Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 16;18(10). Epub 2021 May 16.
Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, 5-28-20 Hakusan, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8606, Japan.
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale has been widely used to measure depressive symptoms. This study compared the measurement invariances for one-, two-, three-, and four-factor models of the CES-D across English-speaking Whites and Asians: White Americans, White Australians, Indians, Filipinos, and Singaporeans. White Americans and Australians, Indians, Filipinos, and Singaporeans English speakers (782 men and 824 women) whose ages ranged from 20 to 79 years, completed the CES-D. Read More