 2021 May 11.

Neuroscience Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Obesity is caused by an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure (EE). Here we identify a conserved pathway that links signalling through peripheral Y1 receptors (Y1R) to the control of EE. Selective antagonism of peripheral Y1R, via the non-brain penetrable antagonist BIBO3304, leads to a significant reduction in body weight gain due to enhanced EE thereby reducing fat mass. Read More

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Low-Level Light Therapy Downregulates Scalp Inflammatory Biomarkers in Men With Androgenetic Alopecia and Boosts Minoxidil 2% to Bring a Sustainable Hair Regrowth Activity.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

L'OREAL Research and Innovation, 188, rue Paul Hochart, Chevilly Larue, 94550, France.

Background And Objectives: Low-level light therapies using visible to infrared light are known to activate several cellular functions, such as adenosine triphosphate and nitric oxide synthesis. However, few clinical observations report its biological consequences for skin and scalp homeostasis. Since scalp inflammation was recognized as a potential physiological obstacle to the efficacy of the reference hair regrowth drug Minoxidil in vivo and since perifollicular inflammation is the hallmark of about 50%-70% follicular units in androgenetic alopecia, we decided to investigate whether the anti-inflammatory activity of LLLT/GentleWaves® device were assigned to L'Oréal by Light BioScience L. Read More

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Curcumin improves adipocytes browning and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 cells and obese rodent model.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 17;8(3):200974. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Traditional Chinese Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and adipocyte differentiation promote lipid accumulation in the development of obesity and diabetes. Curcumin is an active ingredient extracted from that has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms of curcumin in adipocytes remain largely unexplored. Read More

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Basophil and mast cell activation tests by flow cytometry in immediate drug hypersensitivity: Diagnosis and beyond.

J Immunol Methods 2021 Apr 29;495:113050. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Immunology, Allergology, Rheumatology and the Infla-Med Centre of Excellence, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium) and Immunology, Allergology, Rheumatology, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Immunology, AZ Jan Palfijn Hospital Gent, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (IDHRs) constitute a significant health issue with serious consequences of diagnostic error. The primary diagnostics to document IDHRs usually consists of quantification of drug-specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies and skin tests. Unfortunately, the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of these tests are not absolutely, which leaves room for new tests. Read More

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Drinking Molecular Hydrogen Water Is Beneficial to Cardiovascular Function in Diet-Induced Obesity Mice.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Innovative Medical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan.

Molecular hydrogen (MH) reportedly exerts therapeutic effects against inflammatory diseases as a suppressor of free radical chain reactions. Here, the cardiovascular protective effects of the intake of molecular hydrogen water (MHW) were investigated using high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. MHW was prepared using supplier sticks and degassed water as control. Read More

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Role of Structural and Non-Structural Proteins and Therapeutic Targets of SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19.

Cells 2021 04 6;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh 249203, India.

Coronavirus belongs to the family of Coronaviridae, comprising single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome (+ ssRNA) of around 26 to 32 kilobases, and has been known to cause infection to a myriad of mammalian hosts, such as humans, cats, bats, civets, dogs, and camels with varied consequences in terms of death and debilitation. Strikingly, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), later renamed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and found to be the causative agent of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), shows 88% of sequence identity with bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, 79% with SARS-CoV and 50% with MERS-CoV, respectively. Despite key amino acid residual variability, there is an incredible structural similarity between the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Read More

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Development and Characterization of a cDNA-Launch Recombinant Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein: ORF 2b' Is Not Required for In Vitro Virus Replication.

Viruses 2021 04 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes acute, lethal disease in macaques. We developed a single-plasmid cDNA-launch infectious clone of SHFV (rSHFV) and modified the clone to rescue an enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing rSHFV-eGFP that can be used for rapid and quantitative detection of infection. SHFV has a narrow cell tropism in vitro, with only the grivet MA-104 cell line and a few other grivet cell lines being susceptible to virion entry and permissive to infection. Read More

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CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) stimulates aromatase gene expression in mammary adipose tissue.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21536

Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Obesity-related inflammation upregulates aromatase expression, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen synthesis, in breast adipose tissue (BAT), increasing estrogen production and cancer risk. The regulation of aromatase gene (CYP19A1) in BAT is complex, and the mechanisms linking obesity and aromatase dysregulation are not fully understood. Read More

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Genome-Wide B Cell, CD4, and CD8 T Cell Epitopes That Are Highly Conserved between Human and Animal Coronaviruses, Identified from SARS-CoV-2 as Targets for Preemptive Pan-Coronavirus Vaccines.

J Immunol 2021 06 28;206(11):2566-2582. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA;

Over the last two decades, there have been three deadly human outbreaks of coronaviruses (CoVs) caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, which has caused the current COVID-19 global pandemic. All three deadly CoVs originated from bats and transmitted to humans via various intermediate animal reservoirs. It remains highly possible that other global COVID pandemics will emerge in the coming years caused by yet another spillover of a bat-derived SARS-like coronavirus (SL-CoV) into humans. Read More

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On the Origin of SARS-CoV-2: Did Cell Culture Experiments Lead to Increased Virulence of the Progenitor Virus for Humans?

Bernd Kaina

In Vivo 2021 May-Jun;35(3):1313-1326. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany

We are currently in a rapidly expanding pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which originated in the city of Wuhan in central China. The disease COVID-19 is now spread worldwide and has tremendous socio-economic consequences. The origin of the virus can be reconstructed through epidemiological studies and, even more so, from genome comparisons. Read More

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Anticancer Activity of Combretum fragrans F. Hoffm on Glioblastoma and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Apr 1;22(4):1087-1093. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

UFR Sciences Fondamentales et Appliquées, Team "Récepteurs, Régulations, Cellules Tumorales" (2RCT)-EA 3842 CAPTuR, Pôle Biologie Santé-Bât. B36/B37, University of Poitiers, 1 rue Georges Bonnet-TSA, France.

Background: Cancer incidence has been growing in an alarming rate worldwide and new therapeutics are needed, particularly for intractable and chemoresistant cases. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of Combretum fragrans F. Hoffm (Combretaceae) on glioblastoma (U87MG and C6) and prostate (PC-3) cancer cell lines. Read More

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[Effects of irisin on lipid in mice and glycolipid metabolism in obese mice induced by diet].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;101(16):1165-1170

Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital (Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging), Nanjing 210009,China.

To explore the role of low-dose irisin in the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice, and its effect on the metabolic function of diet induced obesity. A total of 22 C57/BLKS/J male mice fed with normal diet and 8 fed with high fat diet were separately divided into experimental and control group. The experimental group was given irisin (0. Read More

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Origin and evolution of the zinc finger antiviral protein.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 26;17(4):e1009545. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, New York City, New York, United States of America.

The human zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) recognizes RNA by binding to CpG dinucleotides. Mammalian transcriptomes are CpG-poor, and ZAP may have evolved to exploit this feature to specifically target non-self viral RNA. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that ZAP and its paralogue PARP12 share an ancestral gene that arose prior to extensive eukaryote divergence, and the ZAP lineage diverged from the PARP12 lineage in tetrapods. Read More

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