78 results match your criteria bat bat-like

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of group A rotaviruses in pre-vaccination period in Thailand, 2018-2019.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 May 7:104898. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Microbiology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Emerging and Re-emerging Diarrheal Viruses Cluster, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Electronic address:

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the major viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotype diversity of RVAs circulating in children with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand before the implementation of RVA vaccine in the childhood immunization programme. A total of 1170 stool specimens were obtained in 2018-2019 from children admitted to hospitals with diarrhea and screened for RVAs by nested RT-PCR. Read More

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Natural Bioactive Compounds as Potential Browning Agents in White Adipose Tissue.

Pharm Res 2021 Apr 30;38(4):549-567. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 670 West Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

The epidemic of overweight and obesity underlies many common metabolic diseases. Approaches aimed to reduce energy intake and/or stimulate energy expenditure represent potential strategies to control weight gain. Adipose tissue is a major energy balancing organ. Read More

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The COVID-19 puzzle: a global nightmare.

Environ Dev Sustain 2021 Jan 31:1-28. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Biochemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000 Pakistan.

In December 2019, WHO was informed with several unknown pneumonia cases and later it was found as highly contagious, transmittable and pathogenic viral infection. The novel coronavirus (nCoV-19) was firstly reported from Wuhan city in China. COVID-19 has raised the concern of the world since its emergence from China. Read More

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January 2021

Genomic characterization of a novel G3P[10] rotavirus strain from a diarrheic child in Thailand: Evidence for bat-to-human zoonotic transmission.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 01 5;87:104667. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan.

An unusual rotavirus strain with the G3P[10] genotype (RVA/Human-wt/THA/MS2015-1-0001/2015/G3P[10]) was identified in a stool sample from a hospitalized child aged 11 months with severe gastroenteritis in Thailand. In the current study, we sequenced and characterized the full genome of strain MS2015-1-0001. On full-genomic analysis, strain MS2015-1-0001 exhibited the following genotype configuration: G3-P[10]-I8-R3-C3-M3-A9-N3-T3-E3-H6, which is identical or closely related to those of bat and bat-like rotavirus strains (MYAS33-like). Read More

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January 2021

The Transcriptional Role of Vitamin A and the Retinoid Axis in Brown Fat Function.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 18;11:608. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Clinical Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

In recent years, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has gained significance as a metabolic organ dissipating energy through heat production. Promotion of a thermogenic program in fat holds great promise as potential therapeutic tool to counteract weight gain and related sequelae. Current research efforts are aimed at identifying novel pathways regulating brown fat function and the transformation of white adipocytes into BAT-like cells, a process called "browning. Read More

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Innervation of supraclavicular adipose tissue: A human cadaveric study.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(7):e0236286. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Victoria, Australia.

Functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) was identified in adult humans only in 2007 with the use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging. Previous studies have demonstrated a negative correlation between obesity and BAT presence in humans. It is proposed that BAT possesses the capacity to increase metabolism and aid weight loss. Read More

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September 2020

Natural transmission of bat-like SARS-CoV-2PRRA variants in COVID-19 patients.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

AIDS Institute, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 contains the furin cleavage PRRA motif in the S1/S2 region, which enhances viral pathogenicity but is absent in closely related bat and pangolin coronaviruses. It remains unknown if bat-like coronaviral variants without PRRA (ΔPRRA) can establish natural infection in humans.

Methods: Here, we developed a duplex digital PCR assay to examine ΔPRRA variants in Vero-E6-propagated isolates, human organoids, experimentally infected hamsters and COVID-19 patients. Read More

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Aifm2, a NADH Oxidase, Supports Robust Glycolysis and Is Required for Cold- and Diet-Induced Thermogenesis.

Mol Cell 2020 02 14;77(3):600-617.e4. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Endocrinology Program, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; Department of Nutritional Sciences & Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is highly metabolically active tissue that dissipates energy via UCP1 as heat, and BAT mass is correlated negatively with obesity. The presence of BAT/BAT-like tissue in humans renders BAT as an attractive target against obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we identify Aifm2, a NADH oxidoreductase domain containing flavoprotein, as a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein highly enriched in BAT. Read More

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February 2020

Commentary: The bat-like conduit-the next superhero to combat gastric malperfusion?

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 04 14;159(4):e285-e286. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

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Bioavailable Menthol (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8 Agonist) Induces Energy Expending Phenotype in Differentiating Adipocytes.

Cells 2019 04 26;8(5). Epub 2019 Apr 26.

National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), Knowledge City-Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Punjab 140603, India.

Recent evidence supports the role of menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, in enhanced energy expenditure, thermogenesis and BAT-like activity in classical WAT depots in a TRPM8 dependent and independent manner. The present study was designed to analyse whether oral and topical administration of menthol is bioavailable at subcutaneous adipose tissue and is sufficient to directlyinduce desired energy expenditure effects. GC-FID was performed to study menthol bioavailability in serum and subcutaneous white adipose tissue following oral and topical administration. Read More

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Activation of estrogen receptor alpha induces beiging of adipocytes.

Mol Metab 2018 12 15;18:51-59. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Diabetes & Obesity Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and BAT-like adipose tissues, referred to as 'beige' adipose tissues uncouple respiration from ATP synthesis via uncoupling protein one (UCP-1). There is a sexual dimorphism with respect to beige and BAT tissues; pre-menopausal women have more BAT and are more sensitive to BAT activation than men or postmenopausal women. We hypothesized selective activation of adipose tissue estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) induces beiging of WAT through induction of lipolysis mediated by adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Read More

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December 2018

A fully autonomous terrestrial bat-like acoustic robot.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 09 6;14(9):e1006406. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Echolocating bats rely on active sound emission (echolocation) for mapping novel environments and navigating through them. Many theoretical frameworks have been suggested to explain how they do so, but few attempts have been made to build an actual robot that mimics their abilities. Here, we present the 'Robat'-a fully autonomous bat-like terrestrial robot that relies on echolocation to move through a novel environment while mapping it solely based on sound. Read More

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September 2018

p38α blocks brown adipose tissue thermogenesis through p38δ inhibition.

PLoS Biol 2018 07 6;16(7):e2004455. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Adipose tissue has emerged as an important regulator of whole-body metabolism, and its capacity to dissipate energy in the form of heat has acquired a special relevance in recent years as potential treatment for obesity. In this context, the p38MAPK pathway has arisen as a key player in the thermogenic program because it is required for the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and participates also in the transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) into BAT-like depot called beige/brite tissue. Here, using mice that are deficient in p38α specifically in adipose tissue (p38αFab-KO), we unexpectedly found that lack of p38α protected against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Read More

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Browning of white adipose tissue induced by the ß3 agonist CL-316,243 after local and systemic treatment - PK-PD relationship.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 09 12;1864(9 Pt B):2972-2982. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Merz Pharmaceuticals, Eckenheimer Landstrasse 100, 60348 Frankfurt, Germany.

Transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) to a brown adipose tissue-like (BAT-like) phenotype has emerged as an attractive approach against obesity e.g. using g ß3 adrenergic receptor agonists. Read More

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September 2018

Decrease of Perivascular Adipose Tissue Browning Is Associated With Vascular Dysfunction in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats During Aging.

Front Physiol 2018 18;9:400. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Department of Hypertension at Ruijin Hospital and Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Functional perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is necessary to maintain vascular physiology through both mechanical support and endocrine or paracrine ways. PVAT shows a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like feature and the browning level of PVAT is dependent on the anatomic location and species. However, it is not clear whether PVAT browning is involved in the vascular tone regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Read More

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Genetic and epigenetic control of adipose development.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2019 01 25;1864(1):3-12. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Endocrinology Program, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Nutritional Sciences & Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:

White adipose tissue (WAT) is the primary energy storage organ and its excess contributes to obesity, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible thermogenic (beige/brite) adipocytes in WAT dissipate energy via Ucp1 to maintain body temperature. BAT and subcutaneous WAT develop perinatally while visceral WAT forms after birth from precursors expressing distinct markers, such as Myf5, Pref-1, Wt1, and Prx1, depending on the anatomical location. In addition to the embryonic adipose precursors, a pool of endothelial cells or mural cells expressing Pparγ, Pdgfrβ, Sma and Zfp423 may become adipocytes during WAT expansion in adults. Read More

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January 2019

White and beige adipocytes: are they metabolically distinct?

Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2018 Feb 21;33(2). Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Muscle Health Research Centre, School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, 4700 Keele St., North York, Ontario, M3J 13P, Canada, Phone: 416-736-2100 (Ext. 77204), Fax: 416-736-5774.

The white adipose tissue (WAT) exhibits great plasticity and can undergo "browning" and acquire features of the brown adipose tissue (BAT), which takes place following cold exposure, chronic endurance exercise or β3-adrenergic stimulation. WAT that underwent browning is characterized by the presence of "beige" adipocytes, which are morphologically similar to brown adipocytes, express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and are considered thermogenically competent. Thus, inducing a BAT-like phenotype in the WAT could promote energy dissipation within this depot, reducing the availability of substrate that would otherwise be stored in the WAT. Read More

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February 2018

Molecular characterization of a human G20P[28] rotavirus a strain with multiple genes related to bat rotaviruses.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 01 26;57:166-170. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in the young of mammals and birds. This report describes characterization of an unusual G20P[28] rotavirus strain detected in a 24month old child from Suriname. Genomic sequence analyses revealed that the genotype constellation of the Suriname strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] was G20-P[28]-I13-R13-C13-M12-A23-N13-T15-E20-H15. Read More

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January 2018

Subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue is responsive to, but dispensable for, the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018 01 3;314(1):E66-E77. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph , Guelph, Ontario , Canada.

Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise. Read More

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January 2018

Marrow Adipose Tissue: Skeletal Location, Sexual Dimorphism, and Response to Sex Steroid Deficiency.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 4;8:188. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo Health Sciences Campus, Toledo, OH, United States.

Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is unique with respect to origin, metabolism, and function. MAT is characterized with high heterogeneity which correlates with skeletal location and bone metabolism. This fat depot is also highly sensitive to various hormonal, environmental, and pharmacologic cues to which it responds with changes in volume and/or metabolic phenotype. Read More

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Induction of thermogenic adipocytes: molecular targets and thermogenic small molecules.

Exp Mol Med 2017 07 7;49(7):e353. Epub 2017 Jul 7.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea.

Adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ that controls energy homeostasis of the whole body. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy in the form of heat through mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). A newly identified adipose tissue called 'beige fat' (BAT-like) is produced through a process called WAT browning. Read More

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The significance of beige and brown fat in humans.

Florian W Kiefer

Endocr Connect 2017 Jul 2;6(5):R70-R79. Epub 2017 May 2.

Clinical Division of Endocrinology and MetabolismDepartment of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Promotion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity or browning of white adipose tissue has shown great potential as anti-obesity strategy in numerous preclinical models. The discovery of active BAT in humans and the recent advances in the understanding of human BAT biology and function have significantly propelled this field of research. Pharmacological stimulation of energy expenditure to counteract obesity has always been an intriguing therapeutic concept; with the identification of the specific molecular pathways of brown fat function, this idea has now become as realistic as ever. Read More

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Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue.

Biomed Res Int 2016 25;2016:2365609. Epub 2016 Dec 25.

Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Nonshivering thermogenesis is the process of biological heat production in mammals and is primarily mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT). Through ubiquitous expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) on the mitochondrial inner membrane, BAT displays uncoupling of fuel combustion and ATP production in order to dissipate energy as heat. Because of its crucial role in regulating energy homeostasis, ongoing exploration of BAT has emphasized its therapeutic potential in addressing the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Read More

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January 2017

High expression of organic cation transporter 3 in human BAT-like adipocytes. Implications for extraneuronal norepinephrine uptake.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 03 26;443:15-22. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated by extracellular norepinephrine (NE) released by the sympathetic nervous system. The extracellular concentration of NE is additionally regulated by the disappearance/degradation of NE. Recent studies have introduced the organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) as a possible contributor in the regulation of NE in adipose tissue. Read More

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Chronic l-menthol-induced browning of white adipose tissue hypothesis: A putative therapeutic regime for combating obesity and improving metabolic health.

Med Hypotheses 2016 Aug 11;93:21-6. Epub 2016 May 11.

Institute of Research and Technology Thessaly, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Trikala, Greece; FAME Laboratory, Department of Exercise Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece. Electronic address:

Introduction: Obesity constitutes a serious global health concern reaching pandemic prevalence rates. The existence of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has provoked intense research interest in the role of this metabolically active tissue in whole-body energy balance and body weight regulation. A number of environmental, physiological, pathological, and pharmacological stimuli have been proposed to induce BAT-mediated thermogenesis and functional thermogenic BAT-like activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), opening new avenues for therapeutic strategies based on enhancing the number of beige adipocytes in WAT. Read More

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Pharmacological Activation of Thyroid Hormone Receptors Elicits a Functional Conversion of White to Brown Fat.

Cell Rep 2015 Nov 12;13(8):1528-37. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

The functional conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) into a tissue with brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like activity, often referred to as "browning," represents an intriguing strategy for combating obesity and metabolic disease. We demonstrate that thyroid hormone receptor (TR) activation by a synthetic agonist markedly induces a program of adaptive thermogenesis in subcutaneous WAT that coincides with a restoration of cold tolerance to cold-intolerant mice. Distinct from most other browning agents, pharmacological TR activation dissociates the browning of WAT from activation of classical BAT. Read More

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November 2015

Features in geometric receiver shapes modelling bat-like directivity patterns.

Bioinspir Biomim 2015 Sep 3;10(5):056007. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, Electronic and Electrical Engineering-University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK.

The directional properties of bat ears as receivers is a current area of interest in ultrasound research. This paper presents a new approach to analyse the relationship between morphological features and acoustical properties of the external ear of bat species. The beam pattern of Rousettus leschenaultii's right ear is measured and compared to that of receiver structures whose design is inspired by the bat ear itself and made of appropriate geometric shapes. Read More

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September 2015

Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Humans after Severe Adrenergic Stress.

Cell Metab 2015 Aug;22(2):219-27

Metabolism Unit, Shriners Hospitals for Children - Galveston, 815 Market Street, Galveston, TX 77550, USA; Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77550, USA.

Since the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was confirmed in adult humans, BAT has become a therapeutic target for obesity and insulin resistance. We examined whether human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) can adopt a BAT-like phenotype using a clinical model of prolonged and severe adrenergic stress. sWAT samples were collected from severely burned and healthy individuals. Read More

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Women have more potential to induce browning of perirenal adipose tissue than men.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2015 Aug 14;23(8):1671-9. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can generate heat by burning fatty acids, a process mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). White adipose tissue (WAT) depots can gain BAT-like properties, and various studies have suggested that females have more active BAT or BAT-like WAT. We studied sex differences in BAT-like properties of human perirenal adipose tissue. Read More

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Transcriptional fingerprinting of "browning" white fat identifies NRG4 as a novel adipokine.

Mark Christian

Adipocyte 2015 Jan-Mar;4(1):50-4. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health; Warwick Medical School; University of Warwick ; Coventry, UK.

Brown adipocytes help to maintain body temperature by the expression of a unique set of genes that facilitate cellular metabolic events including uncoupling protein 1-dependent thermogenesis. The dissipation of energy in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is in stark contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT) which is the body's primary site of energy storage. However, adipose tissue is highly dynamic and upon cold exposure profound changes occur in WAT resulting in a BAT-like phenotype due to the presence of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes. Read More

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