8,035 results match your criteria autistic youth

Psychotropic Polypharmacy Among Children and Youth with Autism: A Systematic Review.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Majority of youth with autism are taking two or more medications (psychotropic or nonpsychotropic) simultaneously, also known as polypharmacy (Wink et al.). Yet the efficacy and the potential outcomes of polypharmacy in this population are widely unknown. Read More

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"Camouflaging" by adolescent autistic girls who attend both mainstream and specialist resource classes: Perspectives of girls, their mothers and their educators.

Autism 2021 May 9:13623613211012819. Epub 2021 May 9.

UCL Institute of Education, UK.

Lay Abstract: There are a range of different types of schools that support children diagnosed with autism, including mainstream schools (where pupils are taught in general classrooms) and specialist schools (where pupils are exclusively taught alongside other children with special educational needs). An intermediary option involves resource bases attached to mainstream schools, which enable children to transition between mainstream and specialist educational settings. Autistic girls use a variety of strategies to negotiate the expectations and demands of school life. Read More

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Intervention Services for Autistic Adults: An ASDEU Study of Autistic Adults, Carers, and Professionals' Experiences.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Dpto. Personalidad, Evaluación Y Tratamiento Psicológicos, INICO - Instituto Universitario de Integración en La Comunidad University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

The Autism Spectrum Disorders in the European Union (ASDEU) survey investigated local services' use experiences of autistic adults, carers and professionals with interventions for autistic adults. The majority of the 697 participants experienced recommended considerations prior to deciding on intervention and during the intervention plan and implementation. Psychosocial interventions were the most commonly experienced interventions, while pharmacological interventions NOT recommended for core autistic symptoms were reported by fairly large proportions of participants. Read More

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Effect of the TEACCH program on the rehabilitation of preschool children with autistic spectrum disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 30;138:420-427. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; Population and Health Research Center, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the effect of Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) intervention on the rehabilitation of preschool children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in China.

Methods: Sixty children with ASD were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 30) or the control group (n = 30). The intervention group received TEACCH training plus Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) for six months, while the control group received only DTT. Read More

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The Role of Acceptance in the Transition to Adulthood: A Multi-Informant Comparison of Practitioners, Families, and Youth with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department or Counselor Education, Emporia State University, 1601 State Street, Emporia, KS, 66801, USA.

This study investigated the role of acceptance during the transition process among autistic young adults, parents, and practitioners. Six focus groups were run and thematic analysis was used to identify four themes: Youth on the autism spectrum discussed transition as a time where Self-Advocacy and Self-Acceptance were salient. Both youth and parents discussed the Lack of Understanding and Acceptance they experience. Read More

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"I Met Someone Like Me!": Autistic Adolescents and Their Parents' Experience of the KONTAKT® Social Skills Group Training.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Curtin School of Allied Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

This study captured the experiences of 35 autistic adolescents and their parents after completing a 16-session variant of social skills group training KONTAKT® (ACTRN12617001117303). Semi-structured interviews explored participants' and relatives' perceptions of KONTAKT® and associated social outcomes. Adolescents were classified as either high (HR, n = 23) or low (LR, n = 12) responders based on the primary outcome effects during the previous trial. Read More

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Health Status and Health Care Use Among Adolescents Identified With and Without Autism in Early Childhood - Four U.S. Sites, 2018-2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 30;70(17):605-611. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Persons identified in early childhood as having autism spectrum disorder (autism) often have co-occurring health problems that extend into adolescence (1-3). Although only limited data exist on their health and use of health care services as they transition to adolescence, emerging data suggest that a minority of these persons receive recommended guidance* from their primary care providers (PCPs) starting at age 12 years to ensure a planned transition from pediatric to adult health care (4,5). To address this gap in data, researchers analyzed preliminary data from a follow-up survey of parents and guardians of adolescents aged 12-16 years who previously participated in the Study to Explore Early Development (https://www. Read More

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Patterns of Contagious Yawning and Itching Differ Amongst Adults With Autistic Traits vs. Psychopathic Traits.

Front Psychol 2021 9;12:645310. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Trinity College, Hartford, CT, United States.

Both individuals with diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and individuals high in psychopathic traits show reduced susceptibility to that is, yawning after seeing or hearing another person yawn. Yet it is unclear whether the same underlying processes (e.g. Read More

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Music Therapy for Children With Autistic Spectrum Disorder and/or Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Review.

Front Psychiatry 2021 9;12:643234. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, APHP.SU, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France.

Several studies have reported contradictory results regarding the benefits of music interventions in children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We performed a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched the Cochrane, PubMed and Medline databases from January 1970 to September 2020 to review all empirical findings, except case reports, measuring the effect of music therapy on youths with ASD, intellectual disability (ID), communication disorder (CD), developmental coordination disorder (DCD), specific learning disorder, and attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Read More

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TrASDition Training: An online parental training for transition-age youth with autism spectrum disorder.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 9;300:113930. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, Systems Medicine Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Transition to the adult age represents a rather challenging period of life for youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and for their families. Given the actual lack of integrated healthcare systems for autistic young-adults, enhancing parental skills could represent a feasible program to improve skills preparatory for transition in adult life. The online approach, providing easy access to services which otherwise would burden a daily family organization, already strenuous for a family with an autistic person, can represent an innovative way of delivering intervention. Read More

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Action predictability is reflected in beta power attenuation and predictive eye movements in adolescents with and without autism.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Apr 19;157:107859. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Most theoretical accounts of autism posit difficulties in predicting others' actions, and this difficulty has been proposed to be at the root of autistic individuals' social communication differences. Empirical results are mixed, however, with autistic individuals showing reduced action prediction in some studies but not in others. It has recently been proposed that this effect might be observed primarily when observed actions are less predictable, but this idea has yet to be tested. Read More

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Protocol for a randomized pilot study (FIRST STEPS): implementation of the Incredible Years-ASLD® program in Spanish children with autism and preterm children with communication and/or socialization difficulties.

Trials 2021 Apr 20;22(1):291. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu de Barcelona, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.

Having access to parenting interventions in the early years is key to improve the developmental outcomes of children with neurodevelopmental problems. The Incredible Years® (IY) Parent Program is a group intervention that has demonstrated efficacy in terms of reducing stress in parents, as well as improving behavioral, emotional, and social outcomes in children. The program has been recently adapted for families of children with autism or language delays (IY-ASLD®). Read More

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mTOR inhibitor improves autistic-like behaviors related to Tsc2 haploinsufficiency but not following developmental status epilepticus.

J Neurodev Disord 2021 Apr 17;13(1):14. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital and Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a multi-system genetic disorder often associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is caused by mutations of TSC1 or TSC2, which lead to constitutive overactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In several Tsc1+/- and Tsc2+/- animal models, cognitive and social behavior deficits were reversed by mTOR inhibitors. However, phase II studies have not shown amelioration of ASD and cognitive deficits in individuals with TSC during mTOR inhibitor therapy. Read More

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Differences in subcortico-cortical interactions identified from connectome and microcircuit models in autism.

Nat Commun 2021 04 13;12(1):2225. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The pathophysiology of autism has been suggested to involve a combination of both macroscale connectome miswiring and microcircuit anomalies. Here, we combine connectome-wide manifold learning with biophysical simulation models to understand associations between global network perturbations and microcircuit dysfunctions in autism. We studied neuroimaging and phenotypic data in 47 individuals with autism and 37 typically developing controls obtained from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange initiative. Read More

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[Value of autism screening checklists in the early identification of autism spectrum disorder].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;23(4):343-349

Department of Health Care, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University/Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders/National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders/China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders/Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing 400014, China.

Objective: To evaluate the value of autism screening checklists in the early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: A total of 2 571 children who attended the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University and completed autism screening and diagnostic test were enrolled as subjects, among whom 2 074 were diagnosed with ASD, 261 were diagnosed with global developmental delay (GDD), 206 were diagnosed with developmental language disorder (DLD), and 30 had normal development. The sensitivity, specificity, and optimal threshold value of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) for the early identification of ASD were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Read More

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Autism-Spectrum Quotient-Child and Autism-Spectrum Quotient-Adolescent in Chinese population: Screening autism spectrum disorder against attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing peers.

Autism 2021 Apr 12:13623613211003740. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China.

Lay Abstract: The Autism-Spectrum Quotient is a 50-item questionnaire developed to assess autistic symptoms in adults, adolescents and children. Its original version and others in different countries are known to be effective tools in identifying individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined whether the Hong Kong Chinese versions of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient-Child and Autism-Spectrum Quotient-Adolescent were effective in identifying autism spectrum disorder children and adolescents. Read More

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Health-related quality of life in mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan: The roles of child, parent, and family characteristics.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Jun 6;113:103944. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan; School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: No study has examined how child and maternal psychopathological difficulties and family factors contribute to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD).

Aims: To investigate the impact of children's diagnosis of ADHD, children's and maternal psychopathology and significant sociodemographic variables of the children, parents and family on HRQOL of mothers of children with ADHD and those of children with typical development (TD) in Taiwan.

Methods And Procedures: Children with ADHD (n = 257) and children with typical development (n = 324) and their mothers were recruited from a psychiatric clinic of a medical center and 10 elementary schools and four high schools in northern Taiwan. Read More

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Examining the association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent hypomania: a longitudinal twin study.

Psychol Med 2021 Apr 8:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: There is evidence that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) co-occur with bipolar disorder (BD) relatively frequently. Individuals with BD often report symptoms of mania and hypomania during adolescence, prior to the age of onset for BD. It is unknown whether these symptoms are associated with ASDs. Read More

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Use of Machine Learning to Investigate the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT) towards Early Autism Screening.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

National Research Council of Italy (CNR)-Institute for Biomedical Research and Innovation (IRIB), 98164 Messina, Italy.

In the past two decades, several screening instruments were developed to detect toddlers who may be autistic both in clinical and unselected samples. Among others, the Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT) is a quantitative and normally distributed measure of autistic traits that demonstrates good psychometric properties in different settings and cultures. Recently, machine learning (ML) has been applied to behavioral science to improve the classification performance of autism screening and diagnostic tools, but mainly in children, adolescents, and adults. Read More

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Alterations in Tau Protein Level and Phosphorylation State in the Brain of the Autistic-Like Rats Induced by Prenatal Exposure to Valproic Acid.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 22;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Cellular Signalling, Mossakowski Medical Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficient social interaction and communication besides repetitive, stereotyped behaviours. A characteristic feature of ASD is altered dendritic spine density and morphology associated with synaptic plasticity disturbances. Since microtubules (MTs) regulate dendritic spine morphology and play an important role in spine development and plasticity the aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations in the content of neuronal α/β-tubulin and Tau protein level as well as phosphorylation state in the valproic acid (VPA)-induced rat model of autism. Read More

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The Effect of Maternal Immune Activation on Social Play-Induced Ultrasonic Vocalization in Rats.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 9;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience and Drug Development, 12 Smętna Street, 31-343 Kraków, Poland.

Prenatal maternal infection is associated with an increased risk of various neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Maternal immune activation (MIA) can be experimentally induced by prenatal administration of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic viral-like double-stranded RNA. Although this MIA model is adopted in many studies, social and communicative deficits, included in the first diagnostic criterion of ASD, are poorly described in the offspring of poly(I:C)-exposed dams. Read More

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Tactile cortical responses and association with tactile reactivity in young children on the autism spectrum.

Mol Autism 2021 04 1;12(1):26. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada.

Background: Unusual behavioral reactions to sensory stimuli are frequently reported in individuals on the autism spectrum (AS). Despite the early emergence of sensory features (< age 3) and their potential impact on development and quality of life, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying sensory reactivity in early childhood autism.

Methods: Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate tactile cortical processing in young children aged 3-6 years with autism and in neurotypical (NT) children. Read More

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Tackling healthcare access barriers for individuals with autism from diagnosis to adulthood.

Pediatr Res 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Autism Speaks, New York, NY, USA.

Most individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-a complex, life-long developmental disorder-do not have access to the care required to address their diverse health needs. Here, we review: (1) common barriers to healthcare access (shortage/cost of services; physician awareness; stigma); (2) barriers encountered primarily during childhood (limited screening/diagnosis; unclear referral pathways), transition to adulthood (insufficient healthcare transition services; suboptimal physician awareness of healthcare needs) and adulthood (shortage of services/limited insurance; communication difficulties with physicians; limited awareness of healthcare needs of aging adults); and (3) advances in research/program development for better healthcare access. A robust understanding of barriers to accessing healthcare across the lifespan of autistic individuals is critical to ensuring the best use of healthcare resources to improve social, physical, and mental health outcomes. Read More

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Remote assessment in adults with Autism or ADHD: A service user satisfaction survey.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(3):e0249237. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

South West Yorkshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Wakefield, United Kingdom.

Advances in digital health have enabled clinicians to move away from a reliance on face to face consultation methods towards making use of modern video and web-based conferencing technology. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote telecommunication methods have become much more common place in mental health settings. The current study sought to investigate whether remote telecommunication methods are preferable to face to face consultations for adults referred to an Autism and ADHD Service during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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The Relationship of Severity of Autism with Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Serum Zonulin Levels in Autistic Children.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, Medical School, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

To evaluate the relationship between the severity of autism, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and serum zonulin levels as a marker of increased intestinal permeability in children. Serum zonulin levels were determined in 56 children with ASDs and 55 healthy children. The severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and ASD symptoms was assessed with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), respectively. Read More

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Maternal polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and offspring brain development in childhood.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Emerging evidence suggests an association of maternal PUFA concentrations during pregnancy with child cognitive and neuropsychiatric outcomes such as intelligence and autistic traits. However, little is known about prenatal maternal PUFAs in relation to child brain development, which may underlie these associations.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of maternal PUFA status during pregnancy with child brain morphology, including volumetric and white matter microstructure measures. Read More

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Effect of non-invasive brain stimulation on behavior and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in autistic patients.

Drug Dev Res 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Aberrant neural connectivity and intra-cortical inhibitory dysfunction are key features of autism. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) protocols have been proposed that modulate this aberrant plasticity. However, additional investigations are needed to evaluate the impact of this intervention on biological biomarkers of the disease. Read More

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It took a pandemic: Perspectives on impact, stress, and telehealth from caregivers of people with autism.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Jun 14;113:103938. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, de Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Shelter in place mandates due to the COVID-19 pandemic left caregivers to determine how to best meet the therapeutic requirements of their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Understanding the challenges faced by families, and their experiences using telehealth for the first time, may help make services sustainable in future public health emergencies. A sample of 70 caregivers of people with ASD from across the US completed an anonymous online survey. Read More

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The gap between IQ and adaptive functioning in autism spectrum disorder: Disentangling diagnostic and sex differences.

Autism 2021 Mar 15:1362361321995620. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Lay Abstract: Adaptive functioning refers to skills that are vital to success in day-to-day life, including daily living (e.g. grocery shopping, food preparation, transportation use), communication (e. Read More

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Quantitative and Qualitative Sex-Modulations in the Brain Anatomy of Autism.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Neurosciences & Mental Health Program, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Margaret and Wallace McCain Centre for Child, Youth & Family Mental Health, Azrieli Adult Neurodevelopmental Centre, and Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Sex-based neurobiological heterogeneity in autism is poorly understood. Research is disproportionately biased to males, leading to an unwarranted presumption that autism neurobiology is the same across sexes. Previous neuroimaging studies using amalgamated multi-center datasets to increase autistic female samples are characterized by large statistical noise. Read More

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