436,287 results match your criteria base formation


p53 regulated senescence mechanism and role of its modulators in age-related disorders.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jun 9:114651. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research- Raebareli, New Transit Campus, Bijnor-Sisendi Road, Sarojini Nagar, Near CRPF Base Camp, Lucknow Uttar Pradesh, 226301, India. Electronic address:

Multiple co-morbidities are associated with age, and there is a need for the broad-spectrum drug to prevent multiple regimens that may cause an adverse effect in the geriatric population. Cellular senescence is a primary mechanism for ageing in various tissues. p53, a tumor suppressor protein, plays a significant role in forming DNA damage foci and post different stress responses. Read More

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MoSep3 and MoExo70 are needed for MoCK2 ring assembly essential for appressorium function in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory for Ecological Pest Control of Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Polar growth during appressorium formation is vital for the penetration peg formation in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Previous research has shown that the Sln1-septin-exocyst complex, localized at the base of the appressorium in contact with the leaf surface, forms a ring structure that influences growth polarity and affects penetration peg formation, and is necessary for pathogenicity. Our previous research showed CK2 proteins assemble another ring structure positioned perpendicular to the Sln1-septin-exocyst complex. Read More

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Emamectin benzoate induced enzymatic and transcriptional alternation in detoxification mechanism of predatory beetle Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) at the sublethal concentration.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, P.R. China.

In this study, the detoxification enzyme activity and the transcriptional profile changes in the second instar through RNA-sequencing technology due to emamectin benzoate (EB) were assessed. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) enzyme activity was not altered by EB due to the change in concentration and exposure time in all treatments. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme was not considerably varying in all treatments, while exposure time significantly changed the enzyme activity. Read More

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Dynamic transcriptome analysis and Methoprene-tolerant gene knockdown reveal that juvenile hormone regulates oogenesis and vitellogenin synthesis in Propylea Japonica.

Genomics 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, Henan 455000, China; Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Propylea japonica has been regarded as one of the most remarkable natural enemies against aphid in China. However, the mechanism of juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of reproduction in P. japonica is still unclear. Read More

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Advances in chitooligosaccharides chemical modifications.

Biopolymers 2021 Jun 11:e23461. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

CST COLAS 4, Magny-les-Hameaux Cedex, France.

Chitooligosaccharides (COS) differ from chitosan by their molar mass: those of COS are defined to be lower than 20 kg mol . Their functionalization is widely described in the literature and leads to the introduction of new properties that broaden their application fields. Like chitosan, COS modification sites are mainly primary amine and hydroxyl groups. Read More

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Closed non-suction drain placement as haematoma and seroma formation preventive measure post-nylon darn surgery for inguinoscrotal hernias in adults.

Hernia 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle, Bu, Accra, Ghana.

Purpose: Inguinal hernia is a common male surgical disease. Intervention carries a wide range of complications such as scrotal haematoma and seroma which may require surgical re-intervention or predispose patients to developing infections, pains or feeling of mass. This could lead to long hospital stay. Read More

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Nickel-Catalyzed Thiolation of Aryl Nitriles.

Chemistry 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, D-CHAB, SWITZERLAND.

A nickel-catalyzed thiolation of aryl nitriles has been developed to access functionalized aryl thioethers. The ligand dcype (1,2-Bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethane) as well as the base KO t Bu (potassium tert -butoxide) are essential to achieve this transformation. This scalable and practical process involves both a C-C bond activation and a C-S bond formation. Read More

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Catalyst- and Solvent-Free Synthesis of Chemically Stable Aza-Bridged Bis(phenanthroline) Macrocycle-Linked Covalent Organic Framework.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology UNIST, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering/Center for Dimension-Controllable Orga, 100, Banyeon, 689-798, Ulsan, KOREA, REPUBLIC OF.

Developing new linkage-based covalent organic frameworks (COFs) is one of the major topics in reticular chemistry. Electrically conductive COFs have enabled applications in energy storage and electrochemical catalysis, which are not feasible using insulating COFs. Despite significant advances, the construction of chemically stable conductive COFs by the formation of new linkages remains relatively unexplored and challenging. Read More

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Extirpation of Recurrent Petrous Apex Cholesterol Granuloma Through the Zygomatic Approach: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Petrous apex cholesterol granulomas are believed to result from blockage of the normal aeration of the petrous air cells, resulting in a repetitive cycle of mucosal engorgement, hemorrhage, and granuloma formation.1 The lesion usually progressively expands causing compressive symptoms. The thick granulomatous wall envelopes various ages of breakdown products, including a cholesterol-containing fluid, which is typically hyperintense on T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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Sphingolipid Δ4-desaturation is an important metabolic step for glycosylceramide formation in Physcomitrium patens.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Goettingen, Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, Department of Plant Biochemistry, Goettingen, Germany.

Glycosylceramides (GlcCers) are abundant membrane components in vascular plants and are associated with cell differentiation, organogenesis, and protein secretion. Long-chain base (LCB) Δ4-desaturation is an important structural feature for metabolic channeling of sphingolipids into GlcCer formation in plants and fungi. In Arabidopsis thaliana LCB Δ4-unsaturated GlcCers are restricted to pollen and floral tissue, indicating that LCB Δ4-desaturation has a less important overall physiological role in A. Read More

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Pyrene-Based AIEE Active Nanoprobe for Zn and Tyrosine Detection Demonstrated by DFT, Bioimaging, and Organic Thin-Film Transistor.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Applied Chemistry, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University (formerly National Chiao Tung University), Hsinchu 300, Taiwan.

The development of aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) active nanoprobes without any synthetic complication for solution-state and organic thin-film transistor (OTFT)-based sensory applications is still a challenging task. In this study, the novel pyrene-incorporated Schiff base (5-phenyl-4-((pyren-1-ylmethylene)amino)-4-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol; ) with an AIEE property was synthesized via a one-pot reaction and was reported for detecting Zn and tyrosine in the solution state and OTFT. In the AIEE studies of (in CHCN) at various water fractions (: 0-97. Read More

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Swimming exercise improves short- and long-term memories: Time-course changes.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(11):e14851

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

The beneficial effects of exercise training on memory formation are well documented. However, the memory enhancement profile following the time-course of exercise training remains unknown. In this investigation, changes in the spatial hippocampal memory following a time-course of swimming exercise training were examined. Read More

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Spatial distribution of apoplastic antioxidative constituents in maize root.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Apoplastic antioxidative constituents (enzymes, primary and secondary metabolites, ROS) from different root zones of hydroponically grown maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated using a non-invasive isolation procedure: filter strip method. Filter strips were placed at specific positions on the root surface: apical zone (tip) and basal zone (base) to absorb apoplastic fluid. Read More

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Consuming Different Structural Parts of Bamboo Induce Gut Microbiome Changes in Captive Giant Pandas.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Chengdu, 610081, China.

Giant pandas consume different structural parts of bamboo (shoots, leaves and culms) during different seasons. Previous research showed different bamboo parts have varying nutritional content and that a long-term diet consisting of a single part of bamboo resulted in remarkable metabolic changes within captive giant pandas. However, the effects on the gut microbiome of giant pandas, as a result of a single bamboo part diet, have not been investigated. Read More

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Spatiotemporal Developmental Upregulation of Prestin Correlates With the Severity and Location of Cyclodextrin-Induced Outer Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 24;9:643709. Epub 2021 May 24.

Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States.

2-Hyroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) is being used to treat Niemann-Pick C1, a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal cholesterol metabolism. HPβCD slows disease progression, but unfortunately causes severe, rapid onset hearing loss by destroying the outer hair cells (OHC). HPβCD-induced damage is believed to be related to the expression of prestin in OHCs. Read More

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Concerted cutting by Spo11 illuminates meiotic DNA break mechanics.

Nature 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Genetic recombination arises during meiosis through the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are created by Spo11, a topoisomerase-like protein. Spo11 DSBs form preferentially in nucleosome-depleted regions termed hotspots, yet how Spo11 engages with its DNA substrate to catalyse DNA cleavage is poorly understood. Although most recombination events are initiated by a single Spo11 cut, here we show in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that hyperlocalized, concerted Spo11 DSBs separated by 33 to more than 100 base pairs also form, which we term 'double cuts'. Read More

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Spo11 generates gaps through concerted cuts at sites of topological stress.

Nature 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Max Perutz Labs Vienna, University of Vienna, Department of Chromosome Biology, Vienna, Austria.

Meiotic recombination is essential for chromosome segregation at meiosis and fertility. It is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Spo11, a eukaryotic homologue of an archaeal topoisomerase (Topo VIA). Here we describe previously uncharacterized Spo11-induced lesions, 34 to several hundred base pair-long gaps, which are generated by coordinated pairs of DSBs termed double DSBs. Read More

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Defining genome architecture at base-pair resolution.

Nature 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

In higher eukaryotes, many genes are regulated by enhancers that are 10-10 base pairs (bp) away from the promoter. Enhancers contain transcription-factor-binding sites (which are typically around 7-22 bp), and physical contact between the promoters and enhancers is thought to be required to modulate gene expression. Although chromatin architecture has been mapped extensively at resolutions of 1 kilobase and above; it has not been possible to define physical contacts at the scale of the proteins that determine gene expression. Read More

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TCP15 interacts with the MIXTA-like transcription factor MYB106/NOECK.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Jun 10:1938432. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Cátedra de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.

MYB106 and MYB16 are MIXTA-like transcription factors that control trichome maturation and cuticle formation in . In a recent study, we found that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) transcription factor TCP15 also acts as an important regulator of aerial epidermis specialization in through the control of trichome development and cuticle formation. TCP15 and MYB106 regulate the expression of common groups of genes, including genes coding for transcription factors and enzymes of the cuticle biosynthesis pathway. Read More

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CsrA Regulation via Binding to the Base-pairing Small RNA Spot 42.

Mol Microbiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA.

The Csr system and base-pairing small RNAs represent two predominant modes of bacterial posttranscriptional regulation, which globally influence gene expression. Binding of CsrA protein to the 5' UTR or initial mRNA coding sequences can affect translation, RNA stability, and/or transcript elongation. Base-pairing sRNAs also regulate these processes, often requiring assistance from the RNA chaperone Hfq. Read More

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Chelated Magnesium Logic Gate Regulates Riboswitch Pseudoknot Formation.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Kolkata, West Bengal 741246, India.

Magnesium plays a critical role in the structure, dynamics, and function of RNA. The precise microscopic effect of chelated magnesium on RNA structure is yet to be explored. Magnesium is known to act through its diffuse cloud around RNA, through the outer sphere (water-mediated), inner sphere, and often chelated ion-mediated interactions. Read More

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Exogenously applied nutrients can improve the chickpea productivity under water stress conditions by modulating the antioxidant enzyme system.

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e236251. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The Ismia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Water stress is one of the major factor restricting the growth and development of chickpea plants by inducing various morphological and physiological changes. Therefore, the present research activity was designed to improve the chickpea productivity under water stress conditions by modulating antioxidant enzyme system. Experimental treatments comprised of two chickpea genotypes i. Read More

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The complete chloroplast genome of (Lamiaceae) from Shaanxi Province, China.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 May 19;6(6):1685-1686. Epub 2021 May 19.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname.

C.Y.Wu is a medicinal perennial herb native to China. Read More

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Clostridioides difficile specific DNA adenine methyltransferase CamA squeezes and flips adenine out of DNA helix.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3436. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Epigenetics and Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Clostridioides difficile infections are an urgent medical problem. The newly discovered C. difficile adenine methyltransferase A (CamA) is specified by all C. Read More

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Lipids and peripheral neuropathy.

Curr Opin Lipidol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Peter Mount Building, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK Department of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Medicine, Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Weill-Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar.

Purpose Of Review: Hyperlipidaemia is associated with the development of neuropathy. Indeed, a mechanistic link between altered lipid metabolism and peripheral nerve dysfunction has been demonstrated in a number of experimental and clinical studies. Furthermore, post hoc analyses of clinical trials of cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering pharmacotherapy have shown reduced rates of progression of diabetic neuropathy. Read More

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A Novel Schiff base macrocycle based on 1,1'-binaphthyl for fluorescence recognition.

Luminescence 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, 5 Senju-Asahi-cho, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

A novel chiral polyimine macrocycle C-1 was designed and synthesized by the self-condensation of the dialdehyde of the chiral dinaphtho[2,1-d:1',2'-f][1,3]dioxepine derivative and o-phenylenediamine via Schiff base formation, and the corresponding polyamine macrocycle C-1H was obtained by the reduction of the polyimine macrocycle. The UV-vis and fluorescence spectral studies indicated that both C-1 and C-1H form the complex with metal ions in a 1:2 ratio. The fluorescent behavior of C-1 upon the addition of Zn or Cd showed a "turn-on" response accompanied with fluorescence enhancement at 510 nm by 6 times for Cd and by 13 times for Zn . Read More

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An intermolecular hydrogen bond plays a determining role in product selection of a surface confined Schiff-base reaction.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, Department of Chemistry, School of Science & Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Herein, we illustrate how the cooperation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and conformation flexibility leads to the formation of diverse complex covalent nanostructures on the surface, while the relative abundance of the final products can be further tuned by adjusting the molar ratio and concentration of monomers. Read More

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The gut microbiota as a therapeutic target for obesity: a scoping review.

Nutr Res Rev 2021 Jun 8:1-33. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

There is mounting evidence that microbiome composition is intimately and dynamically connected with host energy balance and metabolism. The gut microbiome is emerging as a novel target for counteracting the chronically positive energy balance in obesity, a disease of pandemic scale which contributes to >70% of premature deaths. This scoping review explores the potential for therapeutic modulation of gut microbiota as a means of prevention and/or treatment of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Read More

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Leaf water δO reflects water vapour exchange and uptake by C and CAM epiphytic bromeliads in Panama.

Funct Plant Biol 2021 Jun;48(7):732-742

Physiological Ecology Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK; and Corresponding author. Email:

The distributions of CAM and C3 epiphytic bromeliads across an altitudinal gradient in western Panama were identified from carbon isotope (δ13C) signals, and epiphyte water balance was investigated via oxygen isotopes (δ18O) across wet and dry seasons. There were significant seasonal differences in leaf water (δ18Olw), precipitation, stored 'tank' water and water vapour. Values of δ18Olw were evaporatively enriched at low altitude in the dry season for the C3 epiphytes, associated with low relative humidity (RH) during the day. Read More

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A review of the evidence base for utilizing Child-Pugh criteria for guiding dosing of anticancer drugs in patients with cancer and liver impairment.

ESMO Open 2021 Jun 4;6(3):100162. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

As the liver is vital for the metabolism of many anticancer drugs, determining the correct starting doses in cancer patients with liver impairment is key to safe prescription and prevention of unnecessary adverse effects. Clinicians typically use liver function tests when evaluating patients; however, prescribing information and summaries of product characteristics often suggest dosing of anticancer drugs in patients with liver impairment based on the Child-Pugh criteria, even though the criteria were not developed for this purpose. In this review, we assessed all the oncological small molecule and cytotoxic drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) over a 5-year period from 2014 to 2018. Read More

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