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A Network Meta-Analysis Comparing Osteoporotic Fracture among Different Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Vitamin K Antagonists in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

J Bone Metab 2021 May 31;28(2):139-150. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Cardiology, Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiac Sciences and Research, Bengaluru, India.

Background: There are limited studies comparing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures between different direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Using a network meta-analysis (NMA), we compared osteoporotic fractures among 5 different treatment arms, viz. dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and VKA. Read More

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[Rehabilitation after stroke].

Authors:
Christian Dohle

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2021 Jun 15;146(12):809-817. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Neurorehabilitation to alleviate permanent disabilities after stroke is in Germany organised within the so called neurological phase model. This article provides an overview on its organisation and content as well as the restrictions imposed by social law. As an example for therapies, evidence-based motor rehabilitation strategies are presented and linked to their neurophysiological principles. Read More

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White Matter Hyperintensities after Five-Year Follow-Up and a Cross-Sectional FA Decrease in Bipolar I and Major Depressive Patients.

Neuropsychobiology 2021 Jun 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: An increase in brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and a decrease in white matter fractional anisotrophy (FA) have been detected in bipolar I (BPI), II (BPII), and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Their relationship, and differences in diagnostic groups are obscure. Longitudinal studies are rare. Read More

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A bionic soft tongue driven by shape memory alloy and pneumatics.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, No.96, JinZhai Road Baohe District, Hefei, 230026, CHINA.

Soft grippers have exhibited considerable advantages owing to their flexible deformation, compliant operation, and safe interaction with the objects. The ability to grip solid and liquid objects can greatly expand the application range of the soft grippers. Dogs stick out their tongues and then curl backward to form a ladle shape for eating food and drinking water. Read More

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Incorporating oxygenation levels in analytical DNA-damage models - quantifying the oxygen fixation mechanism.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

Purpose: To develop a framework to include oxygenation effects in radiation therapy treatment planning which is valid for all modalities, energy spectra and oxygen levels. The framework is based on predicting the difference in DNA--damage resulting from ionising radiation at variable oxygenation levels.

Methods: Oxygen fixation is treated as a statistical process in a simplified model of complex and simple damage. Read More

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Deriving reference values for nerve conduction studies from existing data using mixture model clustering.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 May 21;132(8):1820-1829. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objective: to obtain locally valid reference values (RVs) from existing nerve conduction study (NCS) data.

Methods: we used age, sex, height and limb temperature-based mixture model clustering (MMC) to identify normal and abnormal measurements on NCS data from two university hospitals. We compared MMC-derived RVs to published data; examined the effect of using different variables; validated MMC-derived RVs using independent data from 26 healthy control subjects and investigated their clinical applicability for the diagnosis of polyneuropathy. Read More

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Utility of multi-parametric quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the lacrimal gland for diagnosing and staging Graves' ophthalmopathy.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jun 8;141:109815. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To explore radiological changes of the lacrimal gland (LG) in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) based on multi-parametric quantitative MRI and its clinical utility in LG diagnosis and activity in GO.

Methods: We enrolled 99 consecutive patients with GO (198 eyes) and 12 Graves' Disease (GD) patients (24 eyes) from July 2018 to June 2020. Clinical, laboratory, and MRI data were collected at the first visit. Read More

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Exosome-based hybrid nanostructures for enhanced tumor targeting and hyperthermia therapy.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jun 8;205:111915. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, 42988, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Recently, natural exosomes have attracted attention as an ideal drug carrier to overcome the limitations of existing drug delivery systems which are toxicity induction and low cancer-targeting performance. In this study, we propose an exosome-based hybrid nanostructure (EHN) with improved targeting ability and therapeutic efficacy against colorectal cancer by using exosomes isolated from the tumor cell line as a drug carrier. The proposed EHN can have high biocompatibility by using exosomes, a biologically derived material, and show improved targeting performance by adding a tumor-targeting ligand (folic acid). Read More

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Effects of nerol on paracetamol-induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 12;140:111732. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Nerol, a monoterpene is evident to possess diverse biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-spasmodic, anthelmintic, and anti-arrhythmias. This study aims to evaluate its hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in a rat model. Five groups of rats (n = 7) were orally treated (once daily) with 0. Read More

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Convolutional neural networks to identify malformations of cortical development: A feasibility study.

Seizure 2021 May 31;91:81-90. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA.

Objective: To develop and test a deep learning model to automatically detect malformations of cortical development (MCD).

Methods: We trained a deep learning model to distinguish between diffuse cortical malformation (CM), periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We trained 4 different convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. Read More

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Study on the influence of advanced treatment processes on the surface properties of polylactic acid for a bio-based circular economy for plastics.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Jun 10;76:105627. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Clausthal Centre for Materials Technology (CZM), Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstr. 9, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany; School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechneiou St., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

New biotechnological processes using microorganisms and/or enzymes to convert carbonaceous resources, either biomass or depolymerized plastics into a broad range of different bioproducts are recognized for their high potential for reduced energy consumption and reduced GHG emissions. However, the hydrophobicity, high molecular weight, chemical and structural composition of most of them hinders their biodegradation. A solution to reduce the impact of non-biodegradable polymers spread in the environment would be to make them biodegradable. Read More

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Insight into the inhibitory mechanism of soluble ionic liquids on the transport of TiO nanoparticles in saturated porous media: Roles of alkyl chain lengths and counteranion types.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 10;418:126367. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Henan Joint International Research Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China. Electronic address:

Column experiments were carried out to investigate the transport of TiO nanoparticles (nTiO) in water-saturated porous media in the presence of various imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with different alkyl chain lengths and counteranions. The results indicated that the effects of ILs on nTiO transport were considerably dependent upon IL species. In general, the transport-inhibition effects increased with the increasing length of branched alkyl chain on the ILs (i. Read More

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Effectiveness of first-line abiraterone versus enzalutamide among patients ≥80 years of age with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A retrospective propensity score-weighted comparative cohort study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 11;152:215-222. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Medical Oncology Division, BC Cancer, Vancouver Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) disproportionately affects the elderly. There is limited data assessing the efficacy and tolerability of abiraterone acetate (AA) versus enzalutamide in this population.

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy and tolerability of AA versus enzalutamide in patients ≥ 80 years with mCRPC. Read More

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Effect of hyperspectral image-based initial conditions on improving short-term algal simulation of hydrodynamic and water quality models.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 12;294:112988. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Hydrodynamic and water quality modeling have provided valuable simulation results that have enhanced the understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of algal blooms. Typical model simulations are performed with point-based observational data that are used to configure initial and boundary conditions, and for parameter calibration. However, the application of such conventional modeling approaches is limited due to cost, labor, and time constraints that preclude the retrieval of high-resolution spatial data. Read More

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Medical image recognition and segmentation of pathological slices of gastric cancer based on Deeplab v3+ neural network.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 29;207:106210. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of General Surgery Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning 110004, China. Electronic address:

Objective: In order to improve the efficiency of gastric cancer pathological slice image recognition and segmentation of cancerous regions, this paper proposes an automatic gastric cancer segmentation model based on Deeplab v3+ neural network.

Methods: Based on 1240 gastric cancer pathological slice images, this paper proposes a multi-scale input Deeplab v3+ network, _and compares it with SegNet, ICNet in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and Dice coefficient.

Results: The sensitivity of Deeplab v3+ is 91. Read More

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Annual Costs Incurred in Managing Adverse Drug Reactions Attributable to Fixed-Dose Combination Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in an Outpatient Antiretroviral Clinic in Gauteng: A Budget Impact Analysis.

Value Health Reg Issues 2021 Jun 12;25:142-149. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Objectives: This study aimed to identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs) attributable to tenofovir (TDF)- and zidovudine (AZT)-based fixed-dose combinations of highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and subsequently determine the annual costs incurred in managing these ADRs and the budget implications in an outpatient ARV clinic in Mamelodi, Pretoria.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed deidentified clinical data for ADRs. Medical charts of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, who were receiving either TDF- or AZT-based fixed-dose combinations of ARV therapy, were analyzed. Read More

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Magnitude of gluconeogenesis and endogenous glucose production: are they predictable in clinical settings?

Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 3;40(6):3807-3814. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Service of Adult Intensive Care, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Introduction: Regulation of endogenous glucose production (EGP) is essential for glucose homeostasis. It includes gluconeogenesis (GNG) from non-carbohydrate substrates and hepatic glycogenolysis. Both these pathways are dysregulated in acute stress, but the magnitude of this deregulation cannot be assessed in clinical practice. Read More

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Dietary potato intake and risks of type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 1;40(6):3754-3764. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases (Xi'an Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education of China, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Evidence regarding associations between potato consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risks is accumulating. This study aims to synthesize the evidence by conducting a meta-analysis of available studies.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched (up to August 2020) to retrieve all eligible studies on the associations of interest. Read More

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Low dietary quercetin intake by food frequency questionnaire analysis is not associated with hypertension occurrence.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 12;40(6):3748-3753. Epub 2021 May 12.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Quercetin is one of the most abundant flavonoids in plant kingdom. Because of its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect, it is of potential in anti-hypertension. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship between dietary quercetin and hypertension incidence in a Chinese population. Read More

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The goldilocks problem: Nutrition and its impact on glycaemic control.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 11;40(6):3677-3687. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Intensive Care, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, 8011, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance manifest as hyperglycaemia in intensive care, which is associated with mortality and morbidities. Glycaemic control (GC) may improve outcomes, though safe and effective control has proven elusive. Nutritional glucose intake affects blood glucose (BG) outcomes, but few protocols actively control it. Read More

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Effect of osteoporosis on adjacent segmental degeneration following posterior lumbar interbody fusion under whole body vibration.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Chinese medicine, Jinan university, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Adjacent segmental degeneration (ASD) is one of the common complications following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Both whole body vibration (WBV) and osteoporosis are important factors associated with the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. However, up to now, no literature has been published to investigate the effect of osteoporosis on ASD following PLIF under WBV. Read More

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Clinical Utility of Overlap Time for Incomplete Relaxation to Predict Cardiac Events in Heart Failure: Incomplete relaxation in heart failure.

J Card Fail 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, 2-50-1 Kuramoto, Tokushima, Japan.

Background: The overlap time of transmitral flow can be a novel marker of subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction for predicting adverse events in heart failure (HF). We aimed to 1) investigate the role of overlap time of E-A wave in association with clinical parameters, and 2) evaluate whether the overlap time could add prognostic information with respect to other conventional clinical prognosticators in HF.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated 153 patients hospitalized with HF (mean age 68±15 years; 63% male). Read More

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Voxel-to-voxel predictive models reveal unexpected structure in unexplained variance.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 12;238:118266. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Encoding models based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) predict BOLD responses to natural scenes in the human visual system more accurately than many other currently available models. However, DCNN-based encoding models fail to predict a significant amount of variance in the activity of most voxels in all visual areas. This failure could reflect limitations in the data (e. Read More

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Flow Structure and Particle Deposition Analyses for Optimization of a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) in a Model of Tracheobronchial Airway.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Jun 12:105911. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg 85764, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Max-Lebsche-Platz 31, Munich 81377, Germany. Electronic address:

Inhalation therapy plays an important role in management or treatment of respiratory diseases such asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). For decades, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) have been the most popular and prescribed drug delivery devices for inhalation therapy. The main objectives of the present computational work are to study flow structure inside a pMDI, as well as transport and deposition of micron-sized particles in a model of human tracheobronchial airways and their dependence on inhalation air flow rate and characteristic pMDI parameters. Read More

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A multicenter study to develop a non-invasive radiomic model to identify urinary infection stone in vivo using machine-learning.

Kidney Int 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pharmacy, the First People's Hospital of Kashi Prefecture; Affiliated Kashi Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Kashi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Urolithiasis is a common urological disease, and treatment strategy options vary between different stone types. However, accurate detection of stone composition can only be performed in vitro. The management of infection stones is particularly challenging with yet no effective approach to pre-operatively identify infection stones from non-infection stones. Read More

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The funny current in genetically modified mice.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, France; LabEx Ion Channels Science and Therapeutics (ICST), France. Electronic address:

Since its first description in 1979, the hyperpolarization-activated funny current (I) has been the object of intensive research aimed at understanding its role in cardiac pacemaker activity and its modulation by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. I was described in isolated tissue strips of the rabbit sinoatrial node using the double-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Since then, the rabbit has been the principal animal model for studying pacemaker activity and I for more than 20 years. Read More

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A 1-km hourly air-temperature model for 13 northeastern U.S. states using remotely sensed and ground-based measurements.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12;200:111477. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Institute for Exposomic Research, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.

Background: Accurate and precise estimates of ambient air temperatures that can capture fine-scale within-day variability are necessary for studies of air temperature and health.

Method: We developed statistical models to predict temperature at each hour in each cell of a 927-m square grid across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic United States from 2003 to 2019, across ~4000 meteorological stations from the Integrated Mesonet, using inputs such as elevation, an inverse-distance-weighted interpolation of temperature, and satellite-based vegetation and land surface temperature. We used a rigorous spatial cross-validation scheme and spatially weighted the errors to estimate how well model predictions would generalize to new cell-days. Read More

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Motive Control of Unconscious Inference: The Limbic Base of Adaptive Bayes.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Brain Electrophysiology Laboratory Company, University of Oregon, United States.

Current computational models of neocortical processing, described as predictive coding theory, are providing new ways of understanding Helmholtz's classical insight that perception cannot proceed in a data-driven fashion, but instead requires unconscious inference based on prior experience. Predictive coding is a Bayesian process, in which the operations at each lower level of the cortical hierarchy are predicted by prior projections of expectancies from a higher level, and are then updated by error-correction with lower level evidence. To generalize the predictive coding model to the human neocortex as a whole requires aligning the Bayesian negotiation of prior expectancies with sensory and motor evidence not only within the connectional architecture of the neocortex (primary sensory/motor, unimodal association areas, and heteromodal association areas) but also with the limbic cortex that forms the base for the adaptive control of the heteromodal areas and thereby the cerebral hemisphere as a whole. Read More

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Development and Validation of a Nomogram to Predict Frailty Progression in Nonfrail Chinese Community-Living Older Adults.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of General Practice, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Frailty state progression is common among older adults, so it is necessary to identify predictors to implement individualized interventions. We aimed to develop and validate a nomogram to predict frailty progression in community-living older adults.

Design: Prospective cohort study. Read More

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Global analysis of a cancer model with drug resistance due to Lamarckian induction and microvesicle transfer.

J Theor Biol 2021 Jun 12:110812. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Bolyai Institute, University of Szeged, Szeged H-6720, Hungary.

Development of resistance to chemotherapy in cancer patients strongly effects the outcome of the treatment. Due to chemotherapeutic agents, resistance can emerge by Darwinian evolution. Besides this, acquired drug resistance may arise via changes in gene expression. Read More

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