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Oxidative stress following acute kidney injury causes disruption of lung cell cilia and their release into the bronchoaveolar lavage fluid and lung injury, which are exacerbated by Idh2 deletion.

Redox Biol 2021 Jul 21;46:102077. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Anatomy, Cardiovascular Research Institute and BK21 Plus, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Junggu, Daegu, 41944, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) induces distant organ injury, which is a serious concern in patients with AKI. Recent studies have demonstrated that distant organ injury is associated with oxidative stress of organ and damage of cilium, an axoneme-based cellular organelle. However, the role of oxidative stress and cilia damage in AKI-induced lung injury remains to be defined. Read More

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MiR-155 regulates Th9 differentiation in children with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia by targeting SIRT1.

Hum Immunol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Emergency, Anhui Children's Hospital, 39 Wangjiang East Road, Baohe District, Hefei 230051, China.

Th9 is a subset of CD4 T cells that mainly secrete IL-9. Th9/IL-9 participates in immune response during Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia (MRSA) infection. Here, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 30 children with MRSA pneumonia (MRSA group) and 10 children with bronchial foreign bodies (Control group). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 activates lung epithelial cell proinflammatory signaling and leads to immune dysregulation in COVID-19 patients.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jul 23;70:103500. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Institute of Digestive Disease and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, State Key laboratory of Digestive Disease, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Background: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has become a global health emergency. We aim to decipher SARS-CoV-2 infected cell types, the consequent host immune response and their interplay in lung of COVID-19 patients.

Methods: We analyzed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 10 healthy donors, 6 severe COVID-19 patients and 3 mild recovered patients. Read More

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Butorphanol Promotes Macrophage Phenotypic Transition to Inhibit Inflammatory Lung Injury κ Receptors.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:692286. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by diffuse inflammation of the lung parenchyma and refractory hypoxemia. Butorphanol is commonly used clinically for perioperative pain relief, but whether butorphanol can regulate LPS-induced alveolar macrophage polarization is unclear. In this study, we observed that butorphanol markedly attenuated sepsis-induced lung tissue injury and mortality in mice. Read More

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Jia-Wei-Yu-Ping-Feng-San Attenuates Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Mediated Airway Inflammation in Allergic Asthma.

Front Pharmacol 2021 9;12:703724. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute of Respiratory Disease, Longhua Hospital Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The incidence of asthma has increased in recent decades. Although corticosteroids and bronchodilators are used in clinical practice, the control of asthma remains a challenge. Allergic asthma is characterized airway inflammation mediated by type 2 immune response. Read More

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Tyrosol improves ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in rat model through prevention of airway inflammation.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, 31060, Hatay, Turkey.

Asthma is an inflammatory disease that affects many people around the world, especially persons at paediatric age group. The effectiveness of tyrosol, a natural phenolic compound, was examined in the asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA). For this purpose, four groups, each consisting of eight rats, were arranged. Read More

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Small-Airway Dysfunction is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Asthma: Evidence from Two Mouse Models.

J Asthma Allergy 2021 12;14:883-896. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200080, People's Republic of China.

Background: There has been growing evidence of small-airway dysfunction in patients with asthma. Few studies have evaluated the mechanism of small-airway dysfunction in mouse models of asthma.

Purpose: We explored the correlation between small-airway spirometric variables and large-airway function or inflammation in different endotypes of asthma. Read More

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Hydrogen regulates the M1/M2 polarization of alveolar macrophages in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Exp Lung Res 2021 Jul 20:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

College of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide, so far there is no ideal treatment method. Previous studies have shown that hydrogen (H) is involved in the treatment of COPD as an antioxidant. In this study, the effect of H on M1/M2 polarization of alveolar macrophages in COPD rats was observed, and its anti-inflammatory mechanism was further elucidated. Read More

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Early Detection of and by mNGS in a Critically Ill Patient With Pneumonia After Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Treatment: Case Report and Literature Review.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 30;8:686512. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

can cause pneumonia, leading to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because of its harsh growth requirements, limited detection methods, and non-specific clinical manifestations, diagnosing pneumonia remains still challenging. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) technology has increased the rate of detection of . Read More

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Protective effect of the effective part of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees on PM-induced lung injury in rats by modulating the NF-κB pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 13;280:114420. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475000, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, a traditional Chinese herb, has been widely used in various Asian countries as a treatment for upper respiratory tract infections for centuries. Read More

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Gut probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus attenuates PDE4B-mediated interleukin-6 induced by SARS-CoV-2 membrane glycoprotein.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jul 13:108821. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, 32001, Taiwan; Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 80708, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Membrane glycoprotein is the most abundant protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but its role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been fully characterized. Mice intranasally inoculated with membrane glycoprotein substantially increased the interleukin (IL)-6, a hallmark of the cytokine storm, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), compared to mice inoculated with green fluorescent protein (GFP). The high level of IL-6 induced by membrane glycoprotein was significantly diminished in phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4B) knockout mice, demonstrating the essential role of PDE4B in IL-6 signaling. Read More

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Allergic Asthma-Induced Cognitive Impairment is Alleviated by Dexamethasone.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:680815. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Institute of Neuroscience, Basic Medical College, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Allergic asthma is a typical chronic inflammatory disease of respiratory tract. Clinical data shows that patients with allergic asthma have different degrees of cognitive dysfunction. The molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of asthma-induced cognitive disorder is not yet well defined. Read More

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A modified fluorescent sensor for reporting glucose concentration in the airway lumen.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(7):e0254248. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom.

We have modified the periplasmic Escherichia coli glucose/galactose binding protein (GBP) and labelled with environmentally sensitive fluorophores to further explore its potential as a sensor for the evaluation of glucose concentration in airway surface liquid (ASL). We identified E149C/A213R GBP labelled with N,N'-Dimethyl-N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)ethylenediamine (IANBD, emission wavelength maximum 536nm) with a Kd for D-glucose of 1.02mM and a fluorescence dynamic range of 5. Read More

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Protective effects of different anti‑inflammatory drugs on tracheal stenosis following injury and potential mechanisms.

Mol Med Rep 2021 May 9;23(5). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530007, P.R. China.

Tracheal stenosis following injury cannot be effectively treated. The current study compared the protective effects of different anti‑inflammatory drugs on tracheal stenosis and investigated their possible mechanisms. Rabbit tracheal stenosis models following injury were constructed and confirmed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Read More

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FUNDC1 Regulates Autophagy by Inhibiting ROS-NLRP3 Signaling to Avoid Apoptosis in the Lung In A Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model.

Shock 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Center of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 8 Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, No.87 Xiangya Road, Kai-Fu District, Changsha, Hunan Province, PR China, 410008 Animal Research Laboratory of Department of Central Lab, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 1Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 1Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China Department of Critical Care Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Abstract: The incidence and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are high, but the relevant mechanism for this disorder remains unclear. Autophagy plays an important role in the development of ARDS. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein FUNDC1 is involved in hypoxia-mediated mitochondrial autophagy, which may contribute to ARDS development. Read More

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GSK-3 Inhibition Modulates Metalloproteases in a Model of Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 21;8:633054. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Hematology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is mainly characterized by aberrant extracellular matrix deposition, consequent to epithelial lung injury and myofibroblast activation, and inflammatory response. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine-threonine kinase involved in several pathways, and its inhibition has been already suggested as a therapeutic strategy for IPF patients. There is evidence that GSK-3 is able to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and that its inhibition modulates MMP expression in the tissues. Read More

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Effects of infliximab on lung and circulating natural killer cells, CD56+ T cells and B cells in sarcoidosis.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 Jul;8(1)

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Theme Inflammation and Ageing, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is pivotal in sarcoid granuloma formation, and inhibitors of TNF-α offer an attractive third-line treatment option in sarcoidosis. The sarcoid inflammation is characterised by an exaggerated T helper 1 response, and evidence indicates a contribution of dysregulated and/or deficient NK (natural killer) cells, CD56+ T cells and B cells.

Objectives: Insight into how TNF-α inhibitors influence these cells may provide more information on inflammatory mechanisms in sarcoidosis and improve understanding of such treatment. Read More

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[Generation and phenotypic characterization of S100A9 gene knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2021 Jun;73(3):482-490

Institute of Medical Biology, College of Life Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430072, China.

S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) is involved in a variety of biological processes such as inflammation and tumor cell migration and invasion regulation. The purpose of this study was to construct S100A9 gene-edited mice by using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, thereby providing an animal model for exploring the biological functions of this gene. According to the S100A9 gene sequence, the single-stranded small guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting exons 2 and 3 was transcribed in vitro, and a mixture of Cas9 mRNA and candidate sgRNA was injected into mouse fertilized eggs by microinjection. Read More

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Cangrelor ameliorates CLP-induced pulmonary injury in sepsis by inhibiting GPR17.

Eur J Med Res 2021 Jul 6;26(1):70. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Gongli Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200135, People's Republic of China.

Background: Sepsis is a common complication of severe wound injury and infection, with a very high mortality rate. The P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, cangrelor, is an antagonist anti-platelet drug.

Methods: In our study, we investigated the protective mechanisms of cangrelor in CLP-induced pulmonary injury in sepsis, using C57BL/6 mouse models. Read More

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Lippia javanica (Zumbani) herbal tea infusion attenuates allergic airway inflammation via inhibition of Th2 cell activation and suppression of oxidative stress.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Jul 5;21(1):192. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University PBX1, 5117, Mthatha, South Africa.

Background: Lippia javanica (lemon bush) is commonly used in the treatment of respiratory ailments, including asthma in southern African countries but there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-asthmatic effects of L. javanica using a rat model of asthma. Read More

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane vesicles ameliorates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating the balance of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells through Tim-3 and TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

Inflamm Res 2021 Aug 5;70(8):891-902. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders; National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders; China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 136, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yuzhong Dis, Chongqing, 400014, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells are two subsets of CD4 + T cells with opposite effects which play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of lung injury. In this study, we aim to investigate the protective effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) preconditioning on lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and potential mechanisms.

Methods: Pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, Control + OMVs, I/R and I/R + OMVs groups. Read More

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Exploring the Mechanism Whereby Sinensetin Delays the Progression of Pulmonary Fibrosis Based on Network Pharmacology and Pulmonary Fibrosis Models.

Front Pharmacol 2021 18;12:693061. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Physiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis (PF), a progressively fatal disease, has increased in recent years. However, there are no effective medicines available. Previous results have shown that sinensetin probably has some curative effects on PF. Read More

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Quantitative parameters of lymphocyte nuclear morphology in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as novel biomarkers for sarcoidosis.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Jul 3;16(1):298. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan.

Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is one of the fundamental examinations for the differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), and lymphocytosis strongly indicates alternative diagnoses rather than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the BALF lymphocytosis is observed in several ILDs. We considered that quantitative evaluation of the BALF lymphocyte nuclear morphology would be useful in the differential diagnosis of ILDs with increased BALF lymphocyte fraction. Read More

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Vitamin D Supplementation: Oxidative Stress Modulation in a Mouse Model of Ovalbumin-Induced Acute Asthmatic Airway Inflammation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 30;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Oncological Surgery and Gynecologic Oncology, "Iuliu Hațieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Asthma oxidative stress disturbances seem to enable supplementary proinflammatory pathways, thus contributing to disease development and severity. The current study analyzed the impact of two types of oral vitamin D (VD) supplementation regimens on the redox balance using a murine model of acute ovalbumin-induced (OVA-induced) asthmatic inflammation. The experimental prevention group received a long-term daily dose of 50 µg/kg (total dose of 1300 µg/kg), whereas the rescue group underwent a short-term daily dose of 100 µg/kg (total dose of 400 µg/kg). Read More

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Deletion Mutants of Phagosomal Transporters FptA and FptF Are Highly Attenuated for Virulence and Are Protective Against Lethal Intranasal LVS Challenge in a Murine Model of Respiratory Tularemia.

Pathogens 2021 Jun 24;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

() is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that is a Tier 1 Select Agent of concern for biodefense for which there is no licensed vaccine. A subfamily of 9 phagosomal transporter () genes belonging to the Major Facilitator Superfamily of transporters was identified as critical to pathogenesis and potential targets for attenuation and vaccine development. We evaluated the attenuation and protective capacity of LVS derivatives with deletions of the and genes in the C57BL/6J mouse model of respiratory tularemia. Read More

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A Peptide Inhibitor of Peroxiredoxin 6 Phospholipase A Activity Significantly Protects against Lung Injury in a Mouse Model of Ventilator Induced Lung Injury (VILI).

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Physiology and Institute for Environmental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) is a lung injury syndrome associated with mechanical ventilation, most frequently for treatment of Acute Lung Injury (ALI), and generally secondary to the use of greater than physiologic tidal volumes. To reproduce this syndrome experimentally, C57Bl/6 mice were intubated and ventilated with low (4 mL/Kg body weight) or high (12 mL/Kg) tidal volume for 6 h. Lung parameters with low volume ventilation were unchanged from non-ventilated (control) mice. Read More

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Toxic effect of cooking oil fume (COF) on lungs: Evidence of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 29;221:112463. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cooking oil fumes (COF) is one of the primary sources of indoor air pollution in China, which is associated with respiratory diseases such as acute lung injury and lung cancer. However, evidence of COF toxic effect was few.

Objectives: The research was aimed to investigate the toxic effect and the underlying mechanisms induced by COF. Read More

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September 2021

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell subsets associate with the disease course in Löfgren's and non-Löfgren's sarcoidosis patients.

Respir Med 2021 Jun 24;186:106521. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Respiratory Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden; Respiratory Medicine Division, Department of Medicine Solna, And Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM), Karolinska Institutet; and Respiratory Medicine, Theme Inflammation and Infection, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous inflammatory disorder, that predominantly involves the lungs. Patients with Löfgren's syndrome (LS) are characterized by acute onset and usually have the HLA-DRB1*03 (DR3) allele and a good prognosis. Non-LS patients are usually DR3 and are more likely to develop chronic disease. Read More

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Epithelium-derived IL17A Promotes Cigarette Smoke-induced Inflammation and Mucus Hyperproduction.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 26441, Respiratory Medicine, Hangzhou, China;

Airway epithelium is a central modulator of innate and adaptive immunity in the lung. Interleukin (IL)17A expression was found to be increased in airway epithelium; however, the role of epithelial-derived IL17A in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. In this study, we aim to determine whether epithelial-derived IL17A regulates inflammation and mucus hyperproduction in COPD using a cultured human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line in vitro and airway epithelium IL17A-specific knockout mouse in vivo. Read More

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Increased microRNA-30a levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as a diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer.

PeerJ 2021 9;9:e11528. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: MicroRNA-30a (miRNA-30a) levels have been shown to increase in the plasma of lung cancer patients. Herein, we evaluated the miRNA-30a levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lung cancer patients as a potential biomarker for lung cancer diagnosis.

Methods: BALF miRNA-30a expression of 174 subjects was quantified using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and compared between lung cancer patients and control patients with benign lung diseases. Read More

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