3,490 results match your criteria bacteria coincided

Resolution of hepatitis E virus infection in CD8+ T cell depleted rhesus macaques.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: HEV is a significant cause of acute hepatitis globally. Some genotypes establish persistent infection when immunity is impaired. Adaptive immune mechanisms that mediate resolution of infection have not been identified. Read More

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Novel CTRP8-RXFP1-JAK3-STAT3 axis promotes Cdc42-dependent actin remodeling for enhanced filopodia formation and motility in human glioblastoma cells.

Mol Oncol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Depts. of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

CTRP8 is the least studied member of the C1Q-TNF related peptide family. We identified CTRP8 as a ligand of the G protein coupled receptor RXFP1 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The CTRP8-RXFP1 ligand-receptor system protects human GBM cells against the DNA alkylating damage inducing temozolomide (TMZ), the drug of choice for the treatment of patients with GBM. Read More

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Biofouling control: the impact of biofilm dispersal and membrane flushing.

Water Res 2021 Apr 18;198:117163. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands; Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Pure culture studies have shown that biofilm dispersal can be triggered if the nutrient supply is discontinued by stopping the flow. Stimulating biofilm dispersal in this manner would provide a sustainable manner to control unwanted biofilm growth in industrial settings, for instance on synthetic membranes used to purify water. The response of multispecies biofilms to nutrient limitation has not been thoroughly studied. Read More

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Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in University Students: cross-sectional study, December 2020, England.

J Infect 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK.

Background: In England, the reopening of universities in September 2020 coincided with a rapid increase in SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in university aged young adults. This study aimed to estimate SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence in students attending universities that had experienced a COVID-19 outbreak after reopening for the autumn term in September 2020.

Methods: A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted during 02-11 December 2020 in students aged ≤ 25 years across five universities in England. Read More

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L-Carnitine Tartrate Downregulates the ACE2 Receptor and Limits SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 14;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institut de Recherche Clinique de Montreal, Montreal, QC H2W1R7, Canada.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for one of the worst pandemics in modern history. Several prevention and treatment strategies have been designed and evaluated in recent months either through the repurposing of existing treatments or the development of new drugs and vaccines. In this study, we show that L-carnitine tartrate supplementation in humans and rodents led to significant decreases of key host dependency factors, notably angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and Furin, which are responsible for viral attachment, viral spike S-protein cleavage, and priming for viral fusion and entry. Read More

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Microevolution of hetero-resistance subpopulations in a patient receiving 27 years of tuberculosis treatment in Germany.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Molecular and Experimental Mycobacteriology, Research Centre Borstel, Parkalle 1, 23845 Borstel, Germany

Pre-existing and newly emerging resistant pathogen subpopulations (hetero-resistance) are potential risk factors for treatment failure of multi/extensively drug resistant (MDR/XDR) tuberculosis (TB). Intra-patient evolutionary dynamics of complex (Mtbc) strains and their implications on treatment outcomes are still not completely understood.To elucidate how Mtbc strains escape therapy, we analysed 13 serial isolates by whole genome sequencing from a German patient. Read More

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"Limiting access to iron decreases infection of Atlantic salmon SHK-1 cells with bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis".

BMC Vet Res 2021 Apr 13;17(1):155. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Cargill Innovation Centre, Dirdalsstranda 51, 4335, Dirdal, Norway.

Background: Vertebrate hosts limit the availability of iron to microbial pathogens in order to nutritionally starve the invaders. The impact of iron deficiency induced by the iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) was investigated in Atlantic salmon SHK-1 cells infected with the facultative intracellular bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis.

Results: Effects of the DFO treatment and P. Read More

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Multidimensional Approach for Investigating the Effects of an Antibiotic-Probiotic Combination on the Equine Hindgut Ecosystem and Microbial Fibrolysis.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:646294. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR A 02.102, Dijon, France.

The equine hindgut ecosystem is specialized in dietary fibers' fermentation to provide horses' energy and contribute to its health. Nevertheless, antibiotics are known to disrupt the hindgut microbiota, affecting the fibrolytic activity of bacteria and the intestinal immune balance, leading to diseases. This study used a general and comprehensive approach for characterizing the hindgut ecosystem of 9 healthy horses over 28 days in response to a 5-day challenge with oral trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), with a special emphasis on microbial fibrolytic activity and the host immune response. Read More

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Space-Time Trends in Lassa Fever in Sierra Leone by ELISA Serostatus, 2012-2019.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 12;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Lassa Fever Program, Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone.

Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease found in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for up to 300,000 cases and 5000 deaths annually. LF is highly endemic in Sierra Leone, particularly in its Eastern Province. Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) maintains one of only a few LF isolation facilities in the world with year-round diagnostic testing. Read More

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Molecular Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Genetic Lineages in Jordan: Tracking the Introduction and Spread of COVID-19 UK Variant of Concern at a Country Level.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan.

The rapid evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is manifested by the emergence of an ever-growing pool of genetic lineages. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of SARS-CoV-2 in Jordan, with a special focus on the UK variant of concern. A total of 579 SARS-CoV-2 sequences collected in Jordan were subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Read More

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The Effects of Pro-, Pre-, and Synbiotics on Muscle Wasting, a Systematic Review-Gut Permeability as Potential Treatment Target.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 29;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Nutritional Biology, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Muscle wasting is a frequently observed, inflammation-driven condition in aging and disease, known as sarcopenia and cachexia. Current treatment strategies target the muscle directly and are often not able to reverse the process. Because a reduced gut function is related to systemic inflammation, this might be an indirect target to ameliorate muscle wasting, by administering pro-, pre-, and synbiotics. Read More

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Staphylococcus aureus cell wall structure and dynamics during host-pathogen interaction.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 31;17(3):e1009468. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Peptidoglycan is the major structural component of the Staphylococcus aureus cell wall, in which it maintains cellular integrity, is the interface with the host, and its synthesis is targeted by some of the most crucial antibiotics developed. Despite this importance, and the wealth of data from in vitro studies, we do not understand the structure and dynamics of peptidoglycan during infection. In this study we have developed methods to harvest bacteria from an active infection in order to purify cell walls for biochemical analysis ex vivo. Read More

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Detection of SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1 in patients from a region with exponentially increasing hospitalisation rate, February 2021, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

Euro Surveill 2021 03;26(12)

LABRESIS - Laboratório de Pesquisa em Resistência Bacteriana, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 P.1 lineage coincided with a surge in hospitalisations in the North region of Brazil. In the South region's Rio Grande do Sul state, severe COVID-19 case numbers rose 3. Read More

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Response of the thermoacidophilic Archaeon to solvent stress exemplified by 1-butanol exposure.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Molecular Enzyme Technology and Biochemistry (MEB), Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology (EMB), Centre for Water and Environmental Research (CWE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstrasse 5, 45141 Essen, Germany

is a thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon with optimal growth at 80 °C and pH 2 - 3. Due to its unique physiological properties allowing life at environmental extremes and recent availability of genetic tools, this extremophile receives increasing interest for biotechnological application. In order to elucidate the potential of tolerating process-related stress conditions, we investigated the response of towards the industrially relevant organic solvent 1-butanol. Read More

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A CD4+CD161+ T-Cell Subset Present in Unexposed Humans, Not Tb Patients, Are Fast Acting Cells That Inhibit the Growth of Intracellular Mycobacteria Involving CD161 Pathway, Perforin, and IFN-γ/Autophagy.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:599641. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Primate Biomedical Research, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States.

It remains undefined whether a subset of CD4+ T cells can function as fast-acting cells to control (Mtb) infection. Here we show that the primary CD4+CD161+ T-cell subset, not CD4+CD161-, in unexposed healthy humans fast acted as unconventional T cells capable of inhibiting intracellular Mtb and BCG growth upon exposure to infected autologous and allogeneic macrophages or lung epithelial A549 cells. Such inhibition coincided with the ability of primary CD4+CD161+ T cells to rapidly express/secrete anti-TB cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, and perforin upon exposure to Mtb. Read More

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February 2021

Terrestrial Inputs Shape Coastal Bacterial and Archaeal Communities in a High Arctic Fjord (Isfjorden, Svalbard).

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:614634. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Tromsø, Norway.

The Arctic is experiencing dramatic changes including increases in precipitation, glacial melt, and permafrost thaw, resulting in increasing freshwater runoff to coastal waters. During the melt season, terrestrial runoff delivers carbon- and nutrient-rich freshwater to Arctic coastal waters, with unknown consequences for the microbial communities that play a key role in determining the cycling and fate of terrestrial matter at the land-ocean interface. To determine the impacts of runoff on coastal microbial (bacteria and archaea) communities, we investigated changes in pelagic microbial community structure between the early (June) and late (August) melt season in 2018 in the Isfjorden system (Svalbard). Read More

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February 2021

PCTR1 Enhances Repair and Bacterial Clearance in Skin Wounds.

Am J Pathol 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Tissue injury elicits an inflammatory response that facilitates host defense. Resolution of inflammation promotes the transition to tissue repair and is governed in part by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). The complete structures of a novel series of cysteinyl-SPM (cys-SPM) were recently elucidated, and they proved to stimulate tissue regeneration in planaria and resolve acute inflammation in mice. Read More

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The Cholinergic System Contributes to the Immunopathological Progression of Experimental Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:581911. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Division of Experimental Pathology, Department of Pathology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, México City, Mexico.

The cholinergic system is present in both bacteria and mammals and regulates inflammation during bacterial respiratory infections through neuronal and non-neuronal production of acetylcholine (ACh) and its receptors. However, the presence of this system during the immunopathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and in its causative agent () has not been studied. Therefore, we used an experimental model of progressive pulmonary TB in BALB/c mice to quantify pulmonary ACh using high-performance liquid chromatography during the course of the disease. Read More

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February 2021

Identification of potential causative agents of the CO-mediated bloater defect in low salt cucumber fermentation.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Apr 23;344:109115. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, SEA, Food Science & Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, 322 Schaub Hall, Box 7624, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7624, United States of America. Electronic address:

Development of bloater defect in cucumber fermentations is the result of carbon dioxide (CO) production by the indigenous microbiota. The amounts of CO needed to cause bloater defect in cucumber fermentations brined with low salt and potential microbial contributors of the gas were identified. The carbonation of acidified cucumbers showed that 28. Read More

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The Systemic and Cellular Metabolic Phenotype of Infection and Immune Response to .

Front Immunol 2020 8;11:614697. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States.

It is widely accepted that infection and immune response incur significant metabolic demands, yet the respective demands of specific immune responses to live pathogens have not been well delineated. It is also established that upon activation, metabolic pathways undergo shifts at the cellular level. However, most studies exploring these issues at the systemic or cellular level have utilized pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that model sepsis, or model antigens at isolated time points. Read More

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February 2021

A tale of two fish: Comparative transcriptomics of resistant and susceptible steelhead following exposure to Ceratonova shasta highlights differences in parasite recognition.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(2):e0234837. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

Diseases caused by myxozoan parasites represent a significant threat to the health of salmonids in both the wild and aquaculture setting, and there are no effective therapeutants for their control. The myxozoan Ceratonova shasta is an intestinal parasite of salmonids that causes severe enteronecrosis and mortality. Most fish populations appear genetically fixed as resistant or susceptible to the parasite, offering an attractive model system for studying the immune response to myxozoans. Read More

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February 2021

Hierarchical Bayesian modeling for predictive environmental microbiology toward a safe use of human excreta: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 11;284:112088. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-06, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8597, Japan; Department of Frontier Sciences for Advanced Environment, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-06, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8597, Japan. Electronic address:

The pathogen concentration in human excreta needs to be managed appropriately, but a predictive approach has yet to be implemented due to a lack of kinetics models for pathogen inactivation that are available under varied environmental conditions. Our goals were to develop inactivation kinetics models of microorganisms applicable under varied environmental conditions of excreta matrices and to identify the appropriate indicators that can be monitored during disinfection processes. We conducted a systematic review targeting previous studies that presented time-course decay of a microorganism and environmental conditions of matrices. Read More

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Comparison of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Screening Using Reverse Transcriptase-Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction or CRISPR-Based Assays in Asymptomatic College Students.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 02 1;4(2):e2037129. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Importance: The reopening of colleges and universities in the US during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a significant public health challenge. The development of accessible and practical approaches for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection in the college population is paramount for deploying recurrent surveillance testing as an essential strategy for virus detection, containment, and mitigation.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic participants in a university community by using CREST (Cas13-based, rugged, equitable, scalable testing), a CRISPR-based test developed for accessible and large-scale viral screening. Read More

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February 2021

Cutaneous leishmaniasis as an increasing threat for Iranian travellers attending religious ceremonies.

East Mediterr Health J 2021 Jan 23;27(1):90-95. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: The Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the most important endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the world. Annually, a large number of Iranian Shia pilgrims travel to Iraq from this area in order to participate in one of their most important religious ceremonies. This trip has coincided with the seasonal activity of sand flies in recent years. Read More

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January 2021

Microbial Source Tracking of Fecal Indicating Bacteria in Coral Reef Waters, Recreational Waters, and Groundwater of Saipan by Real-Time Quantitative PCR.

Front Microbiol 2020 18;11:596650. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Water Quality Surveillance/Nonpoint Source Program, Bureau of Environmental and Coastal Quality, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Saipan, MP, United States.

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) recently identified the need to improve its capacity for detecting and tracking land-based sources of pollution (LBSP) in coastal waters, particularly microbial contaminants like fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Reported here is a baseline study of a suite of host-specific FIB microbial source tracking (MST) markers in the coastal shoreline and reef waters around the island of Saipan. Three sampling campaigns were conducted in September 2017, March 2018, and August 2018. Read More

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January 2021

Modeling SARS-CoV-2 viral kinetics and association with mortality in hospitalized patients from the French COVID cohort.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 02;118(8)

Université de Paris, INSERM, IAME, F-75018 Paris, France.

The characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral kinetics in hospitalized patients and its association with mortality is unknown. We analyzed death and nasopharyngeal viral kinetics in 655 hospitalized patients from the prospective French COVID cohort. The model predicted a median peak viral load that coincided with symptom onset. Read More

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February 2021

sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat ( L.).

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019 Jun 2;71(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast Agricultural University, No. 59 Mucai Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150030, PR China.

A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-D428, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain coincided with members of the genus . The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate was most closely related to NEAU-TX2-2 (99. Read More

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Microbial metabolic response to winter warming stabilizes soil carbon.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 13;27(10):2011-2028. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Current consensus on global climate change predicts warming trends with more pronounced temperature changes in winter than summer in the Northern Hemisphere at high latitudes. Moderate increases in soil temperature are generally related to faster rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition in Northern ecosystems, but there is evidence that SOC stocks have remained remarkably stable or even increased on the Tibetan Plateau under these conditions. This intriguing observation points to altered soil microbial mediation of carbon-cycling feedbacks in this region that might be related to seasonal warming. Read More

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Significant Differences in Host-Pathogen Interactions Between Murine and Human Whole Blood.

Front Immunol 2020 15;11:565869. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Research Group Microbial Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute, Jena, Germany.

Murine infection models are widely used to study systemic candidiasis caused by . Whole-blood models can help to elucidate host-pathogens interactions and have been used for several species in human blood. We adapted the human whole-blood model to murine blood. Read More

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January 2021

Impact of Long-Term Organic and Mineral Fertilization on Rhizosphere Metabolites, Root-Microbial Interactions and Plant Health of Lettuce.

Front Microbiol 2020 13;11:597745. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Nutritional Crop Physiology, Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Fertilization management can affect plant performance and soil microbiota, involving still poorly understood rhizosphere interactions. We hypothesized that fertilization practice exerts specific effects on rhizodeposition with consequences for recruitment of rhizosphere microbiota and plant performance. To address this hypothesis, we conducted a minirhizotron experiment using lettuce as model plant and field soils with contrasting properties from two long-term field experiments (HUB-LTE: loamy sand, DOK-LTE: silty loam) with organic and mineral fertilization history. Read More

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January 2021