399,507 results match your criteria bacterial cell


Biofilm patterns in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jul 23;251:126829. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India.

The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are attributable to matrix-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms. Biofilms are root cause of industrial biofouling and characterized by antimicrobial resistance during infections. Many biofilm studies examine specific Gram type cultures, whereas nearly all biofilm communities in nature comprise both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Read More

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Human tear fluid modulates the Pseudomonas aeruginosa transcriptome to alter antibiotic susceptibility.

Ocul Surf 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; Graduate Groups in Vision Science, Microbiology, and Infectious Diseases & Immunity, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Previously, we showed that tear fluid protects corneal epithelial cells against Pseudomonas aeruginosa without suppressing bacterial viability. Here, we studied how tear fluid affects bacterial gene expression.

Methods: RNA-sequencing was used to study the P. Read More

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Standard therapy of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease shows limited efficacy in an open source hollow fiber system that simulates human plasma and epithelial lining fluid pharmacokinetics.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Radboudumc Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Objectives: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria can cause chronic pulmonary disease (PD). Current treatment regimens of azithromycin, ethambutol and rifampicin have culture conversion rates of around 65%. Dynamic, pre-clinical models to assess the efficacy of treatment regimens are important to guide clinical trial development. Read More

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Immunometabolism in human brucellosis: An emerging field of investigation.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jul 28:105115. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Electronic address:

In recent years, extreme attention has been focused on the role of immunometabolism in the regulation of immune cell responses in healthy individuals during infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. In the infection biology area, it has been shown that there is a close relationship between the immune system and the host metabolic changes. Brucella species is an intracellular coccobacillus that infects humans and mammals, which led to brucellosis. Read More

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High presepsin concentrations in bile and its marked elevation in biliary tract diseases: A retrospective analysis.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Hematology, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, 2858741 Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Presepsin is a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of both bacterial infection and sepsis; however, elevated presepsin levels have also been observed without sepsis. We conducted several analyses to evaluate the clinical laboratory parameters affecting presepsin levels.

Method: We analyzed the association between sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and plasma presepsin levels and then analyzed clinical laboratory parameters in 567 patients with univariate and multivariate regression analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Read More

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Effects of Curcumin and Its Analogues on Infectious Diseases.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1291:75-101

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Infectious diseases (IDs) are life-threatening illnesses, which result from the spread of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. IDs are a major challenge for the healthcare systems around the world, leading to a wide variety of clinical manifestations and complications. Despite the capability of frontline-approved medications to partially prevent or mitigate the invasion and subsequent damage of IDs to host tissues and cells, problems such as drug resistance, insufficient efficacy, unpleasant side effects, and high expenses stand in the way of their beneficial applications. Read More

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January 2021

Green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne) Rehder leaf extract and its biological activities.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne) Rehder aqueous extract of leaf was used for biosynthesis of AgNPs and characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform-infrared, diffraction light scattering, and scanning electron microscope analysis. Moderate to strong antioxidant activity during in vitro antioxidant assays for scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) radicals, iron chelation, and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching was recorded with minimum IC value (27.70 ± 2. Read More

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Ultrastructural and pathogenicity of Brevibacillus laterosporus against sinantropic muscoid dipterans.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Forense, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Brevibacillus laterosporus has entomopathogenic potential against several orders of insects and its wide bioactivity is associated with a variety of strain-specific molecules. In order to avoid the use of synthetic insecticides, along with the need to control insect pests, microbial control has been widely used. Muscoid dipterans are known for their medical-veterinary and sanitary importance, and synanthropy. Read More

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Transient Transgenics: An Efficient Method to Identify Gene Regulatory Elements.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2319:119-136

Department of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

We describe a novel, efficient method to identify cis-acting DNA sequences that drive cell-specific gene expression during development. We utilize transfer of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic DNAs, modified to contain a reporter gene, into fertilized mouse embryos and placing the injected embryos into pseudopregnant recipient females. The embryos are allowed to develop in utero for defined times after which they are collected for analysis. Read More

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January 2021

Butylcycloheptylprodigiosin and undecylprodigiosin are potential photosensitizer candidates for photodynamic cancer therapy.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Background: Prodiginines are bacterial red polypyrrole pigments and multifaceted secondary metabolites. These agents have anti-proliferative, immunosuppressive, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. Recent analysis revealed that prodigiosin hypersensitizes Serratia marcescens to gamma radiation. Read More

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GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics analysis to investigate the changes driven by N-Acetylcysteine in the plant-pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15558. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Centro de Citricultura "Sylvio Moreira" - Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, Cordeirópolis, São Paulo, 13490-970, Brazil.

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant, anti-adhesive, and antimicrobial compound. Even though there is much information regarding the role of NAC as an antioxidant and anti-adhesive agent, little is known about its antimicrobial activity. In order to assess its mode of action in bacterial cells, we investigated the metabolic responses triggered by NAC at neutral pH. Read More

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Morphogenesis and cell ordering in confined bacterial biofilms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511;

Biofilms are aggregates of bacterial cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. Much progress has been made in studying biofilm growth on solid substrates; however, little is known about the biophysical mechanisms underlying biofilm development in three-dimensional confined environments in which the biofilm-dwelling cells must push against and even damage the surrounding environment to proliferate. Here, combining single-cell imaging, mutagenesis, and rheological measurement, we reveal the key morphogenesis steps of biofilms embedded in hydrogels as they grow by four orders of magnitude from their initial size. Read More

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Postnatal Ozone Exposure Disrupts Alveolar Development, Exaggerates Mucoinflammatory Responses, and Suppresses Bacterial Clearance in Developing -Tg Mice Lungs.

J Immunol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Increased levels of ambient ozone, one of the six criteria air pollutants, result in respiratory tract injury and worsening of ongoing lung diseases. However, the effect of ozone exposure on the respiratory tract undergoing active lung development and simultaneously experiencing mucoinflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, remains unclear. To address these questions, we exposed transgenic (-Tg) mice, a mouse model of cystic fibrosis-like lung disease, and littermate wild-type (WT) mice to ozone from postnatal days (PND) 3-20 and examined the lung phenotypes at PND21. Read More

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Synthesis, antitubercular, antimicrobial activities and molecular docking study of quinoline bearing dihydropyrimidines.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 15;115:105173. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Molecular Modeling and Medicinal Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana, India.

In order to develop the antimicrobial and antitubercular agents, we have derived quinoline bearing dihydropyrimidine analogues 5a-o and structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Further, we have calculated the molecular properties prediction and drug-likeness by Molinspiration property calculation toolkit and MolSoft software, respectively. The most active compound against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (5m, MIC = 0. Read More

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3-Methyl-imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole derivatives as a new class of antifolates: Synthesis, in vitro/in vivo bio-evaluation and molecular modeling simulations.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 24;115:105205. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.. Electronic address:

Inhibiting the Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme has been validated in multiple clinical manifestations related to bacterial infection, malaria, and multiple types of cancer. Herein, novel series of 3-methyl-imidazo[2,1-b] thiazole-based analogs were synthesized and biologically evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory profile towards DHFR. Compounds 22 and 23 exhibited potent inhibitory profile targeting DHFR (IC 0. Read More

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The spatial organization of microbial communities during range expansion.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2021 Jul 27;63:109-116. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Synthetic Genomics, CAS Key Laboratory for Quantitative Engineering Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Synthetic Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, People's Republic of China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Microbes in nature often live in dense and diverse communities exhibiting a variety of spatial structures. Microbial range expansion is a universal ecological process that enables populations to form spatial patterns. It can be driven by both passive and active processes, for example, mechanical forces from cell growth and bacterial motility. Read More

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Direct acetylation of a conserved threonine of RIN4 by the bacterial effector HopZ5 or AvrBsT activates RPM1-dependent immunity in Arabidopsis.

Mol Plant 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Life Sciences , Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea; School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Plant pathogenic bacteria deliver effectors into plant cells to suppress immunity and promote pathogen survival; however, these effectors can be recognised by plant disease resistance (R) proteins to activate innate immunity. The bacterial acetyltransferase effectors HopZ5 and AvrBsT trigger immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes lacking SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE 1 (SOBER1). Using an Arabidopsis accession, Tscha-1, that naturally lacks functional SOBER1 but is unable to recognise HopZ5, we demonstrate that RESISTANCE TO P. Read More

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N, N, dimethyl-hexadecylamine modulates Arabidopsis root growth through modifying the balance between stem cell niche and jasmonic acid-dependent gene expression.

Gene Expr Patterns 2021 Jul 27:119201. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Instituto de Investigaciones Químico-Biológicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Edificio B3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. Electronic address:

N, N, dimethyl-hexadecylamine (DMHDA) is released as part of blends emitted by plant probiotic bacteria and affects root architecture, defense and nutrition of plants. Here, we investigated the changes in gene expression of transcription factors responsible of maintenance of the root stem cell niche and jasmonic acid signaling in Arabidopsis seedlings in response to this volatile. Concentrations of DMHDA that repress primary root growth were found to alter cell size and division augmenting cell tissue layers in the meristem and causing root widening. Read More

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Development of dual crosslinked mumio-based hydrogel dressing for wound healing application: Physico-chemistry and antimicrobial activity.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jul 27:120952. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Tr. T. Bati 5678, 76001, Zlin, Czech Republic; Footwear Research Centre, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou IV, 3685, Zlin, Czech Republic; Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Vavrečkova 275, 76001 Zlin, Czech Republic.

In this study, an antimicrobial mumio-based hydrogel dressing was developed for wound healing application. The mechanism of gel formation was achieved via a double crosslink network formation between gelatin (GT) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) and borax as crosslinking agents. To enhance the mechanical integrity of the hydrogel matrix, bacterial cellulose (BC) was integrated into the GT-PVA hydrogel to produce a composite gel dressing. Read More

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TRAIL produced by SAM-1-activated CD4 and CD8 subgroup T cells induces apoptosis in human tumor cells through upregulation of death receptors.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Jul 27:115656. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Bacterial superantigens potently activate conventional T-cells to induce massive cytokine production and mediate tumor cell death. To engineer superantigens for immunotherapy against tumors in clinic, we previously generated SAM-1, a staphylococcal enterotoxins C2 (SEC2) mutant, that exhibited significantly reduced toxicity but maintained the superantigen activity in animal models. This present study aimed to investigate whether SAM-1 activates T cells and induces apoptosis in human tumor cells. Read More

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Studies on antibacterial and chemotaxis properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa TEN01 biomass-derived sustainable biosurfactant.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 3;285:131381. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, India. Electronic address:

Biosurfactant producing bacterial strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites at Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited, Chennai, the potential strain was selected and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa TEN01 by 16 S rRNA sequencing technique. Biosurfactant was produced from cassava solid waste from the sago industry. Further, it was extracted by solvent extraction and partially purified by column chromatography. Read More

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A chemical genetic approach using genetically encoded reporters to detect and assess the toxicity of plant secondary metabolites against bacterial pathogens.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 12;418:126399. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India. Electronic address:

Plant secondary metabolites are emerging as attractive alternatives in the development of therapeutics against infectious and chronic diseases. Due to the present pandemic, therapeutics showing toxicity against bacterial pathogens and viruses are gaining interest. Plant metabolites of terpenoid and phenylpropanoid categories have known antibacterial and antiviral properties. Read More

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Targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticles for improved inhibition of disinfectant resistant Listeria monocytogenes and lower environmental pollution.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 9;418:126364. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biology, Medical School, Atilim University, 06830 Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a common ingredient of disinfectants used for industrial, medical, food safety and domestic applications. It is a common pollutant detected in surface and wastewaters to induce adverse effects on Human health as well as aquatic and terrestrial life forms. Since disinfectant use is essential in combatting against microorganisms, the best approach to reduce ecotoxicity level is to restrict BAC use. Read More

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Dimension effect of anammox granule: Potential vs performance.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 24;795:148681. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Anammox granule is the key support of anammox sludge bed reactor. In this study, the anammox granules from a steady-state reactor were divided into 6 groups to investigate their dimension effects. The results of batch cultivation showed that the anammox granules with VMD (volume surface mean diameter) of 2. Read More

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Transformation of fish waste protein to Hermetia illucens protein improves the efficacy of poultry by-products in the culture of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 15;796:149045. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, 1 Turner Avenue, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.

Promoting a circular economy via the transformation of food waste into alternative and high-value protein sources for aquaculture diets is a novel approach to developing alternative raw materials to fishmeal (FM). This approach can reduce the ecological impact on the aquatic environment and simultaneously can provide an option for sustainable food waste management. In this context, we report a 56-day trial of feeding barramundi, Lates calcarifer on four iso‑nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets where the control (0PBM-0HI) was a FM-based diet and the other test diets replaced FM protein with mixtures of a poultry by-product meal (PBM) and a full-fat Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae meal reared on fish waste: the test diets were 85% PBM + 15% HI (85PBM-15HI), 80% PBM + 20% HI (80PBM-20HI) and 75% PBM + 25% HI (75PBM-25HI). Read More

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Silver Nanodot Decorated Dendritic Copper Foam As a Hydrophobic and Mechano-Chemo Bactericidal Surface.

Langmuir 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Nano Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India.

The present work investigates the time-dependent antibacterial activity of the silver nanodot decorated dendritic copper foam nanostructures against (Gram-negative) and (Gram-positive) bacteria. An advanced antibacterial and antifouling surface is fabricated utilizing the collective antibacterial properties of silver nanodots, chitosan, and dendritic copper foam nanostructures. The porous network of the Ag nanodot decorated Cu foam is made up of nanodendrites, which reduce the wettability of the surface. Read More

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Chalcogenide nanoparticles and organic photosensitizers for synergetic antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain and Department of Microbiology, Pediatrics, Radiology and Public Health, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain and Aragon Health Research Institute (IIS Aragón), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Synergistic antimicrobial effects were observed for copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles together with indocyanine green (ICG) in the elimination of wild type pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and also opportunistic fungal infective yeast (Candida albicans ATCC 10231). Furthermore, large antibacterial effects were observed for clinical isolates of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) PFGE strain-type USA300. Read More

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McsB forms a gated kinase chamber to mark aberrant bacterial proteins for degradation.

Elife 2021 Jul 30;10. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Structural Biology, Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria.

In Gram-positive bacteria, the McsB protein arginine kinase is central to protein quality control, labelling aberrant molecules for degradation by the ClpCP protease. Despite its importance for stress response and pathogenicity, it is still elusive how the bacterial degradation labelling is regulated. Here, we delineate the mechanism how McsB targets aberrant proteins during stress conditions. Read More

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Development of sodium tetrathionate as a cyanide and methanethiol antidote.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Jul 30:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Context: Hydrogen cyanide and methanethiol are two toxic gases that inhibit mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. Cyanide is generated in structural fires and methanethiol is released by decaying organic matter. Current treatments for cyanide exposure do not lend themselves to treatment in the field and no treatment exists for methanethiol poisoning. Read More

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Staphyloxanthin inhibitory potential of thymol impairs antioxidant fitness, enhances neutrophil mediated killing and alters membrane fluidity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 26;141:111933. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Biotechnology, Science Campus, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen responsible for mild to severe invasive infections in humans. Especially, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in hospital and community associated infections. Staphyloxanthin is a golden yellow color eponymous pigment produced by S. Read More

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