4,064 results match your criteria auxiliary cells

Prospects and application of ultrasound and magnetic fields in the fermentation of rare edible fungi.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Jun 1;76:105613. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Food & Biological Engineering, Institute of Food Physical Processing, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Ultrasound has the potential to be broadly applied in the field of agricultural food processing due to advantages such as environmental friendliness, low energy costs, no need for exogenous additives and ease of operation. High-frequency ultrasound is mainly used in medical diagnosis and in the food industry for the identification of ingredients and production line quality testing, while low-frequency ultrasounds is mainly used for extraction and separation, accelerating chemical reactions, auxiliary microbial fermentation and quality enhancement in food industry. Magnetic fields have many advantages of convenient use, such as non-toxic, nonpolluting and safe. Read More

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A deep learning-based framework for segmenting invisible clinical target volumes with estimated uncertainties for post-operative prostate cancer radiotherapy.

Med Image Anal 2021 May 17;72:102101. Epub 2021 May 17.

Medical Artificial Intelligence and Automation Laboratory and Department of Radiation Oncology,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States. Electronic address:

In post-operative radiotherapy for prostate cancer, precisely contouring the clinical target volume (CTV) to be irradiated is challenging, because the cancerous prostate gland has been surgically removed, so the CTV encompasses the microscopic spread of tumor cells, which cannot be visualized in clinical images like computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In current clinical practice, physicians' segment CTVs manually based on their relationship with nearby organs and other clinical information, but this allows large inter-physician variability. Automating post-operative prostate CTV segmentation with traditional image segmentation methods has yielded suboptimal results. Read More

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Ecology of inorganic sulfur auxiliary metabolism in widespread bacteriophages.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3503. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Microbial sulfur metabolism contributes to biogeochemical cycling on global scales. Sulfur metabolizing microbes are infected by phages that can encode auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) to alter sulfur metabolism within host cells but remain poorly characterized. Here we identified 191 phages derived from twelve environments that encoded 227 AMGs for oxidation of sulfur and thiosulfate (dsrA, dsrC/tusE, soxC, soxD and soxYZ). Read More

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More than a pore: How voltage-gated calcium channels act on different levels of neuronal communication regulation.

Channels (Austin) 2021 Dec;15(1):322-338

Functional Neurobiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute for Developmental Biology and Neurobiology, Mainz, Germany.

Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) represent key regulators of the calcium influx through the plasma membrane of excitable cells, like neurons. Activated by the depolarization of the membrane, the opening of VGCCs induces very transient and local changes in the intracellular calcium concentration, known as calcium nanodomains, that in turn trigger calcium-dependent signaling cascades and the release of chemical neurotransmitters. Based on their central importance as concierges of excitation-secretion coupling and therefore neuronal communication, VGCCs have been studied in multiple aspects of neuronal function and malfunction. Read More

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December 2021

[Cytogenetic analysis of an amniotic sample with X chromosome abnormality signaled by non-invasive prenatal testing].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;38(6):573-576

Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Taizhou, Zhejiang 317000, China.

Objective: To determine the chromosomal karyotype of a fetus with copy number variation (CNV) of the X chromosome signaled by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT).

Methods: NIPT was performed on the peripheral blood sample taken from the pregnant women. Amniotic fluid and cord blood samples were subjected to conventional G banded karyotyping, and were further analyzed by high-throughput sequencing for chromosome microdeletion/microduplication. Read More

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CIB2 and CIB3 are auxiliary subunits of the mechanotransduction channel of hair cells.

Neuron 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:

CIB2 is a Ca- and Mg-binding protein essential for mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) by cochlear hair cells, but not by vestibular hair cells that co-express CIB2 and CIB3. Here, we show that in cochlear hair cells, CIB3 can functionally substitute for CIB2. Using X-ray crystallography, we demonstrate that CIB2 and CIB3 are structurally similar to KChIP proteins, auxiliary subunits of voltage-gated K4 channels. Read More

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Tumor Immune Microenvironment and Its Related miRNAs in Tumor Progression.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:624725. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

MiRNA is a type of small non-coding RNA, by regulating downstream gene expression that affects the progression of multiple diseases, especially cancer. MiRNA can participate in the biological processes of tumor, including proliferation, invasion and escape, and exhibit tumor enhancement or inhibition. The tumor immune microenvironment contains numerous immune cells. Read More

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[Application of cell transfer technique in the diagnosis of fine needle aspiration cytology].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;50(6):615-619

Department of Pathology,Beijing Hospital,National Center of Gerontology;Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

To study the application of cell transfer technology to solve the problem of the limited number of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears for various immunocytochemistry (ICC) staining and other auxiliary tests, and to enhance accurate cytological diagnosis. Thirty-four cases of FNAC smears from January 2020 to April 2020 in the Department of Pathology of Beijing Hospital were collected for investigation of the cell transfer technique. The materials in the most cell smear were divided and transferred to several glass slides. Read More

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The ATP-Releasing Maxi-Cl Channel: Its Identity, Molecular Partners and Physiological/Pathophysiological Implications.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 31;11(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Cell Signaling, National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS), Okazaki 444-8787, Japan.

The Maxi-Cl phenotype accounts for the majority (app. 60%) of reports on the large-conductance maxi-anion channels (MACs) and has been detected in almost every type of cell, including placenta, endothelium, lymphocyte, cardiac myocyte, neuron, and glial cells, and in cells originating from humans to frogs. A unitary conductance of 300-400 pS, linear current-to-voltage relationship, relatively high anion-to-cation selectivity, bell-shaped voltage dependency, and sensitivity to extracellular gadolinium are biophysical and pharmacological hallmarks of the Maxi-Cl channel. Read More

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Identification of the Large-Conductance Ca-Regulated Potassium Channel in Mitochondria of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

Molecules 2021 May 27;26(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Physics and Biophysics, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism within the cell. Potassium channels such as ATP-sensitive, voltage-gated or large-conductance Ca-regulated channels have been described in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Several hypotheses have been proposed to describe the important roles of mitochondrial potassium channels in cell survival and death pathways. Read More

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Femtosecond Laser-Processing of Pre-Anodized Ti-Based Bone Implants for Cell-Repellent Functionalization.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 20;11(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Strasse 69, 4040 Linz, Austria.

Microstructures and nanostructures can be used to reduce the adhesion of the cells on the auxiliary material. Therefore, the aim of our work was to fabricate laser-induced hierarchical microstructures and nanostructures by femtosecond laser-treatment (wavelength 1040 nm, pulse length 350 fs, repetition rates in the kHz range) to reduce the cell adhesion. Additionally, surface chemistry modification by optimized electrochemical anodization was used to further reduce the cell adhesion. Read More

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AnnexinA5 Might Suppress the Phenotype of Human Gastric Cancer Cells ERK Pathway.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:665105. Epub 2021 May 12.

Histology and Embryology Department, Chengde Medical University, Chengde, China.

Gastric cancer is one of the most fatal diseases around the world. However, the mechanism of the development of gastric cancer is still not clarified. In addition, the anticancer drugs have cytotoxicity with different degrees. Read More

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Development of Allosteric Modulators of Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels: A Novel Approach for an Old Target.

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 05 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas. United States.

Given their primacy in governing the action potential (AP) of excitable cells, voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels are important pharmacological targets of therapeutics for a diverse array of clinical indications. Despite historically being a traditional drug target, therapeutics targeting Nav channels lack isoform selectivity, giving rise to off-target side effects. To develop isoform-selective modulators of Nav channels with improved target-specificity, the identification and pharmacological targeting of allosteric sites that display structural divergence among Nav channel isoforms represents an attractive approach. Read More

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Kv2 channel/AMIGO β-subunit assembly modulates both channel function and cell adhesion molecule surface trafficking.

J Cell Sci 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

The Kv2 channels encode delayed rectifier currents that regulate membrane potential in many tissues. They also have a non-conducting function to form stable junctions between the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes, creating membrane contact sites that mediate functions distinct from membrane excitability. Therefore, proteins that interact with Kv2. Read More

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[The Clinical Significance of HPV L1/PD-L1 Tests Combined with Colposcopy for Cervical Precancerous Lesions and Cervical Cancer].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 May;52(3):516-522

Department of Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To explore the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 protein and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein in cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, to analyze the correlation between HPV L1 and PD-L1 expression tests combined with colposcopy and the occurrence and development of of cervical lesions, and to determine the significance of the combined examination for auxiliary differential diagnosis.

Methods: 260 patients with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection who were treated at West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University from January, 2018 to January, 2020 were included in the study. 260 cervical cytology specimens were collected, of which 218 cervical histology specimens were collected, of which 202 cases underwent colposcopy. Read More

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Critical appraisal of the mechanisms of gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary infection by COVID-19.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 05 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Research Centre, Sainte-Justine University Health Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

COVID-19 represents a novel infectious disease induced by SARS-CoV-2. It has to date affected 24,240,000 individuals and killed 2,735,805 people worldwide. The highly infectious virus attacks mainly the lung causing fever, cough and fatigue in symptomatic patients, but also pneumonia in severe cases. Read More

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Diverse Viruses Carrying Genes for Microbial Extremotolerance in the Atacama Desert Hyperarid Soil.

mSystems 2021 May 18;6(3). Epub 2021 May 18.

Group for Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology, Department of Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

Viruses play an essential role in shaping microbial community structures and serve as reservoirs for genetic diversity in many ecosystems. In hyperarid desert environments, where life itself becomes scarce and loses diversity, the interactions between viruses and host populations have remained elusive. Here, we resolved host-virus interactions in the soil metagenomes of the Atacama Desert hyperarid core, one of the harshest terrestrial environments on Earth. Read More

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miR-129-5p inhibits clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting SPN.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 17;21(1):263. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Urology, Tangshan Central Hospital, East of Guangming Road, South of Longfu South Road, West of Youyi Road West Auxiliary Road, North of Changning Road, Tangshan, 063000, China.

Objective: Our study aims to investigate the mechanism of the miR-129-5p/SPN axis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), providing a novel direction for the targeted therapy of ccRCC.

Methods: Bioinformatics methods were implemented to find the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with ccRCC from TCGA database. qRT-PCR was performed to detect miR-129-5p and SPN mRNA expression, while western bot was carried out for the detection of protein expression of SPN. Read More

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Heterologous functional expression of ascidian Nav1 channels and close relationship with the evolutionary ancestor of vertebrate Nav channels.

J Biol Chem 2021 May 14:100783. Epub 2021 May 14.

The Integrative Physiology, Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University; The Graduate School of Frontier Bioscience, Osaka University. Electronic address:

Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1s) are responsible for initiation and propagation of action potentials in neurons, muscle and endocrine cells. Many clinically used drugs such as local anaesthetics and antiarrhythmics inhibit Nav1s and a variety of inherited human disorders are caused by mutations in Nav1s genes. Nav1s consist of the main α subunit and several auxiliary β subunits. Read More

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The Role of Proprotein Convertases in the Regulation of the Function of Immune Cells in the Oncoimmune Response.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:667850. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, U1192, Laboratoire Protéomique, Réponse Inflammatoire et Spectrométrie de Masse (PRISM), Lille, France.

Proprotein convertases (PC) are a family of 9 serine proteases involved in the processing of cellular pro-proteins. They trigger the activation, inactivation or functional changes of many hormones, neuropeptides, growth factors and receptors. Therefore, these enzymes are essential for cellular homeostasis in health and disease. Read More

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Autocrined leptin promotes proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) via and pathways.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):568

Department of Immunology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Background: Circulating leptin can directly act on tumor cells. However, a recent meta-analysis showed that plasma leptin concentration had no significant effect on the survival of lung cancer patients. So does Leptin have an effect on lung cancer? Or there may be other factors that influence the effect. Read More

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A dual autoencoder and singular value decomposition based feature optimization for the segmentation of brain tumor from MRI images.

K Aswani D Menaka

BMC Med Imaging 2021 May 13;21(1):82. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Applied Electronics, Noorul Islam Center for Higher Education, Kumrancoil, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: The brain tumor is the growth of abnormal cells inside the brain. These cells can be grown into malignant or benign tumors. Segmentation of tumor from MRI images using image processing techniques started decades back. Read More

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Self-driving armored CAR-T cells overcome a suppressive milieu and eradicate CD19 Raji lymphoma in preclinical models.

Mol Ther 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Translational Research and Development, Lentigen, a Miltenyi Biotec Company, 1201 Clopper Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA. Electronic address:

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells typically use a strong constitutive promoter to ensure maximal long-term CAR expression. However, recent evidence suggests that restricting the timing and magnitude of CAR expression is functionally beneficial, whereas constitutive CAR activation may lead to exhaustion and loss of function. We created a self-driving CD19-targeting CAR, which regulates its own function based on the presence of a CD19 antigen engaged by the CAR itself, by placing self-driving CAR19 constructs under transcriptional control of synthetic activator protein 1 (AP1)-nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) or signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 promoters. Read More

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From the Immune Profile to the Immunoscore: Signatures for Improving Postsurgical Prognostic Prediction of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:654660. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Immune infiltration plays an important role in tumor development and progression and shows promising prognostic value in numerous tumors. In this study, we aimed to identify the role of immune infiltration in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (Pan-NETs) and to establish an Immunoscore system to improve the prediction of postsurgical recurrence-free survival.

Methods: To derive transcriptional signatures and deconvolute specific immune populations, two GEO datasets containing 158 Pan-NET patients were reanalyzed to summarize the immune infiltration landscape and identify immune-related signatures. Read More

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The chaperone GRP78 is a host auxiliary factor for SARS-CoV-2 and GRP78 depleting antibody blocks viral entry and infection.

J Biol Chem 2021 May 6:100759. Epub 2021 May 6.

Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, , University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA; USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center. Electronic address:

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID-19 global pandemic, utilizes the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for viral entry. However, other host factors might also play important roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing new directions for antiviral treatments. GRP78 is a stress-inducible chaperone important for entry and infectivity for many viruses. Read More

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A Novel Jumbo Phage PhiMa05 Inhibits Harmful sp.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:660351. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand.

poses a concern because of its potential contribution to eutrophication and production of microcystins (MCs). Phage treatment has been proposed as a novel biocontrol method for . Here, we isolated a lytic cyanophage named PhiMa05 with high efficiency against MCs-producing strains. Read More

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Relationship between biochemical markers and measles viral load in patients with immunologically naive cases and secondary vaccine failure -LDH is one of the potential auxiliary indicators for secondary vaccine failure.

Microbiol Immunol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Osaka Institute of Public Health, 3-69, Nakamichi, 1-chome, Higashinari-ku, Osaka, 537-0025, Japan.

This study investigated the correlation between biochemical markers and viral load among 38 measles cases, including 15 immunologically naive patients and 23 patients with secondary vaccine failure (SVF). We examined four biochemical markers, namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and their relationship between virus genome copy numbers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and throat swabs as well as the concentration of measles-specific IgG. Although viral genome copies in both clinical specimens showed a significant correlation with specific IgG concentration, they had a higher correlation in PBMCs (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, -0. Read More

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Object-Guided Instance Segmentation With Auxiliary Feature Refinement for Biological Images.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 May 4;PP. Epub 2021 May 4.

Instance segmentation is of great importance for many biological applications, such as study of neural cell interactions, plant phenotyping, and quantitatively measuring how cells react to drug treatment. In this paper, we propose a novel box-based instance segmentation method. Box-based instance segmentation methods capture objects via bounding boxes and then perform individual segmentation within each bounding box region. Read More

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2D Honeycomb-Kagome Polymer Tandem as Effective Metal-Free Photocatalysts for Water Splitting.

Adv Mater 2021 May 4;33(21):e2008645. Epub 2021 May 4.

TU Dresden Fakultät für Chemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Bergstraße 66c, 01062, Dresden, Germany.

On the basis of first-principles calculations, the potential of applying 2D honeycomb-kagome polymers made of heteroatom-centered triangulene derivatives to photocatalyze water splitting is explored. The designed 2D polymers possess indirect bandgaps in the range of 1.80-2. Read More

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Unbiased interrogation of memory B cells from convalescent COVID-19 patients reveals a broad antiviral humoral response targeting SARS-CoV-2 antigens beyond the spike protein.

Vaccine X 2021 Aug 24;8:100098. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Immunome, Inc., 665 Stockton Drive, Suite 300, Exton, PA 19341, USA.

Patients who recover from SARS-CoV-2 infections produce antibodies and antigen-specific T cells against multiple viral proteins. Here, an unbiased interrogation of the anti-viral memory B cell repertoire of convalescent patients has been performed by generating large, stable hybridoma libraries and screening thousands of monoclonal antibodies to identify specific, high-affinity immunoglobulins (Igs) directed at distinct viral components. As expected, a significant number of antibodies were directed at the Spike (S) protein, a majority of which recognized the full-length protein. Read More

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