143,084 results match your criteria australia patients


Efficacy of dexamethasone in the management of malignant small bowel obstruction in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, VIC, 3078, Australia.

Introduction: Malignant small bowel obstruction (MSBO) occurs in up to 50% of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) causing symptom burden and distress to women and their families, particularly in the terminal stages of the disease. Corticosteroids are used to promote symptom resolution in malignant small bowel obstruction (MSBO) related to EOC, with little published data on their efficacy, optimal dosing and duration of treatment.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone in achieving symptom control in women with advanced EOC presenting with MSBO, assess dexamethasone dosing and efficacy over subsequent presentations, and examine differences in dexamethasone responsiveness between platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive patient. Read More

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November 2021

Functional outcomes after lateral pelvic lymph node dissection for rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, 305 Grattan St, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.

Purpose: Lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LPLND) may improve oncological outcomes for select patients with rectal cancer, though functional outcomes may be adversely impacted. The aim of this study is to assess the functional outcomes associated with LPLND for rectal cancer and compare these outcomes with standard surgical resection.

Methods: A systematic search was undertaken to identify relevant studies reporting on urinary dysfunction (UD), sexual dysfunction (SD), and defecatory dysfunction (DD) for patients who underwent LPLND for rectal cancer. Read More

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November 2021

The clinical and functional outcomes of a large naturalistic cohort of young people accessing national early psychosis services.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 Nov 30:48674211061285. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Centre for Youth Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Aims: Services for individuals with a first episode of psychosis or at ultra-high risk of psychosis have become a treatment model of choice in mental health care. The longitudinal changes in clinical and functional outcomes as a result of real-world treatment remain under-reported.

Methods: We analysed data from first episode of psychosis and ultra-high risk services delivered across Australian primary youth mental health care services known as between 19 June 2017 and 30 September 2019. Read More

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November 2021

Atlas of lesion locations and postsurgical seizure freedom in focal cortical dysplasia: A MELD study.

Epilepsia 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Objective: Drug-resistant focal epilepsy is often caused by focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs). The distribution of these lesions across the cerebral cortex and the impact of lesion location on clinical presentation and surgical outcome are largely unknown. We created a neuroimaging cohort of patients with individually mapped FCDs to determine factors associated with lesion location and predictors of postsurgical outcome. Read More

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November 2021

Splitting of the distal median nerve.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Variations of the nerves of the forearm can lead to unexpected clinical findings during physical examination. Additionally, surgery in this region might encounter and potentially damage the nerve in such patients. Here, we present a case of a high split of the median nerve and discuss the findings of the case as well as review salient reports in the literature. Read More

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November 2021

Activated Charcoal and Bicarbonate for Aspirin Toxicity: a Retrospective Series.

J Med Toxicol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: Aspirin overdose causes acid-base disturbances and organ dysfunction. Management is guided by research reported over 50 years ago when chronic aspirin toxicity was common and accounted for significant morbidity. We investigate our experience of aspirin overdose and the effectiveness of charcoal and bicarbonate administration over 20 years. Read More

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November 2021

Micafungin Population PK Analysis in Healthy and Septic Pigs: Can the Septic Porcine Model Predict the Micafungin PK in Septic Patients?

Pharm Res 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Service Des Réanimations, Pôle Anesthésie Réanimation Douleur Urgence, CHU Nîmes, Nîmes, France.

Objectives: To describe micafungin pharmacokinetic (PK) alterations of sepsis induced in piglets and to determine whether the porcine septic model is able to predict the PK of micafungin in septic patients at the plasma and peritoneal sites.

Methods: From healthy (n = 8) and septic piglet group (n = 16), total micafungin concentrations were subject to a population PK analysis using Monolix®. Data from 16 septic humans patients from others studies was used to compare micafungin PK between septic piglets and septic patients. Read More

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November 2021

Medicine and dentistry: Understanding the language of dentistry.

Aust J Gen Pract 2021 12;50(12):950-953

MBBS, FRACGP, FACRRM, PhD, Professor of Health Professional Education, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Qld.

Background: Dental problems are common in general practice and are responsible for many avoidable hospitalisations. Medicine and dentistry are often practised in isolation, with little shared language or understanding.

Objective: The aim of this article is to help general practitioners (GPs) maximise effective dental referral strategies by briefly outlining basic dental nomenclature and describing the roles of different types of oral healthcare providers. Read More

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December 2021

Correlation between TCM Syndromes and Type 2 Diabetic Comorbidities Based on Fully Connected Neural Network Prediction Model.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 20;2021:6095476. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Data Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objective: To predict the major comorbidities of type 2 diabetes based on the distribution characteristics of syndromes, and to explore the relationship between TCM syndromes and comorbidities of type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Based on the electronic medical record data of 3413 outpatient visits from 995 type 2 diabetes patients with comorbidities, descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the basic characteristics of the population, the distribution characteristics of comorbidities, and TCM syndromes. A neural network model for the prediction of type 2 diabetic comorbidities based on TCM syndromes was constructed. Read More

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November 2021

Combining schizophrenia and depression polygenic risk scores improves the genetic prediction of lithium response in bipolar disorder patients.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Nov 29;11(1):606. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn and Department of Genomics, Life & Brain Center, Bonn, Germany.

Lithium is the gold standard therapy for Bipolar Disorder (BD) but its effectiveness differs widely between individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying treatment response heterogeneity are not well understood, and personalized treatment in BD remains elusive. Genetic analyses of the lithium treatment response phenotype may generate novel molecular insights into lithium's therapeutic mechanisms and lead to testable hypotheses to improve BD management and outcomes. Read More

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November 2021

Using system thinking methodologies to address health care complexities and evidence implementation.

JBI Evid Implement 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Public Health, Melbourne, La Trobe University, School of Psychology and Public Health, Victoria The Hopkins Centre, Griffith University, Meadowbrook, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Despite health care advances, artificial intelligence and government interventions aiming to improve the health and wellbeing of citizens, huge disparities and failures in care provision exist. This is demonstrated by the rising number of medical errors, increase in readmission rates and mortality rates, and the failure of many health systems to successfully cope with events, such as pandemics and natural disasters. This shortfall is in part because of the complexity of the health care system, the interconnectedness of various parts of service, funding models, the complexity of patients' conditions, patient and carer needs, and the clinical processes needed for patients via multiple providers. Read More

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November 2021

Advanced imaging in acute ischemic stroke: an updated guide to the hub-and-spoke hospitals.

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Melbourne Brain Centre, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victorian Stroke Telemedicine Service, Ambulance Victoria, Australia Neurointervention Service, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of the hub-and-spoke system in acute stroke care, highlight the role of advanced imaging and discuss emerging concepts and trials relevant to the hub-and-spoke model.

Recent Findings: The advent of advanced stroke multimodal imaging has provided increased treatment options for patients, particularly in rural and regional areas. When used in the hub-and-spoke model, advanced imaging can help facilitate and triage transfers, appropriately select patients for acute therapy and treat patients who may otherwise be ineligible based on traditional time metrics. Read More

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November 2021

Network meta-analysis for comparative effectiveness of treatments for chronic low back pain disorders: systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 Nov 29;11(11):e057112. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Chronic low back pain disorders (CLBDs) present a substantial societal burden; however, optimal treatment remains debated. To date, pairwise and network meta-analyses have evaluated individual treatment modes, yet a comparison of a wide range of common treatments is required to evaluate their relative effectiveness. Using network meta-analysis, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments (acupuncture, education or advice, electrophysical agents, exercise, manual therapies/manipulation, massage, the McKenzie method, pharmacotherapy, psychological therapies, surgery, epidural injections, percutaneous treatments, traction, physical therapy, multidisciplinary pain management, placebo, 'usual care' and/or no treatment) on pain intensity, disability and/or mental health in patients with CLBDs. Read More

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November 2021

Exercise and education versus saline injections for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled equivalence trial.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

The Parker Institute, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark

Objective: To compare the efficacy of an exercise and education programme with open-label placebo given as intra-articular injections of inert saline on pain and function in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: In this open-label, randomised controlled trial, we recruited adults aged ≥50 years with symptomatic and radiographically confirmed knee OA in Denmark. Participants were randomised 1:1 to undergo an 8-week exercise and education programme or four intra-articular saline injections over 8 weeks. Read More

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November 2021

Current Clinical Practice in Patients With Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED) Undergoing Radiotherapy (RT).

Heart Lung Circ 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Cardiology, Bendigo Health, Bendigo, Vic, Australia.

Patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) undergoing radiotherapy (RT) are more common due to ageing of the population. With newer CIEDs implementing the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology which allows the miniaturisation of CIED, it is also more susceptible to RT. Effects of RT on CIED ranges from device interference, device operational/memory errors of permanent damage. Read More

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November 2021

Lack of consensus identifies important areas for future clinical research: Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2019 findings.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, EOC, Bellinzona, Switzerland; University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Division of Cancer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Innovations in treatments, imaging and molecular characterisation have improved outcomes for people with advanced prostate cancer; however, many aspects of clinical management are devoid of high-level evidence. At the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2019, many of these topics were addressed, and consensus was not always reached. The results from clinical trials will most reliably plus the gaps. Read More

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November 2021

A Novel Breast Cancer Diagnosis Scheme With Intelligent Feature and Parameter Selections.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Sep 20:106432. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer among women, which contributes to the global death rate. The key to increasing the survival rate of affected patients is early diagnosis along with appropriate treatments. Manual methods for breast cancer diagnosis fail due to human errors, inaccurate diagnoses, and are time-consuming when demands are high. Read More

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September 2021

Silver nanoparticles as a bioadjuvant of antibiotics against biofilm-mediated infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chronic rhinosinusitis patients.

Pathology 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Surgery-Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Woodville South, SA, Australia; The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Electronic address:

Infectious diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in planktonic and biofilm form are difficult to treat with conventional antibiotics. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) can be used as alternatives to antibiotics and can alter the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics. Here, the antibacterial properties of 16 different antibiotics and Ag NPs, alone and in combination, were tested against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=3), Staphylococcus aureus (n=3) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n=2) isolated from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients. Read More

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November 2021

Safety of delivering bronchial thermoplasty in two treatment sessions.

Respir Res 2021 Nov 29;22(1):307. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Thoracic Medicine, Frankston Hospital, Peninsula Health, 2 Hastings Road, Frankston, VIC, 3199, Australia.

Background: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a novel endoscopic therapy for severe asthma. Traditionally it is performed in three separate treatment sessions, targeting different portions of the lung, and each requires an anaesthetic and hospital admission. Compression of treatment into 2 sessions would present a more convenient alternative for patients. Read More

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November 2021

Thrombectomy With and Without Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging in the Early Time Window: A Pooled Analysis of Patient-Level Data.

Stroke 2021 Nov 30:STROKEAHA121034331. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (T.G.J.).

Background And Purpose: The optimal imaging paradigm for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) patient selection in early time window (0-6 hours) treated acute ischemic stroke patients remains uncertain. We aimed to compare post-EVT outcomes between patients who underwent prerandomization basic (noncontrast computed tomography [CT], CT angiography only) versus additional advanced imaging (computed tomography perfusion [CTP] imaging) and to determine the association of performance of prerandomization CTP imaging with clinical outcomes.

Methods: The HERMES collaboration (Highly Effective Reperfusion Evaluated in Multiple Endovascular Stroke Trials) pooled patient-level data from randomized controlled trials comparing EVT with usual care for acute ischemic stroke due to anterior circulation large vessel occlusion. Read More

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November 2021

Assessment of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Typhoid Diagnosis and Assessment of Febrile Illness Outbreaks in Fiji.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan.

Typhoid is an endemic in Fiji with increases observed since the early 2000s and frequent outbreaks reported. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of currently available typhoid rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) (TUBEX, Typhidot Rapid, and Test-It assay) to establish their performance against blood culture in Fiji and to examine their suitability for rapid typhoid outbreak identification. The performance of RDTs was assessed in the public health reference laboratory in Suva, Fiji, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Read More

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November 2021

A meta-analysis of polygenic risk scores for mood disorders, neuroticism, and schizophrenia in antidepressant response.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Nov 26;55:86-95. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

About two-thirds of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail to achieve symptom remission after the initial antidepressant treatment. Despite a role of genetic factors was proven, the specific underpinnings are not fully understood yet. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs), which summarise the additive effect of multiple risk variants across the genome, might provide insights into the underlying genetics. Read More

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November 2021

Fibrin to von Willebrand factor ratio in arterial thrombi is associated with plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers and local abundance of extracellular DNA.

Thromb Res 2021 Nov 18;209:8-15. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Introduction: The composition of thrombi determines their structure, mechanical stability, susceptibility to lysis, and consequently, the clinical outcome in coronary artery disease (CAD), acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Fibrin forms the primary matrix of thrombi intertwined with DNA, derived from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and von Willebrand factor (VWF) bridging DNA and platelets. Here we examined the relative content of fibrin, DNA and VWF in thrombi and analyzed their interrelations and quantitative associations with systemic biomarkers of inflammation and clinical characteristics of the patients. Read More

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November 2021

Autophagy: A Promising Target for Triple Negative Breast Cancers.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Nov 26:106006. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; Kolling Institute of Medical Research, St Leonards, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive type of breast cancers which constitutes about 15% of all breast cancer cases and characterized by negative expression of hormonal receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Thus, endocrine and HER2 targeted therapies are not effective toward TNBCs, and they mainly rely on chemotherapy and surgery for treatment. Despite recent advances in chemotherapy, 40% of TNBC patients develop a metastatic relapse and recurrence. Read More

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November 2021

Long-term results of alumina ceramic-on-ceramic bearings in cementless total hip arthroplasty: a 20-year minimum follow-up.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatic Surgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, The University of Sydney, Australia.

Background: Alumina ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings are used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to their wear-resistant and inert properties. In this study, we assessed the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients undergoing primary cementless CoC THA at a minimum follow-up of 20 years.

Methods: A series of 301 consecutive primary THAs in 283 patients were assessed. Read More

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November 2021

Survival and complications in patients with haemoglobin E thalassaemia in Sri Lanka: a prospective, longitudinal cohort study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Pediatrics, Medicine, and Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Worldwide, haemoglobin E β-thalassaemia is the most common genotype of severe β-thalassaemia. The paucity of long-term data for this form of thalassaemia makes evidence-based management challenging. We did a long-term observational study to define factors associated with survival and complications in patients with haemoglobin E thalassaemia. Read More

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November 2021

Protocol: Benefits and harms of remdesivir for COVID-19 in adults: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(11):e0260544. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Clinical Research, Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Odense (CEBMO) and Cochrane Denmark, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Effective drug treatments for Covid-19 are needed to decrease morbidity and mortality for the individual and to alleviate pressure on health care systems. Remdesivir showed promising results in early randomised trials but subsequently a large publicly funded trial has shown less favourable results and the evidence is interpreted differently in clinical guidelines. Systematic reviews of remdesivir have been published, but none have systematically searched for unpublished data, including regulatory documents, and assessed the risk of bias due to missing evidence. Read More

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November 2021

Health system costs and days in hospital for colorectal cancer patients in New South Wales, Australia.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(11):e0260088. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

The Daffodil Centre, The University of Sydney, A Joint Venture with Cancer Council NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) care costs the Australian healthcare system more than any other cancer. We estimated costs and days in hospital for CRC cases, stratified by site (colon/rectal cancer) and disease stage, to inform detailed analyses of CRC-related healthcare.

Methods: Incident CRC patients were identified using the Australian 45 and Up Study cohort linked with cancer registry records. Read More

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November 2021

Evaluation of a novel, rapid antigen detection test for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(11):e0259527. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Wiener Gesundheitsverbund, Vienna, Australia.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently finally determined in laboratory settings by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase-chain-reaction (rt-PCR). However, simple testing with immediately available results are crucial to gain control over COVID-19. The aim was to evaluate such a point-of-care antigen rapid test (AG-rt) device in its performance compared to laboratory-based rt-PCR testing in COVID-19 suspected, symptomatic patients. Read More

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November 2021

Romidepsin Plus CHOP Versus CHOP in Patients With Previously Untreated Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma: Results of the Ro-CHOP Phase III Study (Conducted by LYSA).

J Clin Oncol 2021 Nov 29:JCO2101815. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Service d'Hématologie adultes, Hopital Universitaire Necker Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Purpose: Romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has demonstrated activity in relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) as a single agent. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) therapy is widely used as first-line treatment of PTCL; however, it has limited efficacy. Results from a phase Ib and II study showed the feasibility of combining romidepsin with CHOP (Ro-CHOP). Read More

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November 2021