476,431 results match your criteria based evidence

Advances in Understanding the Pathogenesis of Lacunar Stroke: From Pathology and Pathophysiology to Neuroimaging.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 6:1-9. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Lacunar stroke (LS) accounts for about one-quarter of all acute ischemic strokes, represents an important marker of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), and has prognostic significance in terms of recurrent vascular events and vascular cognitive impairment. Our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of LS is largely based on the meticulous postmortem work of C. Miller Fisher in the late 1960s, with scarce subsequent pathological analysis of the "lacunar hypothesis" and no reliable approaches for direct in vivo imaging of the small intracranial vessels. Read More

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Prenatal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and early childhood neurodevelopment: A population-based birth cohort study.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 24;785:147334. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (Fudan University), China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Although previous studies have reported the adverse effect of air pollution exposure during pregnancy on neurodevelopment in children, epidemiological evidence is limited, and the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to explore the association between prenatal ambient fine particulate matter (PM) exposure and early childhood neurodevelopment in a large birth cohort study of 4009 maternal-child pairs. Prenatal daily PM exposure concentrations at 1 km spatial revolution were estimated using high-performance machine-learning models. Read More

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Dietary acid load and lung cancer risk: A case-control study in men.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 Apr 25;28:100382. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Unit of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Joanicó 3265, Montevideo 11600, Uruguay.

Background: Dysregulation of the endogenous acid-base balance can contribute to inflammation and cancer development if metabolic acidosis is sustained. The epidemiologic evidence on the association between diet-dependent acid load and cancer risk is scarce and inconsistent. We aim to explore the possible role of dietary acid load in lung cancer (LC) risk. Read More

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The level of evidence of the publications on conservative surgery for the treatment of diabetic forefoot ulcers: A scoping review.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Jan 28;47:101784. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Lebanese American University Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Lebanese American University, School of Medicine, Lebanon; Center for Evidence-Based Anatomy, Sport & Orthopedics Research, Lebanon.

Objective: The diabetic foot disease is one of the most serious complications of diabetes causing high rates of amputations, premature deaths and healthcare cost. While standard non-surgical care is the mainstay of treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), many reports demonstrated that conservative surgery particularly in the forefoot, compared better in terms of clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, the quality of surgical articles dealing with diabetic ulcers of the forefoot is thought to be average. Read More

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January 2021

Effectiveness of home health care in reducing return to hospital: Evidence from a multi-hospital study in the US.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Apr 20;119:103946. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Marquette University College of Nursing, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI, 53201-1881, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Home health care, a commonly used bridge strategy for transitioning from hospital to home-based care, is expected to contribute to readmission avoidance efforts. However, in studies using disease-specific samples, evidence about the effectiveness of home health care in reducing readmissions is mixed.

Objective: To examine the effectiveness of home health care in reducing return to hospital across a diverse sample of patients discharged home following acute care hospitalization. Read More

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Lack of observed tolerance to diazepam nasal spray (Valtoco®) after long-term rescue therapy in patients with epilepsy: Interim results from a phase 3, open-label, repeat-dose safety study.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 3;120:107983. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neurelis, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA.

Objective: Tolerance is a known consideration for maintenance use of benzodiazepines and other antiseizure drugs; however, clinical experience suggests that tolerance may not be anticipated with long-term intermittent use of benzodiazepines as rescue therapy. Diazepam nasal spray (Valtoco®) is a proprietary intranasal formulation approved for the acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (ie, seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) in patients with epilepsy aged ≥6 years. Reported here are exploratory analyses investigating whether there was evidence of development of tolerance in an interim analysis of a long-term, phase 3, open-label safety study of diazepam nasal spray. Read More

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Multidisciplinary management of a traumatic posterior meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm: A case report and review of the literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 29;82:105933. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA; University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Background: Meningeal arterial injuries represent <1% of all blunt traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Middle meningeal artery (MMA) lesions comprise the majority. However, there is little clinical data on posterior meningeal artery (PMA) injuries. Read More

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Construction of evidence-based practice competencies for nurses in China: A modified Delphi study.

Nurse Educ Today 2021 Apr 24;102:104927. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence-based practice is considered as the core competency requirement for nursing practice internationally. However, there is limited information regarding the evidence-based practice competency indicators for clinical nurses in China.

Objective: To establish a set of evidence-based practice competencies specific to nurses in China. Read More

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Alarmins (IL-33, sST2, HMGB1, and S100B) as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 29;138:380-387. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Experimental Immunology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

There is growing evidence that immune/inflammatory processes are related to the etiology of schizophrenia. Danger-/damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), also called alarmins, are recognized as inflammatory mediators that play an important role in the development of many infection-induced or sterile inflammatory diseases. The importance of DAMPs particles in various mental disorders is still not clear. Read More

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Spinal fractures incurred by sports related injuries.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Wessex Neurological Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom; Department of Neurosurgery, Queens Hospital, Barking Havering Redbridge University Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Sports related injuries are the third commonest cause of spine fractures. Spinal fractures incurred as a result of partaking in sport by their nature are different to those associated with frailty and road traffic accidents. The patient demographics and nature of fractures associated with sports activities is not well documented. Read More

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Longitudinal Predictive Modeling of Tau Progression Along the Structural Connectome.

Neuroimage 2021 May 3:118126. Epub 2021 May 3.

University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts; Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Tau neurofibrillary tangles, a pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), exhibit a stereotypical spatiotemporal trajectory that is strongly correlated with disease progression and cognitive decline. Personalized prediction of tau progression is, therefore, vital for the early diagnosis and prognosis of AD. Evidence from both animal and human studies is suggestive of tau transmission along the brains preexisting neural connectivity conduits. Read More

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Long noncoding RNA TP53TG1 suppresses the growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating the PRDX4/β-catenin pathway.

Cancer Lett 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052, PR China. Electronic address:

Emerging evidence has shown that aberrant expression of lncRNA-TP53TG1 plays important roles in various malignancies. However, the biological functions of lncRNA-TP53TG1 in hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as the underlying mechanisms, remain largely unknown. Here, we assessed whether lncRNA-TP53TG1 plays a key role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Read More

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Beyond "Safe and Effective": The urgent need for high-impact smoking cessation medications.

Prev Med 2021 Apr 24:106567. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Center for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Smoking cessation medications (SCMs) are an evidence-based cornerstone of comprehensive tobacco control programs globally. However, the impact of SCMs on population smoking prevalence is controversial, with inconsistencies between randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and population-based observational studies. We estimated SCM impact on permanent cessation and population smoking prevalence by extrapolating efficacy estimates from meta-analyses of RCTs, using the standard population impact formula: efficacy*reach. Read More

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Interdisciplinary assessment and diagnostic algorithm: the role of the cardiologist.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 May 3:108851. Epub 2021 May 3.

St George's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom; IRCCS San Raffaele Roma; St Heliers and Epsom Hospital.

Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing heart failure and those with heart failure are at higher risk of developing diabetes. In patients with diabetes antidiabetic medications and the metabolic alterations of diabetes increase the risk of developing heart failure. In diabetic patients with heart failure and in those with an increased likelihood of developing the disease a stepwise approach based on the use of natriuretic peptides and echocardiography to rule out the presence of heart failure should be used. Read More

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Intravenous oxytocin dosing regimens for postpartum hemorrhage prevention at cesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Program, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia; School of Population and Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: To synthesize available evidence on intravenous (IV) oxytocin dosing regimens for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at cesarean section (CS).

Data Sources: We searched Medline/OVID, Embase, Global Index Medicus, CINAHL, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP for eligible studies published until Feb 2020. Read More

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Comparative effectiveness of team-based care with a clinical decision support system versus team-based care alone on cardiovascular risk reduction among patients with diabetes: Rationale and design of the D4C trial.

Am Heart J 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Xiamen Diabetes Institute, and Xiamen Clinical Medical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China; Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Diabetes Translational Medicine, Xiamen, China.. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetes has become a major public health challenge worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia major risk factors for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are common in patients with diabetes in China. We propose to compare the effectiveness of team-based care plus a clinical decision support system (CDSS) with team-based care alone on glycemic, blood pressure (BP), and lipid control, and clinical CVD reduction among patients with type-2 diabetes and at high risk for CVD. Read More

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Comparative assessment of interventions for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis: A network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Acta Trop 2021 May 3:105944. Epub 2021 May 3.

Dental Training Department, Ministry of Health, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain.

Introduction: Various interventions including laser therapy, heat therapy, and several drugs have been trialed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Due to the lack of an evidence-based comparison of all these interventions, we carried out the present network meta-analysis.

Methods: Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of any interventions in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Read More

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Dismantling, optimising, and personalising internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression: a systematic review and component network meta-analysis using individual participant data.

Lancet Psychiatry 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is a viable delivery format of CBT for depression. However, iCBT programmes include training in a wide array of cognitive and behavioural skills via different delivery methods, and it remains unclear which of these components are more efficacious and for whom.

Methods: We did a systematic review and individual participant data component network meta-analysis (cNMA) of iCBT trials for depression. Read More

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A neuro-symbolic method for understanding free-text medical evidence.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University, New York, USA.

Objective: We introduce Medical evidence Dependency (MD)-informed attention, a novel neuro-symbolic model for understanding free-text clinical trial publications with generalizability and interpretability.

Materials And Methods: We trained one head in the multi-head self-attention model to attend to the Medical evidence Ddependency (MD) and to pass linguistic and domain knowledge on to later layers (MDinformed). This MD-informed attention model was integrated into BioBERT and tested on 2 public machine reading comprehension benchmarks for clinical trial publications: Evidence Inference 2. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between ICSI and chromosome abnormalities.

Hum Reprod Update 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Fertility Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: In the decade following the introduction of ICSI, a higher prevalence of de novo chromosome abnormalities, in particular sex chromosome and autosomal structural abnormalities, as well as inherited abnormalities was described in children conceived by ICSI compared to both naturally conceived (NC) children and children conceived by standard IVF. The explanation for the observed increase in prevalence is not clear and has been suggested to reflect parental factors (e.g. Read More

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Perceived built environment, health-related quality of life and health care utilization.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251251. Epub 2021 May 6.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

Previous research has shown that the built environment plays a crucial role for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health care utilization. But, there is limited evidence on the independence of this association from lifestyle and social environment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate these associations, independent of the social environment, physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Read More

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Distribution of Merlin in eukaryotes and first report of DNA transposons in kinetoplastid protists.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251133. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratório de Ciências e Tecnologias Aplicadas em Saúde (LaCTAS), Instituto Carlos Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

DNA transposons are defined as repeated DNA sequences that can move within the host genome through the action of transposases. The transposon superfamily Merlin was originally found mainly in animal genomes. Here, we describe a global distribution of the Merlin in animals, fungi, plants and protists, reporting for the first time their presence in Rhodophyceae, Metamonada, Discoba and Alveolata. Read More

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An update to Hippocampome.org by integrating single-cell phenotypes with circuit function in vivo.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 6;19(5):e3001213. Epub 2021 May 6.

Bioengineering Department, Volgenau School of Engineering, George Mason University, Virginia, United States of America.

Understanding brain operation demands linking basic behavioral traits to cell-type specific dynamics of different brain-wide subcircuits. This requires a system to classify the basic operational modes of neurons and circuits. Single-cell phenotyping of firing behavior during ongoing oscillations in vivo has provided a large body of evidence on entorhinal-hippocampal function, but data are dispersed and diverse. Read More

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A framework for prospective, adaptive meta-analysis (FAME) of aggregate data from randomised trials.

PLoS Med 2021 May 6;18(5):e1003629. Epub 2021 May 6.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Institute of Clinical Trials & Methodology, University College London, United Kingdom.

Background: The vast majority of systematic reviews are planned retrospectively, once most eligible trials have completed and reported, and are based on aggregate data that can be extracted from publications. Prior knowledge of trial results can introduce bias into both review and meta-analysis methods, and the omission of unpublished data can lead to reporting biases. We present a collaborative framework for prospective, adaptive meta-analysis (FAME) of aggregate data to provide results that are less prone to bias. Read More

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Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Botulism, 2021.

MMWR Recomm Rep 2021 May 7;70(2):1-30. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC.

Botulism is a rare, neurotoxin-mediated, life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid descending paralysis that begins with cranial nerve palsies and might progress to extremity weakness and respiratory failure. Botulinum neurotoxin, which inhibits acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction, is produced by the anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum and, rarely, by related species (C. baratii and C. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 Social Distancing on the Quality of Dying: A Call for Discretionary Application of Rules.

J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care 2021 May 6:1-5. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Evidence Based Healthcare, Bond University, Robina, Australia.

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Detection of Species, and -Like and -Like Endosymbionts in and from a Shared Field Site in Georgia, United States of America.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Two abundant species of aggressive ticks commonly feed on humans in Georgia: the Gulf Coast tick () and the Lone Star tick (). is the primary host of , " Rickettsia andeanae," and a -like endosymbiont (AmacFLE), whereas is the primary host for , , , and a -like endosymbiont (AamCLE). Horizontal transmission of from to by co-feeding has been described, and has been found infrequently in ticks. Read More

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Recombinant bacterial endotoxin testing: a proven solution.

Biotechniques 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Industry Healthcare, bioMérieux Germany GmbH, Nürtingen, 72622, Germany.

Testing of parenteral pharmaceuticals and medical devices for pyrogens (fever-inducing substances) is critical to patient safety. The original rabbit pyrogen test has largely been replaced by different bacterial endotoxin tests based on amebocyte lysate (LAL), sourced from the blood equivalent of horseshoe crabs after comparative studies to the rabbit pyrogen test. Since 2004 a bacterial endotoxin test based on recombinant factor C (rFC), the endotoxin sensor protein inside of LAL, has been used as an animal-free alternative to LAL. Read More

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