20,601 results match your criteria autism studies

Functional connectivity-based prediction of Autism on site harmonized ABIDE dataset.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 May 14;PP. Epub 2021 May 14.

Objective: The larger sample sizes available from multi-site publicly available neuroimaging data repositories makes machine-learning based diagnostic classification of mental disorders more feasible by alleviating the curse of dimensionality. However, since multi-site data are aggregated post-hoc, i.e. Read More

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Congenital chromoanagenesis in the routine postnatal chromosomal microarray analyses.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

The Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center, Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Chromosomal microarray analyses (CMA) have greatly increased both the yield and diagnostic accuracy of postnatal analysis; it has been used as a first-tier cytogenetic test in patients with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple congenital abnormalities. During the last 15 years, we performed CMA in approximately 8,000 patients with neurodevelopmental and/or congenital disorders, of which 13 (0.16%) genetically catastrophic complex chromosomal rearrangements were identified. Read More

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Nutmegs and wild nutmegs: An update on ethnomedicines, phytochemicals, pharmacology, and toxicity of the Myristicaceae species.

Phytother Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Agrotechnology and Rural Development Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science & Technology, Jorhat, 785006, Assam, India.

Prized medicinal spice true nutmeg is obtained from Myristica fragrans Houtt. Rest species of the family Myristicaceae are known as wild nutmegs. Nutmegs and wild nutmegs are a rich reservoir of bioactive molecules and used in traditional medicines of Europe, Asia, Africa, America against madness, convulsion, cancer, skin infection, malaria, diarrhea, rheumatism, asthma, cough, cold, as stimulant, tonics, and psychotomimetic agents. Read More

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A network analysis of interoception, self-awareness, empathy, alexithymia, and autistic traits.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, 16 Lincui Road, Beijing, 100101, China.

Altered interoception has been consistently found in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and this impairment may contribute to social cognitive dysfunctions. However, little is known regarding the intercorrelations between interoceptive sensibility, autistic, alexithymic, empathic, and self-related traits. We recruited 1360 non-clinical college students and adults to investigate the complex inter-relationship between these variables using network analysis. Read More

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A mini-review: Bridging the gap between autism spectrum disorder and pain comorbidities.

Can J Pain 2020 Dec 30;4(4):37-44. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Pain is a complex neurobiological response with a multitude of causes; however, patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often report chronic pain with no known etiology. Recent research has been aimed toward identifying the causal mechanisms of pain in mouse and human models of ASD. In recent years, efforts have been made to better document and explore secondary phenotypes observed in ASD patients in the clinic. Read More

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December 2020

ADHD and autism symptoms in youth: a network analysis.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departamento de Psiquiatria da Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Previous research investigating the overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (henceforth, autism) symptoms in population samples have relied on latent variable modeling in which averaged scores representing dimensions were derived from observed symptoms. There are no studies evaluating how ADHD and autism symptoms interact at the level of individual symptom items.

Methods: We aimed to address this gap by performing a network analysis on data from a school survey of children aged 6-17 years old (N = 7,405). Read More

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Identifying Childhood Expressive Language Features That Best Predict Adult Language and Communication Outcome in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 May 13:1-15. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Emerson College, Boston, MA.

Purpose Several studies have reported that "useful speech" at 5 years of age predicts outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but this skill has been vaguely defined. This study investigates which specific aspects of expressive language in children with ASD best predict adult language and communication outcomes. Method Language samples from 29 children (ages 47-72 months) enrolled in a longitudinal project (e. Read More

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Postnatal expression profiles of atypical cadherin FAT1 suggest its role in autism.

Biol Open 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Program in Neuroscience, Hussman Institute for Autism, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Genetic studies have linked FAT1 (FAT atypical cadherin 1) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, the role that FAT1 plays in ASD remains unknown. In mice, the function of Fat1 has been primarily implicated in embryonic nervous system development with less known about its role in postnatal development. We show for the first time that FAT1 protein is expressed in mouse postnatal brains and is enriched in the cerebellum, where it localizes to granule neurons and Golgi cells in the granule layer, as well as inhibitory neurons in the molecular layer. Read More

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Autistic-like traits in laboratory rodents exposed to phthalic acid esters during early development - an animal model of autism?

Physiol Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava 4, Slovak Republic.

Phthalates are chemical substances that are widely used to provide flexibility and durability to plastic materials. They leach from products in which they are mixed and reach living organisms. Results from experimental studies suggest that exposure to phthalates can have a negative impact on an individual's neuronal system and behavior. Read More

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Exposure to sevoflurane results in changes of transcription factor occupancy in sperm and inheritance of autism.

Biol Reprod 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, 615 Michael St, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

One in 54 children in the U.S. is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Read More

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Effect of Exercise on Parkinson's Disease Tremor: A Meta-analysis Study.

Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2021 Apr 27;11:15. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Public Health, School of Health Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR.

Background: Prior studies suggest that exercise may prevent movement disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. In this meta-analysis, the pooled effect of exercise on PD-induced tremor was investigated.

Method: Relevant published studies (n = 7) were retrieved by searching major databases, including Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed from 1985 to November 2020. Read More

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Maternal Exposure to Pesticides and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring: A Meta-analysis.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Mental Health Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Jiefang Road 238#, Wuchang District, Wuhan, 430060, People's Republic of China.

This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall association between maternal exposure to pesticides and risk of ASD in offspring. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the PsycINFO were searched until December 30, 2020 to include eligible studies. Eight studies with 50,426 participants, 5810 of whom had ASD, were involved in the study. Read More

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The Impact of the Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS on Understanding Instructions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Codas 2021 5;33(2):e20200041. Epub 2021 May 5.

Departamento de Fonoaudiologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the comprehension of instructions by children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Methods: This is a longitudinal study (N° 0809/2018). The sample consisted of 20 children with nonverbal ASDs, 15 boys and 5 girls, aged 6 to 12 years, evaluated and diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team according to the DSM-5. Read More

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Reciprocal control of translation and transcription in autism spectrum disorder.

EMBO Rep 2021 May 11:e52110. Epub 2021 May 11.

Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted patterns of interest and repetitive behaviors. ASD is genetically heterogeneous and is believed to be caused by both inheritable and de novo gene variations. Studies have revealed an extremely complex genetic landscape of ASD, favoring the idea that mutations in different clusters of genes interfere with interconnected downstream signaling pathways and circuitry, resulting in aberrant behavior. Read More

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The feasibility of Gazefinder under 12 months of age infants.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10009. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1, Enya-cho, Izumo, Shimane, 693-8501, Japan.

Eye-tracking to evaluate gaze patterns has developed as an assessment tool for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Gazefinder is one of Eye-tracking devices and few studies have investigated whether it can measure the gaze data of infants under 12 months of age. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study from April 2019 to March 2020 in a periodic health checkup in Ohchi County, Shimane, Japan. Read More

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Decreased grey matter volumes in unaffected mothers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder reflect the broader autism endophenotype.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10001. Epub 2021 May 11.

Research Center for Child Mental Development, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, 920-8640, Japan.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with an early onset and a strong genetic origin. Unaffected relatives may present similar but subthreshold characteristics of ASD. This broader autism phenotype is especially prevalent in the parents of individuals with ASD, suggesting that it has heritable factors. Read More

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Does the Arc of Science Bend Towards Impact? Four Decades of Empirical Research Published in JADD Since the DSM-III.

Peter Doehring

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

ASD Roadmap, 5 Nine Gates Road, Chadds Ford, PA, 19317, USA.

The present study explored the shift from understanding to intervention to population impact in the empirical research published in this journal at five points of time over 40 years since the release of DSM-III. Two-thirds of the more than 600 original studies identified involved basic research, a pattern that is consistent with previous analyses of research funding allocations and that did not change over time. One of every eight studies involved intervention research, which occurred in community-based programs only about one-quarter of the time. Read More

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The profile of pragmatic language impairments in children with ADHD: A systematic review.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 May 11:1-23. Epub 2021 May 11.

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Okinawa, Japan.

This systematic review synthesizes the empirical literature examining pragmatic language in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a taxonomy of pragmatic language, we compared the pragmatic language profiles of children with ADHD to those of typically developing (TD) children and children with autism. Three databases were searched up to October 2019: PsychInfo; PubMed; and CSA Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts. Read More

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Cadherin-13 is a critical regulator of GABAergic modulation in human stem-cell-derived neuronal networks.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Activity in the healthy brain relies on a concerted interplay of excitation (E) and inhibition (I) via balanced synaptic communication between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. A growing number of studies imply that disruption of this E/I balance is a commonality in many brain disorders; however, obtaining mechanistic insight into these disruptions, with translational value for the patient, has typically been hampered by methodological limitations. Cadherin-13 (CDH13) has been associated with autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Read More

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Behavioral analyses in mouse models of autism spectrum disorders.

Yi Chuan 2021 May;43(5):501-519

The Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, School of Life Science and Technology, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China.

Autism spectrum disorder is a group of genetically-related developmental disorders of the nervous system. Patients mainly present with core symptoms such as social behavior defects, repetitive stereotyped behaviors, and learning and memory disorders. The mouse models are critical for the studies of the pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies of autism spectrum disorder. Read More

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Decoding brain encoded by genome.

Yi Chuan 2021 May;43(5):393-396

The Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, School of Life Science and Technology, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China.

Human brain is the most complicated living organ in nature. How the human genome encodes the structure and function of brain is a fundamental question to understand the essence of mind. Currently, it is still an unsolved scientific problem requiring the further breakthrough of comprehensive technologies. Read More

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Targeting Poison Exons to Treat Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy.

Dev Neurosci 2021 May 10:1-6. Epub 2021 May 10.

Ken and Ruth Davee Department of Neurology, Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) describe a subset of neurodevelopmental disorders categorized by refractory epilepsy that is often associated with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. The majority of DEEs are now known to have a genetic basis with de novo coding variants accounting for the majority of cases. More recently, a small number of individuals have been identified with intronic SCN1A variants that result in alternative splicing events that lead to ectopic inclusion of poison exons (PEs). Read More

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Psychotropic Polypharmacy Among Children and Youth with Autism: A Systematic Review.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Majority of youth with autism are taking two or more medications (psychotropic or nonpsychotropic) simultaneously, also known as polypharmacy (Wink et al.). Yet the efficacy and the potential outcomes of polypharmacy in this population are widely unknown. Read More

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A qualitative study exploring experiences and support needs of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder in Singapore.

J Clin Nurs 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Aims And Objective: To explore the experiences and support needs of parents of children with recently diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Singapore.

Background: Raising a child with ASD is challenging for parents, especially in the initial period following the diagnosis. Limited studies have focused on parents' perspectives. Read More

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A Customized Smart Home and Interior Design Concept Co-Designed with and for People with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2021 May;279:36-37

Research Unit Active & Assisted Living at Carinthia University of Applied Sciences, Klagenfurt, Austria.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses increased over the last decades, as reviews show comparing prevalence rates reported from different studies. Due to different effects of the disorder, personal support is required and provided by formal and/or informal caregivers in various activities of daily living. With the help of a customized smart home and interior design concept the aim is to enable people with ASD to live a more independent and self-reliant life. Read More

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Self-regulated learning versus activity-based intervention to reduce challenging behaviors and enhance school-related function for children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized controlled trial.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 May 6;114:103986. Epub 2021 May 6.

Western Sydney University, School of Health Sciences, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia; Western Sydney University, Translational Health Research Institute, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Self-regulated learning is an active learning cognitive approach which helps individuals to be aware of their own ability and environment and control their own learning.

Aim: This study examined the therapeutic effects of self-regulated learning on reducing challenging behaviors and enhancing school-related function in children with autism spectrum disorders.

Methods: Forty children (aged 6-12) were randomized into a 12-week Self-Regulated Learning or Activity-Based intervention control group. Read More

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A Novel Group Parenting Intervention for Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Young Autistic Children: Autism Spectrum Treatment and Resilience (ASTAR): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Profs. Charman, Pickles, Scott, and Simonoff, Drs. Palmer, Romeo, Perez, Messrs. Stringer and Cawthorne, and Ms. Boadu are with King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, London, United Kingdom.; Profs. Charman, Scott, Simonoff, and Drs. Hallett, Mueller, Breese, and Salazar, and Ms. Hollett are with South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: To examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a group behavioural parenting intervention for emotional and behavioural problems (EBPs) in young autistic children.

Method: Feasibility pilot randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week group behavioural parenting intervention (Predictive Parenting) to an attention control (Psychoeducation). Parents of sixty-two 4-8-year-old autistic children were randomized to Predictive Parenting (n=31) or Psychoeducation (n=31). Read More

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An investigation of the diet, exercise, sleep, BMI, and health outcomes of autistic adults.

Mol Autism 2021 May 8;12(1):31. Epub 2021 May 8.

Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18B Trumpington Road, Cambridge, England, CB2 8AH.

Background: Studies of autistic children suggest that restricted eating, reduced physical activity, and sleep disorders are common; however, no studies attempt to broadly describe the diet, exercise, and sleep patterns of autistic adults or consider relationships between lifestyle behaviors and the widely reported increased risks of obesity and chronic conditions. To address this, the authors developed the largest study of lifestyle patterns of autistic adults and assessed their relationships to body mass index, health outcomes, and family history.

Methods: We administered an anonymized, online survey to n = 2386 adults (n = 1183 autistic) aged 16-90 years of age. Read More

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Dairy foods, calcium, and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status: a pooled analysis of 21 cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status.

Method: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Read More

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A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Social Skills Training for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Centre de Neurosciences Cognitive, UMR 5229, CNRS &Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to evaluate the effects of group-based social skills training (SST) on parent-report social responsiveness in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 18 studies were included in the narrative review and among them five randomized-controlled trials (n = 145) were included in the meta-analysis. SST had large positive effects on social responsiveness. Read More

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