9,511 results match your criteria autistic spectrum


A concept mobility device with multi-positional configurations and child-kind restraint for safe perioperative transfer and induction of anaesthesia in children with autistic spectrum disorder - a cross sectional study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 9;21(1):325. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Paediatric Anaesthesiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, USA.

Background: Transfer into the operating room, onto the operating table and mask induction of anaesthesia are major challenges faced by children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In a pilot study, parents observed that perioperative transfer becomes unsafe and difficult when children with ASD becomes uncooperative.

Method: A CHILD-KIND CONCEPT mobility system comprising of multi-positioning seat configurations and restraining module was developed with inputs from multi-disciplinary healthcare professionals and parents with children with ASD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Health-related quality of life in mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan: The roles of child, parent, and family characteristics.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Apr 6;113:103944. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan; School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: No study has examined how child and maternal psychopathological difficulties and family factors contribute to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD).

Aims: To investigate the impact of children's diagnosis of ADHD, children's and maternal psychopathology and significant sociodemographic variables of the children, parents and family on HRQOL of mothers of children with ADHD and those of children with typical development (TD) in Taiwan.

Methods And Procedures: Children with ADHD (n = 257) and children with typical development (n = 324) and their mothers were recruited from a psychiatric clinic of a medical center and 10 elementary schools and four high schools in northern Taiwan. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Contribution of Gut Microbiota-Brain Axis in the Development of Brain Disorders.

Front Neurosci 2021 23;15:616883. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

IRC-FSH Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Græcia" of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy.

Different bacterial families colonize most mucosal tissues in the human organism such as the skin, mouth, vagina, respiratory, and gastrointestinal districts. In particular, the mammalian intestine hosts a microbial community of between 1,000 and 1,500 bacterial species, collectively called "microbiota." Co-metabolism between the microbiota and the host system is generated and the symbiotic relationship is mutually beneficial. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A paradigmatic autistic phenotype associated with loss of PCDH11Y and NLGN4Y genes.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 Apr 8;14(1):98. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department Pro.M.I.S.E. "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Most studies relative to Y chromosome abnormalities are focused on the sexual developmental disorders. Recently, a few studies suggest that some genes located on Y chromosome may be related to different neurodevelopment disorders.

Case Presentation: We report a child with sexual developmental disorder associated with a peculiar phenotype characterized by severe language impairment and autistic behaviour associated with a mosaicism [45,X(11)/46,XY(89)] and a partial deletion of the short and long arm of Y chromosome (del Yp11. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Autistic traits and negative emotions in the general population during COVID-19: Mediating roles of the behavioural immune system and COVID-19 risk perception.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 1;300:113918. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Institute of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Identifying the susceptibility factors of the emotional response to COVID-19 is highly significant for the psychological epidemic-crisis intervention, and autistic-related traits (ATs) is likely to be one of the candidate factors. The current study explored the relationships between ATs, emotional response to COVID-19, and the behavioural immune system (BIS) measured by trait pathogen avoidance and COVID-19 risk perception in the general population. The results showed that ATs predicted increased negative emotions directly and indirectly by enhancing the activation tendency of BIS and COVID-19 risk perception. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Examining the association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent hypomania: a longitudinal twin study.

Psychol Med 2021 Apr 8:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: There is evidence that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) co-occur with bipolar disorder (BD) relatively frequently. Individuals with BD often report symptoms of mania and hypomania during adolescence, prior to the age of onset for BD. It is unknown whether these symptoms are associated with ASDs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between Autistic Tendencies and Mental Health when Studying Abroad.

Pediatr Int 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Kyoto University Health Service, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: To identify the association between autistic tendencies and mental health among university students who study abroad.

Methods: We conducted a historical cohort study at a Japanese university, targeting students who went overseas from 2012 to 2014 as part of study abroad program. We administered questionnaires to students before and after completing the study abroad program. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Structural and contextual priors affect visual search in children with and without autism.

Autism Res 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Bayesian predictive coding theories of autism spectrum disorder propose that impaired acquisition or a broader shape of prior probability distributions lies at the core of the condition. However, we still know very little about how probability distributions are learned and encoded by children, let alone children with autism. Here, we take advantage of a recently developed distribution learning paradigm to characterize how children with and without autism acquire information about probability distributions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Alterations in Tau Protein Level and Phosphorylation State in the Brain of the Autistic-Like Rats Induced by Prenatal Exposure to Valproic Acid.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 22;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Cellular Signalling, Mossakowski Medical Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficient social interaction and communication besides repetitive, stereotyped behaviours. A characteristic feature of ASD is altered dendritic spine density and morphology associated with synaptic plasticity disturbances. Since microtubules (MTs) regulate dendritic spine morphology and play an important role in spine development and plasticity the aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations in the content of neuronal α/β-tubulin and Tau protein level as well as phosphorylation state in the valproic acid (VPA)-induced rat model of autism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Test Anxiety in Autistic University Students-Preliminary Results from a German-Speaking Sample.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 19;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Educational Psychology Lab, Institute of Educational Science, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition associated with increased levels of anxiety. However, whether autism is related to heightened test anxiety as one situation-specific type of anxiety has not yet been examined. This question may be relevant for the achievement and well-being of autistic people in educational settings (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Interpretation of E-Motions in Faces and Bodies Derived from Static Artworks by Individuals with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum.

Vision (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;5(2). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Psychology, Università di Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy.

E-motions are defined as those affective states the expressions of which-conveyed either by static faces or body posture-embody a dynamic component and, consequently, convey a higher sense of dynamicity than other emotional expressions. An experiment is presented, aimed at testing whether e-motions are perceived as such also by individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which have been associated with impairments in emotion recognition and in motion perception. To this aim we replicate with ASD individuals a study, originally conducted with typically developed individuals (TDs), in which we showed to both ASD and TD participants 14 bodiless heads and 14 headless bodies taken from eleven static artworks and four drawings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Using Functional Connectivity to Examine the Correlation between Mirror Neuron Network and Autistic Traits in a Typically Developing Sample: A fNIRS Study.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 20;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 49 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-4480, USA.

Mirror neuron network (MNN) is associated with one's ability to recognize and interpret others' actions and emotions and has a crucial role in cognition, perception, and social interaction. MNN connectivity and its relation to social attributes, such as autistic traits have not been thoroughly examined. This study aimed to investigate functional connectivity in the MNN and assess relationship between MNN connectivity and subclinical autistic traits in neurotypical adults. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Effect of Maternal Immune Activation on Social Play-Induced Ultrasonic Vocalization in Rats.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 9;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience and Drug Development, 12 Smętna Street, 31-343 Kraków, Poland.

Prenatal maternal infection is associated with an increased risk of various neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Maternal immune activation (MIA) can be experimentally induced by prenatal administration of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic viral-like double-stranded RNA. Although this MIA model is adopted in many studies, social and communicative deficits, included in the first diagnostic criterion of ASD, are poorly described in the offspring of poly(I:C)-exposed dams. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between Viral Infections and Risk of Autistic Disorder: An Overview.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 10;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition of the central nervous system (CNS) that presents with severe communication problems, impairment of social interactions, and stereotypic behaviours. Emerging studies indicate possible associations between viral infections and neurodegenerative and neurobehavioural conditions including autism. Viral infection during critical periods of early in utero neurodevelopment may lead to increased risk of autism in the offspring. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association Between Essential Metal Elements and the Risk of Autism in Chinese Han Population.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, People's Republic of China.

Essential metal elements (EMEs) have essential roles in neurological development and maintenance of human homeostasis. We performed a case-control study to explore association between the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the 11 EMEs [Calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co), Molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe)] in serum. Ninety-two autistic subjects (cases) and age-sex-matched healthy subjects (controls = 91) from Beijing, China were recruited. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prevalence and characteristics of autistic children attending autism centres in 2 major cities in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study.

Saudi Med J 2021 Apr;42(4):419-427

From the Department of Pediatric Dentistry (Sabbagh, Aljubour, Alamoudi), College of Dentistry (Alsulami, Hashem) and from the Department of Pediatrics (Al-Jabri), Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)-affected children attending autistic centers in 2 major cities in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study, including ASD centers and schools (37 centers) in Makkah and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted between January and March 2020. Data were collected from records and parents of children with ASD using a questionnaire on sociodemographic, family history, consanguinity, severity, and maternal risk factors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tactile cortical responses and association with tactile reactivity in young children on the autism spectrum.

Mol Autism 2021 04 1;12(1):26. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada.

Background: Unusual behavioral reactions to sensory stimuli are frequently reported in individuals on the autism spectrum (AS). Despite the early emergence of sensory features (< age 3) and their potential impact on development and quality of life, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying sensory reactivity in early childhood autism.

Methods: Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate tactile cortical processing in young children aged 3-6 years with autism and in neurotypical (NT) children. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A clinical and cost-effectiveness trial of a parent group intervention to manage challenging restricted and repetitive behaviours in young children with autism spectrum disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 1;22(1):240. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Level 3, Sir James Spence Institute, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 4LP, UK.

Background: Restricted and repetitive behaviours vary greatly across the autism spectrum, and although not all are problematic some can cause distress and interfere with learning and social opportunities. We have, alongside parents, developed a parent group based intervention for families of young children with autism, which aims to offer support to parents and carers; helping them to recognise, understand and learn how to respond to their child's challenging restricted repetitive behaviours.

Methods: The study is a clinical and cost-effectiveness, multi-site randomised controlled trial of the Managing Repetitive Behaviours (MRB) parent group intervention versus a psychoeducation parent group Learning About Autism (LAA) (n = 250; 125 intervention/125 psychoeducation; ~ 83/site) for parents of young children aged 3-9 years 11 months with a diagnosis of autism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Prevalence of Broad Autism Phenotype in Young Adults: The Roles of Genetic Relationship to Autism, Gender, and Academic Major.

J Genet Psychol 2021 Apr 2:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Psychology, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, New York, USA.

Subclinical levels of autism traits are known as the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) and include a rigid personality, aloof personality, and pragmatic language difficulties. Genetic relatives of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), males, and those in math- or science-oriented careers may be more likely to exhibit BAP. This study examined the prevalence of BAP in young adults to assess the influence of genetic relationship to ASD, gender, and academic field. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ageing and heterogeneity regarding autism spectrum conditions: a protocol paper of an accelerated longitudinal study.

BMJ Open 2021 Mar 31;11(3):e040943. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) develop early in life and are thought to last a lifetime. However, ASC research has two major knowledge gaps that hinder progression in understanding the concept of ASC and in providing proper support for autistic adults: (1) the majority of knowledge about ASC mainly stems from childhood studies so little is known about older autistic adults and (2) while it is broadly recognised that ASC is a heterogeneous condition, we do not yet understand the differences in trajectories leading to their future outcome. We aim to fill both knowledge gaps. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Survey of Autistic Adults from New Zealand on the Autism Diagnostic Process During Adolescence and Adulthood.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, PO Box 855, Perth, WA, 6872, Australia.

The diagnostic experiences of autistic adults in New Zealand have not been investigated and little is known globally about autistic adults' satisfaction with the autism diagnostic process. This study describes the diagnostic experiences of 70 autistic adults living in New Zealand and explores how these experiences are related to satisfaction during three stages of the diagnostic process. The results show that autistic adults were reasonably satisfied with the early query and diagnostic assessment stages, but were dissatisfied with the post-diagnostic support stage, with significant unmet needs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gestational Exposure to Toxicants and Autistic Behaviors using Bayesian Quantile Regression.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Autism Spectrum Disorder, which is characterized by impaired social communication and stereotypic behaviors, affects 1-2% of children. While prenatal exposure to toxicants has been associated with autistic behaviors, most studies have focused on shifts in mean behavior scores. We used Bayesian quantile regression to assess the associations between log2-transformed toxicant concentrations and autistic behaviors across the distribution of behaviors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Challenges in assessing change in autistic adults: scale limitations and discrepancies in reporting in clinical trials.

Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2021 Mar 28:1-5. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder marked by deficits in social communication and social interaction, together with restricted and/or repetitive patterns of behaviours, activities or interests. As more adults are being diagnosed with ASD, and more diagnosed children are aging into adulthood, the need for effective treatments and support services for autistic adults is quickly growing. As such, clinical research targeting autistic adults has emerged in recent years. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

DSM-5 symptom expression in toddlers.

Autism 2021 Mar 27:13623613211000160. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

University of Connecticut, USA.

Lay Abstract: Children with autism show more social-communication symptoms and repetitive behaviors than children with typical development or those diagnosed with other developmental disorders; however, non-autistic children often show behaviors that are associated with autism. We compared the behavioral reports from caregivers of children in these three groups to identify the behaviors that were specific to autism. Children with autism were found to show more of these behaviors, and behaviors that are particularly indicative of autism were identified. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Delayed cortical processing of auditory stimuli in children with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis of electrophysiological studies.

Brain Cogn 2021 Mar 26;150:105709. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Psychological Science, The University of Western Australia, M304, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

Several researchers have hypothesised that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show encoding delays in their obligatory event-related potentials (ERPs)/ event-related fields (ERFs) for low-level auditory information compared to neurotypical (NT) samples. However, empirical research has yielded varied findings, such as low-level auditory processing in ASD samples being unimpaired, superior, or impaired compared to NT samples. Diverse outcomes have also been reported for studies investigating ASD-NT differences in functional lateralisation of delays. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The histamine H3R and dopamine D2R/D3R antagonist ST-713 ameliorates autism-like behavioral features in BTBR T+tf/J mice by multiple actions.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Mar 24;138:111517. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; Zayed Center for Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

Several brain neurotransmitters, including histamine (HA), acetylcholine (ACh), and dopamine (DA) are suggested to be involved in several brain disorders including cognitive deficits, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and narcolepsy, all of which are comorbid with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, the ameliorative effects of the novel multiple-active compound ST-713 with high binding affinities at histamine H3 receptor (H3R), dopamine D2sR and D3R on ASD-like behaviors in male BTBR T+tf/J mice model were assessed. ST-713 (3-(2-chloro-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)-N-methyl-N-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzyl)propan-1-amine; 2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Convergent Validity of Behavioural and Subjective Sensitivity in Relation to Autistic Traits.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, London, Canada.

Sensory issues are highly prevalent in autism and previous findings support a relationship between questionnaires of sensitivity and autistic symptoms and traits, whereas studies that examine this relationship through behavioural assessments of sensitivity are less consistent. The current study explores these differences and suggests that behavioural thresholds for sensitivity and subjective sensitivity are distinct constructs. One hundred and eighteen adults completed a visual and auditory detection task and questionnaires on sensory processing and autistic traits. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Parent-delivered interventions used at home to improve eating, drinking and swallowing in children with neurodisability: the FEEDS mixed-methods study.

Health Technol Assess 2021 Mar;25(22):1-208

Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Eating, drinking and swallowing difficulties are common in young children with neurodisability. These difficulties may lead to inadequate calorie intake, which affects a child's nutrition, growth and general physical health.

Objective: To examine which interventions are available that can be delivered at home by parents to improve eating, drinking and swallowing in young children with neurodisability and are suitable for investigation in pragmatic trials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tackling healthcare access barriers for individuals with autism from diagnosis to adulthood.

Pediatr Res 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Autism Speaks, New York, NY, USA.

Most individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-a complex, life-long developmental disorder-do not have access to the care required to address their diverse health needs. Here, we review: (1) common barriers to healthcare access (shortage/cost of services; physician awareness; stigma); (2) barriers encountered primarily during childhood (limited screening/diagnosis; unclear referral pathways), transition to adulthood (insufficient healthcare transition services; suboptimal physician awareness of healthcare needs) and adulthood (shortage of services/limited insurance; communication difficulties with physicians; limited awareness of healthcare needs of aging adults); and (3) advances in research/program development for better healthcare access. A robust understanding of barriers to accessing healthcare across the lifespan of autistic individuals is critical to ensuring the best use of healthcare resources to improve social, physical, and mental health outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Age differences in broader autism phenotype traits from young adulthood to older adulthood.

Autism Res 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Much of past research has been dedicated to refining the operationalization and correlates of the broader autism phenotype (BAP) and less on how the BAP differs by socio-demographic characteristics, like age-particularly after midlife. This gap is important because other nonclinical trait-like characteristics (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF