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A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - Tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of phenylephrine in dried blood spots from preterm infants.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2022 Jan 6;1190:123084. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Laboratory of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

A sensitive and accurate hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method (HILIC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of phenylephrine concentration in Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples from preterm infants, after ocular administration of an ophthalmic solution with phenylephrine. Sample preparation involved the extraction of the analyte from an 85 μL DBS sample with methanol - acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). Chromatographic separation was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH AMIDE column, under isocratic conditions within a 5 min run. Read More

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January 2022

Effects of Supportive Positioning Training Video Program for Preterm Infants on the Knowledge and Performance of Nurses in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci) 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and apply a neonatal supportive positioning (NSP) training video program for premature infants, using a position support mat for nurses in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), and to verify its effect on nurses' performance.

Methods: Thirty-five NICU nurses were included in the study. For the pre-test, preliminary check-ups were conducted, questionnaires about NSP knowledge on preterm infants were distributed, and NSP performance using neonatal dolls were video recorded for each participant. Read More

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January 2022

Ontogeny of morphological variations in the vertebral column: Prevalence and bony variability in young Spanish children.

Ann Anat 2022 Jan 12:151888. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Departamento de Medicina Legal, Toxicología y Antropología Física, Universidad de Granada, Spain.

Pre- and postnatal development and variability in discrete vertebral traits have been poorly described in embryonic studies. Numerous authors have reported that these variations are observable only from adolescence; scientific publications on the vertebrae of fetuses and infants are scarce. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) describe the ontogeny and variability of anatomical variations in the vertebral column of a Spanish infant population and (2) analyze the frequency and relationship between sex, age, and intertrait variables. Read More

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January 2022

Breastfeeding Experiences and Changes in Feeding Plans Among Parents of Infants Diagnosed With Tongue-Tie.

Nurs Womens Health 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Objective: To explore parents' plans for infant feeding before birth and their perceptions of feeding success in light of tongue-tie diagnosis for their infants.

Design: A qualitative descriptive study design using content and thematic analysis was used.

Setting: A dental office in Massachusetts with parent-neonate dyads undergoing infant frenotomy procedures. Read More

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January 2022

Mitigation of portal fibrosis and cholestatic liver disease in ANKS6-deficient livers by macrophage depletion.

FASEB J 2022 Feb;36(2):e22157

Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a developmental liver disease that is caused by mutations in genes that encode ciliary proteins and is characterized by bile duct dysplasia and portal fibrosis. Recent work has demonstrated that mutations in ANKS6 can cause CHF due to its role in bile duct development. Here, we report a novel ANKS6 mutation, which was identified in an infant presenting with neonatal jaundice due to underlying biliary abnormalities and liver fibrosis. Read More

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February 2022

Obstetrical mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

INFANT Research Centre, Cork, Ireland.

Purpose: To examine the association between mode of delivery (in particular caesarean section) and behavioural outcomes in offspring at six time-points between age 3 and 17 years.

Methods: Similar to previous work examining the association between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes in offspring at age 7, we used maternal-reported data from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data on mode of delivery were collected when children were 9 months and categorised as spontaneous vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery, induced vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section, planned caesarean section and caesarean section after induction of labor. Read More

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January 2022

How should fetal surgery for congenital diaphragmatic hernia be implemented in the post-TOTAL trial era: a discussion.

Prenat Diagn 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Following prenatal diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, severity can be predicted based on the presence of associated abnormalities, and in isolated cases, on lung size and position of the liver. Severe hypoplasia is defined by a contralateral lung size < 25% on ultrasound; moderate hypoplasia is when that lung measures between 25 and 45% of the normal. In fetuses with predicted poor postnatal outcome a procedure that reverses pulmonary hypoplasia may be considered. Read More

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January 2022

Predictors of Successful Trial off Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and High Flow Nasal Cannula in Preterm Infants < 30 weeks| gestation: A Retrospective Study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: To identify the predictors of successful first trial off nCPAP.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of infants ≤ 29 weeks' gestation who required nCPAP for > 24 hours was conducted. Logistic regression was used to detect predictors for successful trial off nCPAP. Read More

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January 2022

Lifetime stressor exposure, systemic inflammation during pregnancy, and preterm birth among Black American women.

Brain Behav Immun 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology and Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Although Black American mothers and infants are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality than their White counterparts, the biological mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain largely unknown. To investigate the role that lifetime stressor exposure, perceived stressor severity, and systemic inflammatory markers might play, we studied how these factors were interrelated in 92 pregnant Black American women. We also compared inflammatory marker levels for women who did versus did not go on to give birth preterm. Read More

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January 2022

Contemporary Trends of Systemic Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Intravesical Chemotherapy in Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas Undergoing Minimally Invasive or Open Radical Nephroureterectomy: Analysis of US Claims on Perioperative Outcomes and Health Care Costs.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 Dec 24. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Urology, Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, CA.

Introduction: New evidence indicates that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) (laparoscopic or robotic-assisted [LNU, RANU]) reaches oncologic equivalence compared with Open Radical Nephroureterectomy (ORNU) for high-risk upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Recently, European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines suggested implementing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to standard treatment to improve oncologic outcomes of high-risk UTUC. We aimed (1) To explore contemporary trends of MIS for RNU in the United States and to compare perioperative outcomes and costs with that of ORNU. Read More

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December 2021

Characterization of Pediatric Imaging Trends and Likelihood of Exam Cancellation in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Acad Radiol 2021 Dec 21. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Radiology (F.M.R., S.G.B., D.B., O.P., M.S.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; Department of Radiology (F.M.R., S.G.B., O.P., M.S.G.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented changes in radiology practice worldwide. There is a need for a framework of pediatric radiology resource allocation for future acute resource-limited settings.The aim of this study is to quantify and analyze changes in pediatric radiology practice during the COVID-19 pandemic considering demographic and clinical characteristics. Read More

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December 2021

Prevalence and factors associated with utilisation of postnatal care in Sierra Leone: a 2019 national survey.

BMC Public Health 2022 Jan 14;22(1):102. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mbale Regional Referral and Teaching Hospital, Mbale, Uganda.

Background: Within Sub-Saharan Africa, some countries still report unacceptably high rates of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, despite improvements in the utilisation of maternity care services. Postnatal care (PNC) is one of the recommended packages in the continuum of maternity care aimed at reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with PNC utilisation in Sierra Leone. Read More

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January 2022

Burden, risk factors and outcomes associated with gestational diabetes in a population-based cohort of pregnant women from North India.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2022 Jan 14;22(1):32. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Centre for Health Research and Development, Society for Applied Studies, New Delhi, India.

Background: The burden of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) appears to be increasing in India and may be related to the double burden of malnutrition. The population-based incidence and risk factors of GDM, particularly in lower socio-economic populations, are not known. We conducted analyses on data from a population-based cohort of pregnant women in South Delhi, India, to determine the incidence of GDM, its risk factors and association with adverse pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, preterm birth, large for gestational age babies) and need for caesarean section. Read More

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January 2022

Women's views on accepting COVID-19 vaccination during and after pregnancy, and for their babies: a multi-methods study in the UK.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2022 Jan 14;22(1):33. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: COVID-19 vaccines are advised for pregnant women in the United Kingdom (UK) however COVID-19 vaccine uptake among pregnant women is inadequate.

Methods: An online survey and semi-structured interviews were used to investigate pregnant women's views on COVID-19 vaccine acceptability for themselves when pregnant, not pregnant and for their babies. One thousand one hundred eighty-one women, aged over 16 years, who had been pregnant since 23rd March 2020, were surveyed between 3rd August-11th October 2020. Read More

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January 2022

Estimated causal effects of complementary feeding behaviors on early childhood diet quality in a US cohort.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Division of Chronic Disease Research Across the Lifecourse, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA.

Background: Complementary feeding (CF) provides an opportunity to shape children's future dietary habits, setting the foundation for good nutrition and health.

Objective: We estimated effects of 3 CF behaviors on early childhood diet quality using inverse probability (IP) weighting of marginal structural models (MSMs).

Methods: Among 1,041 children from the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, we estimated effects on the mean Youth Healthy Eating Index (YHEI) score in early childhood of: 1) delayed (≥12mo, vs. Read More

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January 2022

An analysis of the HIV testing cascade of a group of HIV-exposed infants from birth to 18 months in peri-urban Khayelitsha, South Africa.

PLoS One 2022 14;17(1):e0262518. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Despite the reduction of HIV mother-to-child transmission, there are concerns regarding transmission rate in the breastfeeding period. We describe the routine uptake of 6 or 10 (6/10) weeks, 9 months and 18 months testing, with and without tracing, in a cohort of infants who received HIV PCR testing at birth (birth PCR) (with and without point of care (POC) testing) in a peri-urban primary health care setting in Khayelitsha, South Africa.

Methods: In this cohort study conducted between November 2014 and February 2018, HIV-positive mothers and their HIV-exposed babies were recruited at birth and all babies were tested with birth PCR. Read More

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January 2022

An endogenous retrovirus presumed to have been endogenized or relocated recently in a marsupial, the red-necked wallaby.

Genome 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Kyoto University, 12918, Primate Research Institute, Inuyama City, Japan;

An albino infant wallaby was born to a mother with the wild-type body color. PCR and sequencing analyses of (encoding tyrosinase, which is essential for melanin biosynthesis) of this albino wallaby revealed a 7.1-kb-long DNA fragment inserted in the first exon. Read More

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January 2022

Provided Infant Carriers Increase the Rate of Sustained Breastfeeding.

Am Fam Physician 2022 Jan;105(1):93-94

Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

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January 2022

A novel frameshift c.22_25dupGCAT mutation of the NDP gene in a Chinese infant with Norrie disease: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jan;101(1):e28523

Department of Ophthalmology, Kunming Children's Hospital, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Rationale: Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive disease characterized by bilateral congenital blindness and auditory impairments. According to the previous studies, Norrin cystine knot growth factor (NDP) gene have been found to be responsible for ND. Herein, we report a case of ND with a novel mutation in NDP and elucidate the clinical and molecular characteristics of this patient. Read More

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January 2022

Overview of the mortality from external causes of reproductive-age women in Brazil.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jan;101(1):e28508

Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Abstract: Studies have shown that a new demographic and epidemiological profile has been emerging in women of childbearing age, mainly due to the increase in life expectancy, reduction in infant mortality, higher survival in old age, and the drop in fertility rate.To evaluate the external (violence) causes of mortality among women in Brazil from 2007 to 2016.This is a quantitative, ecological study of temporal trends and correlations of the main causes of mortality of women of childbearing age and their association with age, from 2007 to 2016 in Brazil. Read More

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January 2022

Early Neuromuscular Blockade in Moderate-to-Severe Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Crit Care Med 2022 Jan 6. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Objectives: The use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) is common but unsupported by efficacy data. We sought to compare the outcomes between patients with moderate-to-severe PARDS receiving continuous NMBA during the first 48 hours of endotracheal intubation (early NMBA) and those without.

Design: Secondary analysis of data from the Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure (RESTORE) clinical trial, a pediatric multicenter cluster randomized trial of sedation. Read More

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January 2022

Epidemiological investigation and ultrasonic diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in Chinese infants: A large multi-center cohort study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jan;101(2):e28320

Department of Ultrasound, The Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Abstract: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is common among Chinese infants, but a lack of large-scale, multi-center epidemiological studies has made it difficult to characterize the risk factors associated with this disease.This multi-center cohort study included 19,833 Chinese infants aged 14 days to 6 months. A multi-center ultrasound protocol was used to diagnose hip abnormalities, and epidemiological data of the infants were collected through questionnaires. Read More

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January 2022

Racial/ethnic differences in maternal feeding practices and beliefs at 6 months postpartum.

Public Health Nutr 2022 Jan 14:1-10. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown School of Public Health, Box G-S121-8, Providence, RI02912, USA.

Objective: To examine racial/ethnic differences in maternal feeding practices and beliefs in a sample of low-income smoke-exposed women.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data collected during a randomised control trial. Maternal feeding practices and beliefs were assessed using the Infant Feeding Questionnaire (IFQ), which was administered at 6 months postpartum. Read More

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January 2022

Phage therapy of wound-associated infections.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Bacteriophage Laboratory, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, 53-114, Wrocław, Poland.

Phages are viruses which can specifically infect bacteria, resulting in their destruction. Bacterial infections are a common complication of wound healing, and experimental evidence from animal models demonstrates promising potential for phage-dependent eradication of wound-associated infections. The studies discussed suggest that phage therapy may be an effective treatment, with important advantages over some current antibacterial treatments. Read More

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January 2022

Comparing infant and toddler sleep patterns prior to and during the first wave of home confinement due to COVID-19 in Spain.

Eur J Pediatr 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Pediatric Division, Hospital Universitari General de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.

Recent literature has shown that sleep patterns are shaped during the first years of life, playing a relevant role in children's functioning. We focused on comparing sleep patterns in infants and toddlers in Spain before and during COVID-19 home confinement to assess the immediate impact on sleep patterns. We compared data from two cross-sectional surveys from parents of 1658 children three to 36 months of age from Spain. Read More

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January 2022

Drug utilisation in neonatal units in England and Wales: a national cohort study.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Academic Unit of Population and Lifespan Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

Purpose: To describe drug utilisation patterns in neonatal units.

Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study using data held in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD) for neonatal units in England and Wales including infants born at 23 to 44 weeks' gestational age (GA) from 01 January 2010 to 31 December 2017.

Results: The cohort included 17,501 (3%) extremely preterm infants; 40,607 (7%) very preterm infants; 193,536 (31%) moderate-to-late preterm infants; and 371,606 (59%) term infants. Read More

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January 2022

Tradition, taste and taboo: the gastroecology of maternal perinatal diet.

BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2021 5;4(2):385-396. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.

Background: Maternal malnutrition is a major source of regional health inequity and contributes to maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Bihar, a state in eastern India adjacent to Jharkhand and West Bengal, has relatively high neonatal mortality rates because a large portion of infants are born to young mothers. Bihar has the second-highest proportion of underweight children under 3 in India, with infant mortality rates of 48 per 1000 live births. Read More

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On the importance of social determinants of health: A second look at scabies and failure to thrive in an immigrant female infant.

Authors:
Aileen Y Chang

Int J Womens Dermatol 2021 Dec 18;7(5Part B):853-855. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

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December 2021

Acute and early developmental outcomes of children with Duarte galactosemia.

JIMD Rep 2022 Jan 16;63(1):101-106. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta Georgia USA.

A recent study demonstrated that children with Duarte galactosemia (DG) do not show increased prevalence of detectable developmental complications when 6-12 years old. However, that study left unanswered whether infants with DG might be at increased risk for acute problems when drinking milk or whether children with DG younger than 6 years might show increased prevalence of perhaps transient developmental challenges. Here, we have addressed both of these questions by analyzing parent/guardian-reported data collected retrospectively for 350 children, 206 with DG and 144 unaffected siblings from the same families. Read More

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January 2022

Prevalence and Factors Associated With Caesarean Delivery in Nepal: Evidence From a Nationally Representative Sample.

Cureus 2021 Dec 10;13(12):e20326. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Centre of Medical and Bio-allied Health Sciences Research, Ajman University, Ajman, ARE.

Background Caesarian sections (CS) are life-saving management for a pregnant mother and fetus subject to obstetric complications. The World Health Organization (WHO) expected CS rates not to exceed 10 to 15 per 100 live births in any country. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of CS and its associated factors from the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), building on previous studies mentioned in detail in the latter part of the paper. Read More

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December 2021