2,576,244 results match your criteria bacteria


Novel insights into the biological pathways involved in severe asthma.

Respirology 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Genomics and Health Group, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, Cell Biology and Genetics, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), La Laguna, Spain.

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Bacteria as key players in primary sclerosing cholangitis?

Authors:
Peter Fickert

Gut 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Estimating population-based incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and acute otitis media in children and adults in Ontario and British Columbia using health administrative data, 2005-2018: a Canadian Immunisation Research Network (CIRN) study.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2022 Jun;9(1)

Centre for Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Background: There is a paucity of data on the burden of the full spectrum of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) from outpatient and inpatient settings across the age spectrum.

Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective study in Ontario and British Columbia (BC), Canada, to estimate the incidence rate of CAP and AOM in children and adults over a 14-year period using health administrative databases. CAP and AOM cases were identified from outpatient physician consultation and hospitalisation data in both provinces, and from emergency department visit data in Ontario. Read More

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Management and clinical outcomes of Lyme disease in acute care facilities in 2 endemic regions of Quebec, Canada: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.

CMAJ Open 2022 Apr-Jun;10(2):E570-E576. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Musonera, Valiquette, Marcoux, Bedard-Dallaire, Pelletier, Haraoui, Carignan), Department of Community Health Sciences (Baron, Milord) and Faculté de médecine et des Sciences de la santé (Lachance, Bourget, Cantin, Abbasi), Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que.; Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (Thivierge), Montréal, Que.; Université Laval (Simard), Québec, Que.

Background: Despite increases in cases of Lyme disease, little is known about the management and clinical course of the disease in Canada. We aimed to describe the management and clinical course of Lyme disease in patients treated in acute care facilities in Quebec and to assess adherence to the 2006 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guideline.

Methods: This retrospective multicentre cohort study included pediatric and adult patients with serologically confirmed Lyme disease treated in acute care facilities (12 community hospitals and 2 tertiary care centres) of 2 endemic regions of Quebec (Estrie and Montérégie), from 2004 to 2017. Read More

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A multifaceted screening of applied voltages for electro-assisted anaerobic digestion of blackwater: significance of temperature, hydrolysis/acidogenesis, electrode corrosion, and energy efficiencies.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jun 25:127533. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, 9211-116 Street NW, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada. Electronic address:

A microbial electrolysis cell-assisted anaerobic digester (MEC-AD) was operated with vacuum toilet blackwater at different applied voltages (0-1.6V) at room temperature (R). A parallel MEC-AD was operated at 35 °C (R) to provide a kinetics index at mesophilic temperature. Read More

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High frequency of neutralizing antibodies to type I Interferon in HIV-1 patients hospitalized for COVID-19.

Clin Immunol 2022 Jun 25:109068. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Laboratory of Virology, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale di Porta Tiburtina n° 28, 00185 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

The presence of anti-IFN neutralizing antibodies (NAB) has been reported in critically ill COVID-19 patients. We found that 87.5% (7/8) of HIV-1 patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 had serum anti-IFN-I NAB against IFN-α subtypes, IFN-β and/or IFN-ω. Read More

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Intracellular sequestration of cadmium and zinc in ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae) and characterization of its metallothionein gene.

Fungal Genet Biol 2022 Jun 25:103717. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Amanita muscaria is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom that commonly grows at metal-polluted sites. Sporocarps from the lead smelter-polluted area near Příbram (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic) showed elevated concentrations of Cd and Zn. Size exclusion chromatography of the cell extracts of the sporocarps from both polluted and unpolluted sites indicated that substantial part of intracellular Cd and Zn was sequestered in 6-kDa complexes, presumably with metallothionein(s) (MT). Read More

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Clinical Epidemiology of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales in the Greater Houston Region of Texas: A 6-year Trend and Surveillance Analysis.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

University of Texas Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Center for Infectious Diseases, Houston, Texas, USA.

Objectives: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) remain an urgent public health priority in the United States. CRE poses a major threat to patients in healthcare and a potential risk to the community. This study examined the epidemiological trends, clinical, and microbiological data of CRE in the Greater Houston Region of Texas. Read More

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Rifampicin resistance and risk factors associated with significantly lower recovery rates after two stage revision in patients with prosthetic joint infection.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Orthopaedics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Purpose: Rifampicin plays a key role in the management of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), however, the emergence of rifampicin resistance is associated with less favorable clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rifampicin resistance and other patient-related factors on recovery rates among patients with PJI undergoing two-stage revision.

Methods: We reviewed medical records and microbiology reports of 73 patients (41 males and 32 females) undergoing two-stage revision due to PJI between 2017 and 2019. Read More

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Admission Code Status and End-of-life Care for Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Context: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted variability in intensity of care. We aimed to characterize intensity of care among hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Objectives: Examine the prevalence and predictors of admission code status, palliative care consultation, comfort-measures-only orders, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Read More

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Effects of an exercise-based lifestyle intervention on systemic markers of oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts in persons with type 2 diabetes: Secondary analysis of a randomised clinical trial.

Free Radic Biol Med 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Centre for Physical Activity Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Aims/hypothesis: This secondary analysis aimed to investigate the effects of a 12 months intensive exercise-based lifestyle intervention on systemic markers of oxidative stress in persons with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized lifestyle intervention to be superior to standard care in decreasing levels of oxidative stress.

Methods: The study was based on the single-centre, assessor-blinded, randomised, controlled U-turn trial (ClinicalTrial. Read More

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Candida species contamination in drinking groundwater from residence wells in three municipalities of midwestern Brazil and the potential human health risks.

Microb Pathog 2022 Jun 25:105660. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Faculty of Biological and Environmental Science, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS, 79804-970, Brazil. Electronic address:

Groundwater represents one of the largest safe drinking water sources worldwide; however, it has been threatened by increased human activities in recent years. Candida species express virulence factors that contribute to the establishment and worsening of infections, although little is known about the virulence profiles of these species in potable groundwater. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of yeasts in groundwater from residential wells and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile, hydrolytic enzyme production, adhesion capacity, and biofilm formation of Candida spp. Read More

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PvdM of fluorescent pseudomonads is required for the oxidation of ferribactin by PvdP in periplasmic pyoverdine maturation.

J Biol Chem 2022 Jun 25:102201. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Institute of Microbiology, Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Fluorescent pseudomonads such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Pseudomonas fluorescens produce pyoverdine siderophores that ensure iron-supply in iron-limited environments. After its synthesis in the cytoplasm, the non-fluorescent pyoverdine precursor ferribactin is exported into the periplasm, where the enzymes PvdQ, PvdP, PvdO, PvdN, and PtaA are responsible for fluorophore maturation and tailoring steps. While the roles of all these enzymes are clear, little is known about the role of PvdM, a human renal dipeptidase-related protein that is predicted to be periplasmic and that is essential for pyoverdine biogenesis. Read More

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Chitosan/calcium nanoparticles as advanced antimicrobial coating for paper documents.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Preservation of paper-based historical artifacts against deterioration due to the presence of bacteria and fungi colonies has been one of the major issues for the importance of protecting the cultural heritage of humankind. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the implementation of nanomaterials for this purpose. In this work, calcium/chitosan nanoparticles (Ca/CS NPs) were prepared and well-characterized to investigate their potential as a novel approach for preserving paper-based documents. Read More

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Wastewater-based epidemiology in countries with poor wastewater treatment - Epidemiological indicator function of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in surface waters.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 25:156964. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia.

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) surveillance of COVID-19 and other future outbreaks is a challenge for developing countries as most households are not connected to a sewerage system. In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the Danube River at a site severely affected by wastewaters from Belgrade. Rivers are much more complex systems than wastewater systems, and efforts are needed to address all the factors influencing the adoption of WBE as an alternative to targeting raw wastewater. Read More

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Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: An effective method for identification and phylogenetic analysis of Leishmania species.

Exp Parasitol 2022 Jun 25:108278. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

Background: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and reproducible method that has been widely applied for the identification of bacteria and fungi. However, this technique has not yet been applied in clinical laboratories for parasitology, such as for the study of the protozoan Leishmania.

Methodology: By using MALDI-TOF MS, mass spectra database entries (MSPs) were created with 7 World Health Organization reference strains in order to establish a rapid method for Leishmania species identification. Read More

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Effect of aerobic microbes' competition for oxygen on nitrogen removal in mainstream nitritation-anammox systems.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 25:135493. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongbuk, 38541, South Korea. Electronic address:

The effects of C/N ratio in mainstream partial nitritation (PN)-anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) considering competitive relationship of aerobic microbes competing for oxygen were investigated. Thy system was operated for 501 d with various C/N ratio. Competitive growth of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB) at ≥ 1 of C/N ratio acted effectively on the selective inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) while contributing to stable PN-A. Read More

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Two plant growth-promoting bacterial Bacillus strains possess different mechanisms in affecting cadmium uptake and detoxification of Solanum nigrum L.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 25:135488. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China; Shanghai Yangtze River Delta Eco-Environmental Change and Management Observation and Research Station, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

Microorganisms affect cadmium (Cd) extraction by hyperaccumulators to varying degrees, but the potential mechanism has not been completely studied. Here, two plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, Bacillus paranthracis NT1 and Bacillus megaterium NCT-2) were assessed for their influence on Cd uptake by Solanum nigrum L. and their influence mechanisms. Read More

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Antibiotic resistant bacteria inactivation through metal-free electrochemical disinfection with carbon catalysts and its potential risks.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 25:135496. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

School of Environment Engineering, Wuxi University, Wuxi, 214105, China.

Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the inactivation of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) during the electrochemical disinfection. However, no available information could be found on ARB inactivation in water during metal-free electrochemical disinfection. In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based carbon catalyst (PPC) was chosen as working electrode. Read More

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Stimulated expression of ELR+ chemokines, VEGFA and TNF-AIP3 promote mycobacterial dissemination in extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients and Cavia porcellus model of tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2022 Jun 22;135:102224. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Tajganj, Agra, 282001, India. Electronic address:

Pathogenic mycobacteria induce and accelerate blood vessel formation driven by extensive inflammation during granuloma formation, which is a central feature of mycobacterial pathogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) enhances the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR+) chemokines, which are potent inducers of vascularization. Most of the reported research work contends that VEGF growth factor induces neovascularization in human tuberculosis (TB) patients, but the evidence is inconclusive. Read More

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Reducing the intestinal side effects of acarbose by baicalein through the regulation of gut microbiota: An in vitro study.

Food Chem 2022 Jun 23;394:133561. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

School of Bioengineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024, China.

Combination of dietary flavonoid-baicalein and acarbose reduces the risk that prediabetes will develop into type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, the mechanism underlying this effect has not been clarified. In this study, the in vitro culture conditions of intestinal microorganisms from prediabetic mice were optimized to increase over 30% similarity between in vitro cultured and fecal samples. Baicalein and acarbose alone and in combination, and their corresponding starch hydrolysate were assayed by the in vitro model. Read More

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Cellulosic textile/clove nanocomposite as an antimicrobial wound dressing: In vitro and in vivo study.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2022 Jun 24;217:112659. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Biomaterials, Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the useful herbal medicine to prevent the bacteria infection. This herbal medicine plant shows high antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammation activities because the essential oil and extract of this herb contains a rich source of phenolic compounds. The important phenolic compound of the herb is eugenol. Read More

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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of biphenyl-benzamides as potent FtsZ inhibitors.

Eur J Med Chem 2022 Jun 21;239:114553. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Bioland Laboratory (Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health - Guangdong Laboratory),Guangzhou, 510530, PR China. Electronic address:

The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance has become a prevalent threat to public health, thereby development of new antibacterial agents having novel mechanisms of action is in an urgent need. Targeting at the cytoskeletal cell division protein filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) has been validated as an effective and promising approach for antibacterial drug discovery. In this study, a series of novel biphenyl-benzamides as FtsZ inhibitors has been rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against various Gram-positive bacteria strains. Read More

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Fluorescent Hybrid Material Based on Natural Spider Silk and Carbon Dots for Bioapplication.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Institute of Solution Chemistry of Advanced Materials and Technologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova Street 9, Saint Petersburg 191002, Russia.

Since the outcome of an operation largely depends on the quality of wound healing, it is one of the most challenging stages in surgery. Today, wound closure is mostly undertaken by means of a surgical suture. Good surgical sutures are biocompatible and biodegradable and possess excellent mechanical properties. Read More

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Methods in HIV-Related Intersectional Stigma Research: Core Elements and Opportunities.

Am J Public Health 2022 Jun;112(S4):S413-S419

Valerie A. Earnshaw is with the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, College of Education and Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark. H. Jonathon Rendina is with the Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Greta R. Bauer is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Stephen Bonett is with the School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Lisa Bowleg is an AJPH Associate Editor and is with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University. Joseph Carter is with the Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY. Devin English is with the Department of Urban-Global Public Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler is with the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Mallory O. Johnson and Torsten B. Neilands are with the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Donna H. McCree is with the National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Katherine G. Quinn is with the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Gabriel Robles is with the School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. Ayden I. Scheim is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Justin C. Smith is with Positive Impact Health Centers, Atlanta. Laramie R. Smith is with the Division of Global Public Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Laurel Sprague is with the Department of Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Community Engagement, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland. Tamara Taggart and Deanna L. Kerrigan are with the Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. Alexander C. Tsai is with the Center for Global Health and Mongan Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Lawrence H. Yang is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY. José A. Bauermeister is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Note. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of studying and addressing intersectional stigma within the field of HIV. Yet, researchers have, arguably, struggled to operationalize intersectional stigma. To ensure that future research and methodological innovation is guided by frameworks from which this area of inquiry has arisen, we propose a series of core elements for future HIV-related intersectional stigma research. Read More

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Biopsychosocial Health Outcomes and Experienced Intersectional Stigma in a Mixed HIV Serostatus Longitudinal Cohort of Aging Sexual Minority Men, United States, 2008‒2019.

Am J Public Health 2022 Jun;112(S4):S452-S462

M. Reuel Friedman is with the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Qimin Liu is with the Department of Human Development and Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. Steven Meanley is with the Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Sabina A. Haberlen is with the Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. Andre L. Brown and James E. Egan are with the Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh. Bulent Turan is with the Department of Psychology, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Janet M. Turan is with the Department of Health Policy and Organization, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Mark Brennan-Ing is with the Brookdale Center for Healthy Aging, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, NY. Valentina Stosor is with the Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Organ Transplantation, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. Matthew J. Mimiaga is with the Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, David Geffen School of Medicine, at the University of California‒Los Angeles. Deanna Ware and Michael W. Plankey are with the Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC.

To determine whether intersectional stigma is longitudinally associated with biopsychosocial outcomes. We measured experienced intersectional stigma (EIS; ≥ 2 identity-related attributions) among sexual minority men (SMM) in the United States participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. We assessed longitudinal associations between EIS (2008‒2009) and concurrent and future hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, antiretroviral therapy adherence, HIV viremia, health care underutilization, and depression symptoms (2008‒2019). Read More

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The Loss of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality and the Effects on Palivizumab Administration.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Microbiology PathWest Laboratory Medicine Perth, Western Australia, Australia Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases University of Western Australia Telethon Kids Institute Perth, Western Australia, Australia School of Medicine University of Western Australia Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

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Point-of-Care Testing in Children With Respiratory Tract Infections and Its Impact on Management and Patient Flow.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

From the Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene.

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Overlapping Signs and Symptoms Between Recurrent Varicella and Pityriasis Rosea Gibert.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Microbiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Background: Pityriasis rosea Gibert (PRG) has features similar to those of common infectious childhood diseases, suggesting a viral cause, but no agent has been identified to date. We describe 4 children with PRG and 2 with recurrent varicella who were studied using photochronography, virology and immunology.

Methods: The 6 patients with skin rashes visited our pediatric clinic from April 2012 to May 2016. Read More

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Measures Against Antimicrobial Resistance in Children in Japan: Current Status and Future Prospects.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Division of Infection Control and Prevention, Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major problem in public health. Japan is addressing this problem with various measures based on the National Action Plan on AMR, published in 2016. In Japan, the fight against AMR is hindered by issues with the health care system, including the lack of a general practitioner registration system, an abundance of private clinics and health care for infants and toddlers being essentially free of charge. Read More

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