1,071 results match your criteria avoid misinterpretation


Imaging side effects and complications of chemotherapy and radiation therapy: a pictorial review from head to toe.

Insights Imaging 2021 Jun 10;12(1):76. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20161, Milan, Italy.

Newer biologic drugs and immunomodulatory agents, as well as more tolerated and effective radiation therapy schemes, have reduced treatment toxicity in oncology patients. However, although imaging assessment of tumor response is adapting to atypical responses like tumor flare, expected changes and complications of chemo/radiotherapy are still routinely encountered in post-treatment imaging examinations. Radiologists must be aware of old and newer therapeutic options and related side effects or complications to avoid a misinterpretation of imaging findings. Read More

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Determination of endogenous GHB levels in chest and pubic hair.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Jun 1;325:110857. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Health Science, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, Florence, Italy; U.R.I.To.N - Unit of Research of University of Florence, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Endogenous nature of GHB represents a critical issue for forensic toxicologists, especially in alleged sexual assaults. Therefore, discrimination between physiologically and additional amounts from exogenous sources of such a substance must be effective and reliable in order to avoid severe misinterpretation. This study aimed to quantify the GHB baseline concentrations in chest and pubic hairs collected from 105 healthy volunteers, non-consumers of any drugs of abuse. Read More

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Opportunities and Challenges in Global Quantification of RNA-Protein Interaction UV Cross-Linking.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 13;8:669939. Epub 2021 May 13.

Proteome Dynamics, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Berlin, Germany.

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key mediators of posttranscriptional gene expression control. However, the links between cell signaling on the one hand and RBP function on the other are understudied. While thousands of posttranslational modification (PTM) sites on RBPs have been identified, their functional roles are only poorly characterized. Read More

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Spontaneous mouse lymphoma in patient-derived tumor xenografts: The importance of systematic analysis of xenografted human tumor tissues in preclinical efficacy trials.

Transl Oncol 2021 May 26;14(8):101133. Epub 2021 May 26.

Laboratory of preclinical investigation, Translational Research Department, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France; Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France; In vivo Experiment Platform, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) is now largely recognized as a key preclinical model for cancer research, mimicking patient tumor phenotype and genotype. Immunodeficient mice, well-known to develop spontaneous lymphoma, are required for PDX growth. As for all animal models used for further clinical translation, a robust experimental design is strongly required to lead to conclusive results. Read More

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PET/CT Variants and Pitfalls in Liver, Biliary Tract, Gallbladder and Pancreas.

Semin Nucl Med 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Health and Sciences Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey.

A wide variety of pathological anomalies may occur in the liver, biliary system, and pancreas. It is a necessity to use many different imaging techniques in order to distinguish such varied pathologies, especially those from malignant processes. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) is an imaging method that has proven its diagnostic value in oncology and can be used for different clinical purposes. Read More

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Bone Marrow Activation After Chemotherapy Presenting as Diffuse Skeletal Uptake on 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

From the U.O.C. di Medicina Nucleare U.O.C. di Radioterapia Oncologica, Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Abstract: Diffuse 18F-FDG skeletal uptake due to chemotherapy-induced bone marrow activation is well documented, whereas it has never been reported with 18F-fluorocholine. We described a patient with pelvic recurrence of prostate cancer at 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT. A second PET/CT after docetaxel showed minimal residual activity in pelvis, but it revealed diffuse, intense 18F-fluorocholine skeletal uptake. Read More

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Pelvic tilt impacts cup orientation on CT: how accurate is the gold standard?

Acta Radiol 2021 May 13:2841851211009466. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Regensburg University Medical Center, Bad Abbach, Germany.

Background: Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for the accurate measurement of cup inclination and anteversion in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, functional cup position strongly depends on the tilt of the pelvis and thus pelvic tilt in the supine position on the CT table harbors the risk of misinterpretation.

Purpose: To evaluate the influence of pelvic tilt on cup measurements in postoperative CT scans. Read More

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PD-1 blocking antibodies moonlighting as killers.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Jun 18;51(6):1361-1364. Epub 2021 May 18.

Division of Immune Receptor and T-Cell Activation, Institute of Immunology, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Therapeutic antibodies that block PD-1-mediated inhibition of T cells have revolutionized cancer therapy. Murine cancer models are an essential tool for testing the efficacy of PD-1 blockers alone or in combination with other treatments. Depending on the isotype of the antibody and the host species, blocking antibodies can also exert cytotoxic activity towards cells expressing the target molecule. Read More

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Development of experimental ground truth and quantification of intracranial aneurysm pulsation in a patient.

Sci Rep 2021 May 3;11(1):9441. Epub 2021 May 3.

Laboratory of Experimental Medecine (ULB 222 Unit), Medicine Faculty, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CHU de Charleroi, 6110, Montigny-le-Tilleul, Belgium.

Aneurysm wall motion has been reported to be associated with rupture. However, its quantification with medical imaging is challenging and should be based on experimental ground-truth to avoid misinterpretation of results. In this work a time-resolved CT angiography (4D-CTA) acquisition protocol is proposed to detect the pulsation of intracranial aneurysms with a low radiation dose. Read More

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Subtle signs of breast cancer as an important pitfall in mammographic interpretation. Establishing an accurate diagnosis in an equivocal case.

Breast Dis 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Private Breast Imaging Center, Athens, Greece.

Mammogram is the standard imaging modality for the early detection of breast cancer, and it has been shown to reduce disease-related mortality by up to 30%. Mammogram, however, has its limitations. It is reported that 10-30% of breast cancers may be missed on a mammogram. Read More

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Atypical and uncommon CT and MR imaging presentations of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 160 Pujian Rd., Pudong, 200127, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) occasionally have atypical and uncommon imaging presentations that can present a diagnostic dilemma and result in false interpretation. This article aimed to illustrate these CT and MR imaging findings, including isoattenuating PDAC, coexisting acute pancreatitis, PDAC with a cystic feature, groove PDAC, diffuse PDAC, hypointensity on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), multifocal PDAC, intratumoral calcification, and extrapancreatic invasion with a barely discernable mass. A subset of PDACs with atypical features are occasionally encountered during routine clinical practice. Read More

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Geometrically induced wall shear stress variability in CFD-MRI coupled simulations of blood flow in the thoracic aortas.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 20;133:104385. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology and J.M. Burgerscentrum Research School for Fluid Mechanics, Delft, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Aortic aneurysm is associated with aberrant blood flow and wall shear stress (WSS). This can be studied by coupling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For patient-specific simulations, extra attention should be given to the variation in segmentation of the MRI data-set and its effect on WSS. Read More

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Reference Charts of Fetal Biometric Parameters at Different Gestational Age Groups in Indian Population.

Mymensingh Med J 2021 Apr;30(2):538-546

Dr Sanjay Mishra, Senior Resident (MD Anatomy), Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India; E-mail:

To develop, a reference charts of fetal abdominal circumference and femur length in normal pregnant women by using ultrasonography for Indian population. Further comparison of our findings with data derived from different population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 300 normal singleton pregnancies and was carried out in the department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), India from September 2017 to April 2019. Read More

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The Effect of Tocilizumab on Inflammatory Markers in Patients Hospitalized with Serious Infections. Case Series and Review of Literature.

Life (Basel) 2021 Mar 20;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Rheumatology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

Background: The human anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) has been approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and giant cell arteritis (GCA). It is observed that CRP levels drop quickly after starting TCZ treatment. This may lead to misinterpretation of laboratory results when accessing the patient with infectious disease while on TCZ. Read More

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Imaging after percutaneous thermal and non-thermal ablation of hepatic tumour: normal appearances, progression and complications.

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 1:20201327. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Angers, France.

The increasing number of liver tumours treated by percutaneous ablation leads all radiologists to be confronted with the difficult interpretation of post-ablation imaging. Radiofrequency and microwave techniques are most commonly used. Recently, irreversible electroporation treatments that do not induce coagulation necrosis but cellular apoptose and respect the collagen architecture of bile ducts and vessels have been introduced and lead to specific post-ablation features and evolution. Read More

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Cultural bias in motor function patterns: Potential relevance for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine.

EPMA J 2021 Mar 3;12(1):91-101. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health and Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Lindenberger Weg 80, 113125 Berlin, Germany.

Background: Quantification of motor performance has a promising role in personalized medicine by diagnosing and monitoring, e.g. neurodegenerative diseases or health problems related to aging. Read More

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Misinterpretation of head and neck masses can delay the correct diagnosis. A two-step demolitive-reconstruction surgery for saving patient's life.

Oral Oncol 2021 Mar 17:105197. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Otolaryngology Department, Silvestrini University Hospital, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To present a rare case of sebaceous cyst masking skin squamous carcinoma. The delayed diagnosis made necessary a two-step (demolition and reconstruction) surgery to save patient's life.

Material And Methods: A 77-year-old male, suffering from persistent right hemicrania and eye pain referred to different specialists, who misinterpreted his symptoms. Read More

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Immediate chest radiograph interpretation by radiographers improves patient safety related to nasogastric feeding tube placement in children.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Clarendon Wing Radiology Department, Leeds Children's Hospital at the Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, LS2 9NS, UK.

Background: Despite the publication of a national patient safety alert in 2016, inadvertent feeding through misplaced nasogastric tubes continues to occur, either through failure to review the radiograph, misinterpretation of it, or failure to communicate the results.

Objective: The objectives were to determine whether training in a new pathway introduced to avoid these "never events" was followed and whether radiographer comments and prompt communication of results could reduce risk and improve patient safety in relation to nasogastric tube placement in children.

Materials And Methods: Following radiographer training in interpretation of nasogastric tube position and use of a commenting proforma and communication pathway, we reviewed all radiographs obtained to check nasogastric tubes performed over a 13-month period in children 0-16 years of age. Read More

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Baclofen Toxicity Mimicking Brain Death: A Case Report of a Pediatric Patient.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Mar;37(3):e141-e146

Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, Irvine.

Background: Baclofen is commonly used in both pediatric and adult patients to treat spasticity secondary to spinal cord and cerebral pathology. A broad range of symptoms and severity of baclofen toxicity have been described. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports to date of baclofen toxicity mimicking brain death in pediatric patients. Read More

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Implications of response shift for micro-, meso-, and macro-level healthcare decision-making using results of patient-reported outcome measures.

Qual Life Res 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Medical Psychology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Research Institute Amsterdam Public Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Results of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to inform healthcare decision-making. Research has shown that response shift can impact PROM results. As part of an international collaboration, our goal is to provide a framework regarding the implications of response shift at the level of patient care (micro), healthcare institute (meso), and healthcare policy (macro). Read More

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How to interpret spinal imaging in paediatric trauma.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Paediatric Emergency Medicine, Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, Cardiff, UK.

Spinal injuries in children are fortunately rare; however, it is important that they are assessed and managed in a timely manner. A systematic approach to traumatic spinal injuries should be used, by following recent evidence and national protocols, in order to avoid misinterpretation and potentially, inappropriate discharge. The aim of this article is to highlight the concepts of spinal imaging in paediatric trauma with regards to indications, interpretation and limitations. Read More

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February 2021

Ultrasound of the Radial Nerve: A Pictorial Review.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

PUC - Private Ultrasound Center Graz, Lassnitzhoehe, Austria.

This pictorial review focuses on the ultrasound (US) appearance of the normal and pathological radial nerve (RN) and its branches and provides tips with which to locate them and avoid misinterpretation of normal findings. A wide range of our pathological cases are reviewed and presented to help in familiarizing the reader with common and uncommon clinical scenarios that affect the RN and its main branches. Read More

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February 2021

Very late complications of oncotherapy in glioblastoma patients: A case series.

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Background: Stroke-like syndrome is defined as a rare, delayed complication of brain oncotherapy. Cases with more favorable brain cancer diagnoses and longer life expectancy have been previously reported, but here we present, for the first time, three long-term survivors of glioblastoma with stroke-like syndromes.

Methods And Results: Three young or middle-aged patients underwent tumor resection and chemoradiotherapy. Read More

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February 2021

Television-induced electronegative photoparoxysmal response: an extratemporal seizure mimic?

Epileptic Disord 2021 Feb;23(1):161-166

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Video-EEG monitoring is an established gold-standard procedure for diagnosis and differentiation of epileptic and non-epileptic seizures. Epilepsy misdiagnosis, to which factors such as EEG artifact misinterpretation contribute to, is common, and can have long-lasting iatrogenic repercussions to the clinical management of affected patients. Among the many types of responses to photic stimulation, artifacts and physiologic and epileptic responses are possible. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus on subsequent infectivity of bovine gammaherpesvirus 4 in endometrial cells in primary culture: An in vitro model of viral co-infection.

J Virol Methods 2021 05 15;291:114097. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Grupo de Sanidad Animal. Instituto de Innovación para la Producción Agropecuaria y Desarrollo Sostenible (IPADS, CONICET-INTA). Ruta 226 km 73.5, Balcarce, 7620, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine gammaherpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) infect the uterus of cattle, being responsible for huge economic losses. Most of the pathogenesis of BoHV-4 in the bovine reproductive tract has been elucidated by conducting tests on primary cultures. Thus, it is important to have optimal in vitro conditions, avoiding the presence of other pathogens that can alter the results. Read More

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COVID-19 and thermoregulation-related problems: Practical recommendations.

Temperature (Austin) 2020 Aug 6;8(1):1-11. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

VGGM, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

The COVID-19 pandemic started in the cold months of the year 2020 in the Northern hemisphere. Concerns were raised that the hot season may lead to additional problems as some typical interventions to prevent heat-related illness could potentially conflict with precautions to reduce coronavirus transmission. Therefore, an international research team organized by the Global Health Heat Information Network generated an inventory of the specific concerns about this nexus and began to address the issues. Read More

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Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses, version 2019: interpretation pitfalls and recommendations to avoid misclassification.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Jun 23;46(6):2699-2711. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

The purpose of this review is to describe the potential sources of variability or discrepancy in interpretation of cystic renal masses under the Bosniak v2019 classification system. Strategies to avoid these pitfalls and clinical examples of diagnostic approaches are also presented. Potential pitfalls in the application of Bosniak v2019 are divided into three categories: interpretative, technical, and mass related. Read More

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Acute Brain Stroke Evolution Detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI Justifies the Discordance of Lesions in a Patient With Lymphoproliferative Syndrome.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 03;46(3):e171-e172

From the Departments of Nuclear Medicine.

Abstract: A 50-year-old man with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma in complete response to treatment presented new hypermetabolic brain lesions on 18F-FDG PET/CT suggestive of malignancy. These findings were correlated by MRI that showed cortical-subcortical peripheral lesions typical of acute ischemic infarction. A restaging 18F-FDG PET/CT showed that hypermetabolic lesions were replaced by ametabolic areas, supporting chronic infarction. Read More

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68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT Findings in a Patient of Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Jul;46(7):e349-e352

From the Radiation Medicine Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai.

Abstract: A 43-year-old man diagnosed with fibrous dysplasia with McCune-Albright syndrome was subjected to 18F-fluoride bone scan and 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT as per the institution protocol. 18F-bone scan revealed extensive involvement of axial and appendicular skeleton confirming polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT showed increased tracer uptake in corresponding lesions of fibrous dysplasia. Read More

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Do parasites influence behavioural traits of wild and hatchery-reared Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii?

Parasitol Res 2021 Feb 6;120(2):515-523. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2650, Australia.

This study aimed to investigate the links between parasites and behavioural traits of juvenile Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii). The Murray cod is an endangered Australian freshwater fish for which restocking programs are in place and there is a growing human consumption market. However, little is known about the parasites of these fish and how these parasites influence their behaviour and survival. Read More

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February 2021