26 results match your criteria autoprocessing c-terminus

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Cloning of a Novel Gene Encoding a Minor Fibrinolytic Enzyme from SJ4 and the Properties of Vpr.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Nov;30(11):1720-1728

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Four), Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.

We have previously characterized AprESJ4, the major fibrinolytic enzyme from SJ4 (Yao ., 2019). During that study, we observed a 68 kDa protein with fibrinolytic activity. Read More

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November 2020

Intein-ubiquitin chimeric domain for coordinated protein coexpression.

J Biotechnol 2019 Oct 12;304:38-43. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA. Electronic address:

Efficient coproduction of multiple proteins or their subunits is important in many facets of life sciences and biotechnology. Here, we report a novel approach that exploits the synergy between an engineered mini-intein and an ubiquitin variant to achieve coordinated coexpression of multiple proteins in eukaryotic hosts, from a single open reading frame that encodes a polyprotein precursor consisting of proteins of interest (POIs) connected by an intervening intein-ubiquitin fusion domain. The intein variant mediates highly active autocatalytic cleavage at its N-terminus, whereas the endogenous deubiquitinases cleave at ubiquitin's C-terminus, leading to the release of the POIs. Read More

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October 2019

Masking autoprocessing of Clostridium difficile toxin A by the C-terminus combined repetitive oligo peptides.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015 Apr 26;459(2):259-263. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address:

Clostridium difficile toxin A and B (TcdA and TcdB) are the major virulence factors of the bacterium, both of which consist of two enzymatic domains: an effector glucosyltransferase domain (GTD) and a cysteine protease domain (CPD) responsible for autocleavage and release of GTD. Although the CPDs from both toxins share a similar structure and mechanism of hexakisphosphate (InsP6)-induced activation, TcdA is substantially less sensitive to the autocleavage as compared with TcdB. In this study, we provided evidence of inter-domain regulation of CPD activity of TcdA and its autoprocessing. Read More

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The combined repetitive oligopeptides of clostridium difficile toxin A counteract premature cleavage of the glucosyl-transferase domain by stabilizing protein conformation.

Toxins (Basel) 2014 Jul 22;6(7):2162-76. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Institute of Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) from Clostridium difficile enter host cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. A prerequisite for proper toxin action is the intracellular release of the glucosyltransferase domain by an inherent cysteine protease, which is allosterically activated by inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). We found that in in vitro assays, the C-terminally-truncated TcdA1-1065 was more efficient at IP6-induced cleavage compared with full-length TcdA. Read More

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Accelerated maturation of Tk-subtilisin by a Leu→Pro mutation at the C-terminus of the propeptide, which reduces the binding of the propeptide to Tk-subtilisin.

FEBS J 2013 Feb 11;280(4):994-1006. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Tk-subtilisin, a subtilisin homologue (Gly70-Gly398) from Thermococcus kodakarensis, is matured from its precursor, Pro-Tk-subtilisin [Tk-subtilisin in a pro form (Gly1-Gly398)], by autoprocessing and degradation of propeptide [Tk-propeptide, a propeptide of Tk-subtilisin (Gly1-Leu69)]. The scissile peptide bond between Leu69 and Gly70 of Pro-Tk-subtilisin is first self-cleaved to produce an inactive Tk-propeptide:Tk-subtilisin complex, in which the C-terminal region of Tk-propeptide binds to the active-site cleft of Tk-subtilisin. Tk-propeptide is then dissociated from Tk-subtilisin and degraded by Tk-subtilisin to release active Tk-subtilisin. Read More

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February 2013

Mechanism of dissociative inhibition of HIV protease and its autoprocessing from a precursor.

J Mol Biol 2012 Sep 30;422(2):230-44. Epub 2012 May 30.

Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Dimerization is indispensible for release of the human immunodeficiency virus protease (PR) from its precursor (Gag-Pol) and ensuing mature-like catalytic activity that is crucial for virus maturation. We show that a single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) of a previously reported monoclonal antibody (mAb1696), which recognizes the N-terminus of PR, dissociates a dimeric mature D25N PR mutant with an enhanced dimer dissociation constant (K(d)) in the sub-micromolar range to form predominantly a monomer-scFv complex at a 1:1 ratio, along with small (5-10%) amounts of a dimer-scFv complex. Enzyme kinetics indicate a mixed mechanism of inhibition of the wild-type PR, which exhibits a K(d)<10nM, with effects both on K(m) and k(cat) at an scFv-to-PR ratio of 10:1. Read More

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September 2012

Palmitoylation of Hedgehog proteins.

Vitam Horm 2012 ;88:229-52

Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are secreted signaling proteins that contain amide-linked palmitate at the N-terminus and cholesterol at the C-terminus. Palmitoylation of Hh proteins is critical for effective long- and short-range signaling. The palmitoylation reaction occurs during transit of Hh through the secretory pathway, most likely in the lumen of the ER. Read More

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Suppression of amyloid beta A11 antibody immunoreactivity by vitamin C: possible role of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides derived from glypican-1 by ascorbate-induced, nitric oxide (NO)-catalyzed degradation.

J Biol Chem 2011 Aug 3;286(31):27559-72. Epub 2011 Jun 3.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division of Neuroscience, Glycobiology Group, Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, SE-221 84 Lund, Sweden.

Amyloid β (Aβ) is generated from the copper- and heparan sulfate (HS)-binding amyloid precursor protein (APP) by proteolytic processing. APP supports S-nitrosylation of the HS proteoglycan glypican-1 (Gpc-1). In the presence of ascorbate, there is NO-catalyzed release of anhydromannose (anMan)-containing oligosaccharides from Gpc-1-nitrosothiol. Read More

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Characterization of Bafinivirus main protease autoprocessing activities.

J Virol 2011 Feb 10;85(3):1348-59. Epub 2010 Nov 10.

Centre for Infection and Immunity, The Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.

The production of functional nidovirus replication-transcription complexes involves extensive proteolytic processing by virus-encoded proteases. In this study, we characterized the viral main protease (M(pro)) of the type species, White bream virus (WBV), of the newly established genus Bafinivirus (order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, subfamily Torovirinae). Comparative sequence analysis and mutagenesis data confirmed that the WBV M(pro) is a picornavirus 3C-like serine protease that uses a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad embedded in a predicted two-β-barrel fold, which is extended by a third domain at its C terminus. Read More

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February 2011

Simplified, enhanced protein purification using an inducible, autoprocessing enzyme tag.

PLoS One 2009 Dec 2;4(12):e8119. Epub 2009 Dec 2.

Department of Pathology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

We introduce a new method for purifying recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria using a highly specific, inducible, self-cleaving protease tag. This tag is comprised of the Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin cysteine protease domain (CPD), an autoprocessing enzyme that cleaves exclusively after a leucine residue within the target protein-CPD junction. Importantly, V. Read More

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December 2009

A novel matrix metalloprotease-like enzyme (karilysin) of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia ATCC 43037.

Biol Chem 2010 Jan;391(1):105-17

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow 30-387, Poland.

Proteases of Tannerella forsythia, a pathogen associated with periodontal disease, are implicated as virulence factors. Here, we characterized a matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-like enzyme of T. forsythia referred to as karilysin. Read More

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January 2010

Crystal structure of acivicin-inhibited gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase reveals critical roles for its C-terminus in autoprocessing and catalysis.

Biochemistry 2009 Mar;48(11):2459-67

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, 1901 Vine Street, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0664, USA.

Helicobacter pylori gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (HpGT) is a general gamma-glutamyl hydrolase and a demonstrated virulence factor. The enzyme confers a growth advantage to the bacterium, providing essential amino acid precursors by initiating the degradation of extracellular glutathione and glutamine. HpGT is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase superfamily and undergoes autoprocessing to generate the active form of the enzyme. Read More

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Proteolytic cleavage of a C-terminal prosequence, leading to autoprocessing at the N Terminus, activates leucine aminopeptidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

J Biol Chem 2009 Apr 11;284(15):10243-53. Epub 2009 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

At high bacterial cell density the gene expression program of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is regulated by quorum sensing. Among the gene products highly up-regulated by this system is an exoprotease, leucine aminopeptidase (PA-LAP), which is coexpressed with several known virulence factors and secreted as a proenzyme. We undertook a study of its activation by expressing the full-length proform of PA-LAP recombinantly in Escherichia coli (here termed, rLAP55) and characterizing individual steps in its conversion to an active enzyme. Read More

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Modular total chemical synthesis of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

J Am Chem Soc 2007 Sep 18;129(37):11480-90. Epub 2007 Aug 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, Ben-May Department for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

As part of our ongoing studies of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease enzyme, we set out to develop a modular chemical synthesis of the protein from multiple peptide segments. Our initial attempts were frustrated by the insolubility of intermediate peptide products. To overcome this problem, we designed a synthetic strategy combining the solubility-enhancing properties of C-terminal (Arg)n tags and the biological phenomenon of autoprocessing of the Gag-Pol polyprotein that occurs during maturation of the HIV-1 virus in vivo. Read More

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September 2007

Molecular mechanisms of Sonic hedgehog mutant effects in holoprosencephaly.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 Nov 10;102(47):17026-31. Epub 2005 Nov 10.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Holoprosencephaly (HPE), a human developmental brain defect, usually is also associated with varying degrees of midline facial dysmorphism. Heterozygous mutations in the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene are the most common genetic lesions associated with HPE, and loss of Shh function in the mouse produces cyclopia and alobar forebrain development. The N-terminal domain (ShhNp) of Sonic hedgehog protein, generated by cholesterol-dependent autoprocessing and modification at the C terminus and by palmitate addition at the N terminus, is the active ligand in the Shh signal transduction pathway. Read More

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November 2005

Polymorphisms in p1-p6/p6* of HIV type 1 can delay protease autoprocessing and increase drug susceptibility.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2003 Sep;19(9):779-84

ViroLogic, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

Maturation of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles requires proteolytic cleavage of structural polyproteins by viral protease. Inhibition of protease is a powerful tool for the treatment of HIV infection. Using a well-established phenotypic drug susceptibility assay, we found that sequences outside of the protease gene can modulate the susceptibility to protease inhibitors (PIs). Read More

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September 2003

Extended nucleocapsid protein is cleaved from the Gag-Pol precursor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

J Gen Virol 2001 Mar;82(Pt 3):581-590

Experimental Pathology Unit1 and Clinical Virology Unit2, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, PO Box 12272, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag and Gag-Pol precursors are translated from an mRNA which is indistinguishable from the full-length genomic RNA. The ratio of Gag to Gag-Pol polyproteins is approximately 20:1 and is controlled by a frameshift of the reading frame, which takes place downstream of the p7 nucleocapsid (NC) in the N terminus of the p1 peptide. The viral precursors Gag and Gag-Pol are cleaved by the virus-encoded protease (PR) into the structural proteins, and into p6(Pol), PR, reverse transcriptase and integrase. Read More

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Deletion of various carboxy-terminal domains of Lactococcus lactis SK11 proteinase: effects on activity, specificity, and stability of the truncated enzyme.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2000 Jul;66(7):2859-65

NIZO food research, Ede, The Netherlands.

The Lactococcus lactis SK11 cell envelope proteinase is an extracellular, multidomain protein of nearly 2,000 residues consisting of an N-terminal serine protease domain, followed by various other domains of largely unknown function. Using a strategy of deletion mutagenesis, we have analyzed the function of several C-terminal domains of the SK11 proteinase which are absent in cell envelope proteinases of other lactic acid bacteria. The various deletion mutants were functionally expressed in L. Read More

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Proteolytic processing of HIV-1 protease precursor, kinetics and mechanism.

J Biol Chem 1999 Aug;274(33):23437-42

Laboratory of Chemical Physics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0580, USA.

Previously it was demonstrated using a model precursor that processing at the N terminus of the HIV-1 protease (PR) precedes processing at its C terminus. We now show the expression, purification, and kinetics of the autoprocessing reaction of a PR precursor linked to 53 amino acids of the native flanking transframe region (DeltaTFP-p6(pol)) of Gag-Pol and containing its two native cleavage sites. The PR contains the two cysteine residues exchanged to alanines, mutations that do not alter the kinetics or the structural stability of the mature PR. Read More

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Crystal structure of human bleomycin hydrolase, a self-compartmentalizing cysteine protease.

Structure 1999 Jun;7(6):619-27

WM Keck Structural Biology Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY 11724, USA.

Background: Bleomycin hydrolase (BH) is a cysteine protease that is found in all tissues in mammals as well as in many other eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Although its conserved cellular function is as yet unknown, human bleomycin hydrolase (hBH) has clinical significance in that it is thought to be the major cause of tumor cell resistance to bleomycin chemotherapy. In addition, it has been reported that an allelic variant of hBH is genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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Three active forms of aspartic proteinase from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus.

Virology 1998 Jun;245(2):250-6

Department of Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.

Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) proteinase, released by the autocatalytic cleavage of Gag-Pro and Gag-Pro-Pol polypeptide precursors, catalyzes the processing of viral precursors to yield the structural proteins and enzymes of the virion. In retroviruses, usually only one proteolytically active form of proteinase exists. Here, we describe an unusual feature of M-PMV, the existence of three active forms of a retroviral proteinase with molecular masses of 17, 13, and 12 kDa as determined by mass spectroscopy. Read More

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Evidence for intramolecular processing of prosubtilisin sequestered on a solid support.

A Volkov F Jordan

J Mol Biol 1996 Oct;262(5):595-9

Department of Chemistry, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Newark 07102, USA.

Subtilisin E is synthesized in Bacillus subtilis as a preprosubtilisin. The prepeptide is removed by a signal peptidase, and the propeptide is cleaved from the mature protein by the catalytic domain of subtilisin itself in an autocatalytic fashion. A six residue histidine-tag was attached to the C terminus of prosubtilisin and mature subtilisin to enable immobilization on a metal chelating resin. Read More

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October 1996

A transient precursor of the HIV-1 protease. Isolation, characterization, and kinetics of maturation.

J Biol Chem 1996 Feb;271(8):4477-81

Molecular Mechanisms of Development Section, Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Recently, the mechanism of autoprocessing of the protease (PR) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from the model polyprotein, MBP-DeltaTF-PR-DeltaPol, which contains the protease linked to short native flanking sequences (DeltaTF and DeltaPol) fused to the maltose binding protein (MBP) of Escherichia coli, was reported (Louis, J. M., Nashed, N. Read More

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February 1996

Kinetics and mechanism of autoprocessing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease from an analog of the Gag-Pol polyprotein.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994 Aug;91(17):7970-4

Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Upon renaturation, the polyprotein MBP-delta TF-Protease-delta Pol, consisting of HIV-1 protease and short native sequences from the trans-frame protein (delta TF) and the polymerase (delta Pol) fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP) of Escherichia coli, undergoes autoprocessing to produce the mature protease in two steps. The initial step corresponds to cleavage of the N-terminal sequence to release the protein intermediate Protease-delta Pol, which has enzymatic activity comparable to that of the mature enzyme. Subsequently, the mature enzyme is formed by a slower cleavage at the C terminus. Read More

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Herpes simplex virus type 1 protease expressed in Escherichia coli exhibits autoprocessing and specific cleavage of the ICP35 assembly protein.

J Virol 1992 Dec;66(12):7362-7

Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000.

The UL26 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes a protease which is responsible for the C-terminal cleavage of the nucleocapsid-associated proteins, ICP35 c and d, to their posttranslationally modified counterparts, ICP35 e and f. To further characterize the HSV-1 protease, the UL26 gene product was expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protease underwent autoproteolytic processing at two independent sites. Read More

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December 1992

Expression of potyviral polyproteins in transgenic plants reveals three proteolytic activities required for complete processing.

EMBO J 1990 May;9(5):1347-53

Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843.

All proteins encoded by the plant potyvirus, tobacco etch virus (TEV), arise by proteolytic processing of a single polyprotein. Two virus-encoded proteinases (NIa and HC-Pro) that catalyze most of the proteolytic events have been characterized previously. The two proteins that are derived from the N-terminal 87 kd region of the viral polyprotein are a 35 kd protein and HC-Pro (52 kd). Read More

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