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Respiratory muscle training and exercise ventilation while diving at altitude.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 Second Quarter;48(2):107-117

Center for Research and Education in Special Environments, Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York U.S .

Introduction: Pre-dive altitude exposure may increase respiratory fatigue and subsequently augment exercise ventilation at depth. This study examined pre-dive altitude exposure and the efficacy of resistance respiratory muscle training (RMT) on respiratory fatigue while diving at altitude.

Methods: Ten men (26±5 years; VO2peak: 39. Read More

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Patient Outcomes Significantly Improve When Receiving Treatment by Athletic Therapy Students.

J Athl Train 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Concordia University.

Context: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) should be used in athletic training but are rarely incorporated in athletic training and athletic therapy internships. Student-run clinics are common in other health professions and provide effective treatment and a valuable learning environment.1-3 To our knowledge, no one has evaluated rehabilitation outcomes in patients treated by athletic training/athletic therapy students (ATSs). Read More

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NeuroPred-FRL: an interpretable prediction model for identifying neuropeptide using feature representation learning.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502, Japan.

Neuropeptides (NPs) are the most versatile neurotransmitters in the immune systems that regulate various central anxious hormones. An efficient and effective bioinformatics tool for rapid and accurate large-scale identification of NPs is critical in immunoinformatics, which is indispensable for basic research and drug development. Although a few NP prediction tools have been developed, it is mandatory to improve their NPs' prediction performances. Read More

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Effects of rainfall, temperature and photoperiod on the phenology of ephemeral resources for selected bushveld woody plant species in southern Africa.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251421. Epub 2021 May 11.

Applied Behavioural Ecology and Ecosystem Research Unit, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Florida, South Africa.

Variability of ephemeral resources provided by woody plants is related to fluctuating environmental conditions, specifically the predominant climate variables temperature and rainfall. Photoperiod has less impact but also plays a role in the onset of resource pulses. In the seasonally affected bushveld of southern Africa, declining resources could have dire consequences to various animals that depend on these resources. Read More

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Impact of Protein Intake during Weight Loss on Preservation of Fat-Free Mass, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Physical Function in Overweight Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Obes Facts 2021 May 11:1-12. Epub 2021 May 11.

Fulda University of Applied Sciences, Fulda, Germany.

Introduction: Weight loss in old age increases the risk of sarcopenia caused by the age-related reduction of fat-free mass (FFM). Due to the strong correlation between FFM and resting energy expenditure (REE), the maintenance of this must also be considered. Besides, the physical function (PF) must be maintained. Read More

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Reinforcement Effects of Social Network Intervention during Nutritional Supplementation in Frail Older Adults.

Gerontology 2021 May 11:1-13. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Chronic undernutrition and a homebound state are corelated and are both important components of frailty. However, whether social network intervention combined with protein supplementation is an effective strategy to prevent functional decline among frail older adults is unclear.

Methods: 150 frail older adults participated in a 3-month, 3-armed, community-based clinical trial and were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: high-protein supplementation (additional 27 g of protein/day), the Social Nutrition Program (additional 27 g of protein/day and social network intervention), or a control group. Read More

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Stress, alcohol use, and punitive parenting during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 30;117:105090. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, 1947 College Road N, Columbus, OH, 43210, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging research suggests that parents are experiencing heightened stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental stress is a risk factor for harsh or punitive parenting, and this association may be exacerbated by the use of alcohol.

Objective: We examine whether parental stress is associated with use of punitive parenting, as well as whether this association is modified by drinking pattern. Read More

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Oxytocin receptor is a potential biomarker of the hyporesponsive HPA axis subtype of PTSD and might be modulated by HPA axis reactivity traits in humans and mice.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 May 3;129:105242. Epub 2021 May 3.

Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER, PO Box 616 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms University of Bonn, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, RG Molecular and Clinical Psychotraumatology & Psychotrauma Outpatient Unit, Venusberg-Campus-1, 53127 Bonn, Germany; University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG), Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, RG Stress Modulation of Neurodegeneration & Psychotrauma Outpatient Unit, Von-Siebold-Strasse 5, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

This study aimed to identify yet unavailable blood biomarkers for the responsive and the hyporesponsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis subtypes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As, I, we recently discovered the intranasal neuropeptide oxytocin to reduce experimentally provoked PTSD symptoms, II, expression of its receptor (OXTR) has hitherto not been assessed in PTSD patients, and III, oxytocin and OXTR have previously been related to the HPA axis, we considered both as suitable candidates. During a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we compared serum oxytocin and blood OXTR mRNA concentrations between female PTSD patients, their HPA axis reactivity subtypes and sex and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Read More

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Carrier type induces anammox biofilm structure and the nitrogen removal pathway: Demonstration in a full-scale partial nitritation/anammox process.

Bioresour Technol 2021 May 4;334:125249. Epub 2021 May 4.

National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technology, Engineering Research Center of Beijing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, two typical carrier types, microporous and macroporous carriers, were collected from a full-scale partial nitritation/anammox reactor for analysis and comparison of the biofilm structure characteristics, performance and removal nitrogen pathway. For microporous carriers, a thicker biofilm (>5 mm) was obtained with higher biomass and abundance of anammox bacteria as well as a higher nitrogen removal efficiency due to the integration of denitrifying and anammox bacteria. In addition, higher microbial community stability can be expected under varying environmental conditions. Read More

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Sustainability assessment of Construction and Demolition Waste management applied to an Italian case.

Waste Manag 2021 May 8;128:83-98. Epub 2021 May 8.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Seville, Spain.

Construction and Demolition Waste represents a priority stream for the European Union and has a large potential for closing the material circulation loop in line with the Circular Economy principles. The present study focuses on the socio-economic and environmental implications of the management of such waste in the Campania Region (Italy), with the aim of documenting the benefits of recycling actions and landfill avoidance. By using local primary data, and complementing them with data from literature and datasets, three scenarios have been investigated: i) Status Quo, i. Read More

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Longitudinal changes in movement-related functional MRI activity in Parkinson's disease patients.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 May 4;87:61-69. Epub 2021 May 4.

Neurology Imaging Unit, Division of Neurology, Department of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, London, W12 0NN, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Functional brain imaging has shown alterations in the basal ganglia, cortex and cerebellum in Parkinson's disease patients. However, few functional imaging studies have tested how these changes evolve over time. Our study aimed to test the longitudinal progression of movement-related functional activity in Parkinson's disease patients. Read More

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Validating and implementing cardiac telemetry for continuous QTc monitoring: A novel approach to increase healthcare personnel safety during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Electrocardiol 2021 Apr 27;67:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Minimizing direct patient contact among healthcare personnel is crucial for mitigating infectious risk during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The use of remote cardiac telemetry as an alternative to 12‑lead electrocardiography (ECG) for continuous QTc monitoring may facilitate this strategy, but its application has not yet been validated or implemented.

Methods: In the validation component of this two-part prospective cohort study, a total of 65 hospitalized patients with simultaneous ECG and telemetry were identified. Read More

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Moderated mediation analyses to assess intervention mechanisms for impacts on victimisation, psycho-social problems and mental wellbeing: Evidence from the INCLUSIVE realist randomized trial.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 3;279:113984. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. Electronic address:

Realist evaluations aim to evaluate interventions by understanding the mechanisms they trigger, assessing not merely what works but what works for whom, under what conditions, and how. Significant disagreement in the literature exists as to whether randomized trials can be used as a tool for realist evaluation. INCLUSIVE, which was the first realist randomized trial explicitly designed as such, evaluated the impact of Learning Together, a school-based intervention for students aged 12-15 that included restorative practice, on bullying victimisation, mental wellbeing and psychological problems. Read More

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Diagnosis of primary mast cell disorders in anaphylaxis: value of KIT D816V in peripheral blood.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

University of Antwerp, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Immunology, Allergology, Rheumatology and the Infla-Med Centre of Excellence, Antwerp (Belgium) and Immunology, Allergology, Rheumatology, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp Belgium; AZ Jan Palfijn Gent, Department of Immunology and Allergology, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Anaphylaxis is frequent in patients suffering from primary mast cell disorders (PMCD). In patients without mastocytosis in the skin (MIS) and a baseline serum tryptase (bST) < 30 ng/mL, the diagnosis of PMCD is challenging. In these patients, detection of the KIT D816V mutation in peripheral blood (PB) has been suggested as screening tool for a PMCD. Read More

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Early antibody response in healthcare professionals after two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2).

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pharmacy, Namur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences, University of Namur, Belgium; Qualiblood sa, Namur, Belgium.

Objectives: Data on the immune response after two doses of BNT162b2 are so far limited. Previously infected individuals were excluded from pivotal clinical trials and the optimal dose regimen in this population has not been clearly studied. The CRO-VAX HCP study aims at investigate the early antibody response in a population of healthcare professionals having received two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Read More

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IMPACT OF THE PLACEBO EFFECT ON SYMPTOMS, QUALITY OF LIFE AND FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES IN ANGINA PECTORIS: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

Can J Cardiol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino.

Background: The placebo effect is a well described phenomenon in blinded studies evaluating anti-anginal therapeutics, although its impact on clinical research metrics remains unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the impact of placebo on endpoints of symptoms, life-quality and functional outcomes in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of symptomatic stable coronary artery disease.

Methods: We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database for double-blind RCTs of anti-angina therapeutics. Read More

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When components collide: Spatiotemporal overlap of the N400 and P600 in language comprehension.

Brain Res 2021 May 8:147514. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Language Science and Technology, Saarland University, Building C7.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.

The problem of spatiotemporal overlap between event-related potential (ERP) components is generally acknowledged in language research. However, its implications for the interpretation of experimental results are often overlooked. In a previous experiment on the functional interpretation of the N400 and P600, it was argued that a P600 effect to implausible words was largely obscured - in one of two implausible conditions - by an overlapping N400 effect of semantic association. Read More

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The Environment, Leiomyomas, Latinas, and Adiposity Study (ELLAS): Rationale and Design.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:

Background: Uterine leiomyomas, commonly known as fibroids, are benign tumors in postmenarchal females. By the age of 35, approximately 30% of females will have fibroids, and by age 50 the prevalence approaches 70% with some studies reporting >85% prevalence in African-American females. Prior studies evaluating the prevalence of fibroids have largely relied on self-reported fibroid diagnoses, which could have falsely underestimated prevalence because many females with fibroids are asymptomatic. Read More

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Plasticity of stereotyped birdsong driven by chronic manipulation of cortical-basal ganglia activity.

Curr Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Biology Department, Tufts University, 200 Boston Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Electronic address:

Cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) circuits are critical for motor learning and performance, and are a major site of pathology. In songbirds, a CBG circuit regulates moment-by-moment variability in song and also enables song plasticity. Studies have shown that variable burst firing in LMAN, the output nucleus of this CBG circuit, actively drives acute song variability, but whether and how LMAN drives long-lasting changes in song remains unclear. Read More

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Directional tuning in the hippocampal formation of birds.

Curr Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurobiology, Rappaport Research Institute and Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1 Efron Street, Haifa 3525422, Israel. Electronic address:

Birds strongly rely on spatial memory and navigation. Therefore, it is of utmost interest to reveal how space is represented in the avian brain. Here we used tetrodes to record neurons from the hippocampal formation of Japanese quails-a ground-dwelling species-while the quails roamed in an open-field arena. Read More

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Noise Outcomes in Servicemembers Epidemiology (NOISE) Study: Design, Methods, and Baseline Results.

Ear Hear 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

1VA RR&D National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research (NCRAR), Veterans Affairs Portland Health Care System, Portland, Oregon, USA 2Department of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA 3School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA 4Center to Improve Veteran Involvement in Care, Veterans Affairs Portland Health Care System, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Objectives: Military Service members and Veterans commonly report hearing loss and tinnitus, both of which can result in significant disability. During military service, Service members are exposed to many different types of loud noise, which is strongly associated with hearing loss and tinnitus. Other military-related exposures, such as chemicals and traumatic brain injury (TBI), are also linked with auditory problems. Read More

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December 2020

Interhemispheric Auditory Cortical Synchronization in Asymmetric Hearing Loss.

Ear Hear 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objectives: Auditory cortical activation of the two hemispheres to monaurally presented tonal stimuli has been shown to be asynchronous in normal hearing (NH) but synchronous in the extreme case of adult-onset asymmetric hearing loss (AHL) with single-sided deafness. We addressed the wide knowledge gap between these two anchoring states of interhemispheric temporal organization. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to map the trajectory of interhemispheric temporal reorganization from asynchrony to synchrony using magnitude of interaural threshold difference as the independent variable in a cross-sectional study and (2) to evaluate reversibility of interhemispheric synchrony in association with hearing in noise performance by amplifying the aidable poorer ear in a repeated measures, longitudinal study. Read More

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Discordant responses to His refractory PVBs during a regular narrow QRS tachycardia. What is the mechanism?

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cardiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695011, India.

A 32-year-old lady was evaluated for recurrent episodes of palpitation. During one of the palpitation episodes a regular narrow QRS tachycardia was documented, and it got terminated with the administration of IV adenosine. The baseline 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) did not show any manifest preexcitation. Read More

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Risk of precancerous cervical lesions in women using a hormone-containing intrauterine device and other contraceptives: a register-based cohort study from Denmark.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers, Denmark.

Study Question: Is the risk of high-grade precancerous cervical lesions and/or is the risk of lesion progression increased in users of a hormone-containing intrauterine device (HIUD) compared with users of other contraceptive methods.

Summary Answer: Women starting use of HIUD had the same subsequent risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3+ (CIN3+) as copper IUD (CIUD) users, and both groups tended to have lower risks than oral contraceptives (OC) users.

What Is Known Already: HIUDs may cause inflammatory and immunosuppressive changes that may potentially affect the risk of persistent human papillomavirus infection and precancerous cervical lesions. Read More

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Effect of zinc deficiency on chronic kidney disease progression and effect modification by hypoalbuminemia.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251554. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan.

Serum zinc (Zn) levels tend to be low in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This cohort study was conducted to investigate the relationship between zinc deficiency and CKD progression. Patients were classified into two groups based on Zn levels < 60 μg/dl (low-Zn group, n = 160) and ≥ 60 μg/dl (high-Zn group, n = 152). Read More

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Effect of community-led delivery of HIV self-testing on HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy initiation in Malawi: A cluster-randomised trial.

PLoS Med 2021 May 11;18(5):e1003608. Epub 2021 May 11.

Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Blantyre, Malawi.

Background: Undiagnosed HIV infection remains substantial in key population subgroups including adolescents, older adults, and men, driving ongoing transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the impact, safety, and costs of community-led delivery of HIV self-testing (HIVST), aiming to increase HIV testing in underserved subgroups and stimulate demand for antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods And Findings: This cluster-randomised trial, conducted between October 2018 and July 2019, used restricted randomisation (1:1) to allocate 30 group village head clusters in Mangochi district, Malawi to the community-led HIVST intervention in addition to the standard of care (SOC) or the SOC alone. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Sea Salt-Derived Physiological Saline Nasal Spray as Add-On Therapy in Patients with Acute Upper Respiratory Infection: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 11;27:e929714. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of seawater on nasal congestion and runny nose symptoms in adults with an acute upper respiratory infection (URI). MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a multicenter retrospective cohort trial of patients with acute URI and symptoms of nasal congestion and runny nose. The patients were assigned to 2 groups and were administered regular non-drug supportive treatment or supportive treatment with nasal irrigation with sea salt-derived physiological saline. Read More

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Multifocal Osteonecrosis in a 3-Year-Old Child With Sickle Beta Plus Thalassemia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

Sickle beta+thalassemia is considered to be a mild form of sickle cell disease. However, some patients with mild disease can present with osteonecrosis. Here, we present a rare 3-year-old male who presented with acute pain, a baseline hemoglobin of 13 g/dL, who acutely developed multifocal osteonecrosis, and improved with partial exchange transfusion and hydroxyurea therapy. Read More

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Compression Factor and Visual Performance in Adults Treated With Orthokeratology.

Eye Contact Lens 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Optometry and Visual Science (Y.H.), West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; Department of Ophthalmology (L.L.), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; and Contact Lens and Visual Optics Laboratory (S.J.V.), Centre for Vision and Eye Research, School of Optometry and Vision Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of compression factor on visual performance in orthokeratology (ortho-k).

Methods: Myopic adults were fitted with ortho-k lenses with either a 0.75 diopter (D) or 1. Read More

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