686 results match your criteria attraction visual

Long-term, low incidence of web-decorating by spiders in the Mariana Islands, Micronesia.

Ecology 2021 Jun 9:e03433. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011, USA.

Many orb-weaving spiders build webs invested with curious flags, spirals, or zig-zagging ribbons of bright silk termed "decorations" or "stabilimenta". Web decorating arose some 150 million years ago in nine araneoid lineages, which have diversified into hundreds of species referable to about two dozen genera, with few reversions to non-decorating (Scharff and Coddington 1997; Garrison et al. 2016). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

New Method for Efficient siRNA Delivery in Retina Explants: Reverse Magnetofection.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Jun 3;32(6):1078-1093. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

OZ Biosciences, Parc scientifique de Luminy, Case 922, zone entreprise, 13288 Marseille, France.

The prevalence of retinal disorders associated with visual impairment and blindness is increasing worldwide, while most of them remain without effective treatment. Pharmacological and molecular therapy development is hampered by the lack of effective drug delivery into the posterior segment of the eye. Among molecular approaches, RNA-interference (RNAi) features strong advantages, yet delivering it to the inner layer of the retina appears extremely challenging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plastic additive oleamide elicits hyperactivity in hermit crabs.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 28;169:112533. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, England, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Electronic address:

Numerous studies have estimated the abundance of plastics in our oceans and warned of its threat to wildlife. However, mechanisms underlying its attractiveness to marine life remain unclear. Though visual similarities to food sources have been suggested, recent studies show that biofouled plastics release dimethyl sulfide which marine fauna mistake for food whilst foraging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Visibility and attractiveness of Fritillaria (Liliaceae) flowers to potential pollinators.

Sci Rep 2021 May 26;11(1):11006. Epub 2021 May 26.

Botanic Garden, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Visual floral characters play an important role in shaping plant-pollinator interactions. The genus Fritillaria L. (Liliaceae), comprising approximately 140 species, is described as displaying a remarkable variety of flower colours and sizes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RNA-Seq analysis of the blue light-emitting Orfelia fultoni (Diptera: Keroplatidae) suggest photoecological adaptations at the molecular level.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 May 12;39:100840. Epub 2021 May 12.

Graduate School of Biotechnology and Environmental Monitoring (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP, Brazil; Graduate School of Evolutive Genetics and Molecular Biology, Federal Univ. São Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Bioluminescence in Diptera is found in the Keroplatidae family, within Arachnocampininae and Keroplatinae subfamilies, with reported occurrences in Oceania, Eurasia, and Americas. Larvae of Orfelia fultoni, which inhabit stream banks in the Appalachian Mountains, emit the bluest bioluminescence among insects, using it for prey attraction, similarly to Arachnocampa spp. Although bioluminescence has a similar prey attraction function, the systems of Arachonocampininae and Keroplatinae subfamilies are morphologically/biochemically distinct, indicating different evolutionary origins. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Systematic and Random Mapping Errors in Structure - Function Analysis of the Macula.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 Feb;10(2):21

Optometry and Visual Sciences, City, University of London, London, UK.

Purpose: Quantify the spatial error in mapping perimetric stimuli for structure-function analysis resulting from the choice of mapping scheme and eye movements.

Methods: We analyzed data from 17 healthy and 30 glaucomatous participants. Structural data of the macula were collected with a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Cognitive processing of sexual cues in asexual individuals and heterosexual women with desire/arousal difficulties.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251074. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Asexuality is defined as a unique sexual orientation characterized by a lack of sexual attraction to others. This has been challenged, with some experts positing that it is better explained as a sexual dysfunction. Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD) is characterized by absent/reduced sexual interest/arousal paired with personal distress, with two subtypes: acquired and lifelong. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Visual and Optical Absorbance Detection of Melamine in Milk by Melamine-Induced Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut 22200, Terengganu, Malaysia.

The present study reported a facile method for the determination of melamine in milk powder products based on the aggregation of reactant-free 5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The strong electrostatic attraction between the positively charged exocyclic amine groups present in the melamine molecule and the negatively charged ions bound to the AuNPs induced aggregation of the AuNPs, resulting in visible color changes that could be seen with the naked eye and monitored by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance spectra. The method shows high sensitivity with detection limits of 1 × 10 M for visual detection and 1 × 10 M for UV-Vis analysis, which is far below the safety limit of melamine ingestion in infant formula (1 ppm = 7. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of Audiovisual Presentations on Visual Localization Errors: One or Several Multisensory Mechanisms?

Multisens Res 2021 Apr 20:1-35. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

The present study examines the extent to which temporal and spatial properties of sound modulate visual motion processing in spatial localization tasks. Participants were asked to locate the place at which a moving visual target unexpectedly vanished. Across different tasks, accompanying sounds were factorially varied within subjects as to their onset and offset times and/or positions relative to visual motion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficiency of the CO -baited omni-directional Fay-Prince trap under semi-field conditions and characterizing response behaviours for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

Med Vet Entomol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, 92521, U.S.A.

Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of several serious disease-causing viruses including Dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever. Effective and efficient trapping methods are essential for meaningful mosquito population and disease-presence surveillance and ultimately, vector control. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Divergence in floral scent and morphology but not thermogenic traits associated with pollinator shift in two brood-site mimicking Typhonium (Araceae) species.

Ann Bot 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Yarra Blvd, Richmond, Australia.

Background: Flowers which imitate insect oviposition sites likely represent the most widespread form of floral mimicry, exhibit the most diverse floral signals and are visited by two of the most speciose and advanced taxa of insect - beetles and flies. Detailed comparative studies on brood-site mimics pollinated exclusively by each of these insect orders are lacking, limiting our understanding of floral trait adaptation to different pollinator groups in these deceptive systems.

Methods: Two closely related and apparent brood-site mimics Typhonium angustilobum and T. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Light environment influences mating behaviours during the early stages of divergence in tropical butterflies.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 03 24;288(1947):20210157. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Evolutionary Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Grosshaderner Strasse 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Speciation is facilitated when traits under divergent selection also act as mating cues. Fluctuations in sensory conditions can alter signal perception independently of adaptation to the broader sensory environment, but how this fine-scale variation may constrain or promote behavioural isolation has received little attention. The warning patterns of butterflies are under selection for aposematism and act as mating cues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intrinsic stochasticity and the emergence of collective behaviours in insect swarms.

Andy M Reynolds

Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 2021 Mar 8;44(2):22. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, UK.

Intrinsic stochasticity associated with finite population size is fundamental to the emergence of collective behaviours in insect swarms. It has been assumed that this intrinsic stochasticity is purely additive (position independent) in quiescent (unperturbed) swarms. Here, I identify the hallmarks of intrinsic multiplicative (position dependent) stochasticity and show that they are evident in quiescent laboratory swarms of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Attention attracts action in healthy participants: An insight into optic ataxia?

Cortex 2021 Apr 29;137:149-159. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Human Cognitive Neuroscience, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Patients with optic ataxia following lesions to superior parts of the posterior parietal cortex make large errors when reaching to targets in the peripheral visual field. These errors are characterised by a contraction, or attraction, towards the point of fixation. These patients also have a reduced ability to allocate visual attention away from the point of fixation, but it is unclear whether the core symptom of misreaching is related to these attentional problems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How Do Art Skills Influence Visual Search? - Eye Movements Analyzed With Hidden Markov Models.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:594248. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

HSD Research Centre Cologne, HSD University of Applied Sciences, Cologne, Germany.

The results of two experiments are analyzed to find out how artistic expertise influences visual search. Experiment I comprised survey data of 1,065 students on self-reported visual memory skills and their ability to find three targets in four images of artwork. Experiment II comprised eye movement data of 50 Visual Literacy (VL) experts and non-experts whose eye movements during visual search were analyzed for nine images of artwork as an external validation of the assessment tasks performed in Sample I. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Evolution of floral scent in relation to self-incompatibility and capacity for autonomous self-pollination in the perennial herb Arabis alpina.

Ann Bot 2021 05;127(6):737-747

Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden.

Background And Aims: The transition from outcrossing to selfing is a frequent evolutionary shift in flowering plants and is predicted to result in reduced allocation to pollinator attraction if plants can self-pollinate autonomously. The evolution of selfing is associated with reduced visual floral signalling in many systems, but effects on floral scent have received less attention. We compared multiple populations of the arctic-alpine herb Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae), and asked whether the transition from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility has been associated with reduced visual and chemical floral signalling. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Expectations about motion direction affect perception and anticipatory smooth pursuit differently.

J Neurophysiol 2021 03 3;125(3):977-991. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, INT, Inst Neurosci Timone, Marseille, France.

Smooth pursuit eye movements and visual motion perception rely on the integration of current sensory signals with past experience. Experience shapes our expectation of current visual events and can drive eye movement responses made in anticipation of a target, such as anticipatory pursuit. Previous research revealed consistent effects of expectation on anticipatory pursuit-eye movements follow the expected target direction or speed-and contrasting effects on motion perception, but most studies considered either eye movement or perceptual responses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Behavioral evidence for attention selection as entrained synchronization without awareness.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Psychology, Soochow University.

Animal physiological and human neuroimaging studies have established a link between attention and γ-band (30-90 Hz) oscillations and synchronizations. However, a behavioral link between entrained γ-band oscillations and attention has been fraught with technical challenges. In particular, while entrainment at mid-γ band (40-70 Hz) has been claimed to be privileged in evoking attentional modulations without awareness, the effect may be attributed to display artifacts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Inherent Importance of Early Visual Features in Attraction of Human Attention.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2020 22;2020:3496432. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

School of Cognitive Sciences (SCS), Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Niavaran, Tehran, Iran.

Local contrasts attract human attention to different areas of an image. Studies have shown that orientation, color, and intensity are some basic visual features which their contrasts attract our attention. Since these features are in different modalities, their contribution in the attraction of human attention is not easily comparable. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Persistent meanders and eddies lead to quasi-steady Lagrangian transport patterns in a weak western boundary current.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):497. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Division of Remote Sensing, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, 12227-010, Brazil.

The Brazil Current (BC) is a weak western boundary current flowing along the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. It is frequently described as a flow with intense mesoscale activity and relatively low volume transport between 5.0 and 10. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Canadian undergraduate men's visual attention to cisgender women, cisgender men, and feminine trans individuals.

Sci Rep 2021 01 11;11(1):388. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Laboratory of Comparative Sexuality, Department of Psychology, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4, Canada.

Some heterosexual men express sexual interest in feminine trans individuals with penises. It is possible that this interest arises from a tendency for heterosexual men to be sexually responsive to gender in addition to sex. We compared the self-reported sexual attraction and visual attention patterns of Canadian undergraduate heterosexual men (N = 51) and gay men (N = 20) to nude images of feminine trans individuals with penises, cisgender men, and cisgender women. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The Camouflage Machine: Optimizing protective coloration using deep learning with genetic algorithms.

Evolution 2021 Mar 18;75(3):614-624. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Evolutionary biologists frequently wish to measure the fitness of alternative phenotypes using behavioral experiments. However, many phenotypes are complex. One example is coloration: camouflage aims to make detection harder, while conspicuous signals (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Visual paper-based sensor for the highly sensitive detection of caffeine in food and biological matrix based on CdTe-nano ZnTPyP combined with chemometrics.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Jan 6;188(1):27. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, People's Republic of China.

Caffeine naturally occurs in tea and cocoa, which is also used as an additive in beverages and has pharmacological effects such as refreshing, antidepressant, and digestion promotion, but excessive caffeine can cause harm to the human body. In this work, based on the specific response between nano zinc 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H-23H-porphine (nano ZnTPyP)-CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and caffeine, combined with chemometrics, a visual paper-based sensor was constructed for rapid and on-site detection of caffeine. The fluorescence of QDs can be quenched by nano ZnTPyP. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Advances in exogenous docosahexaenoic acid-containing phospholipids: Sources, positional isomerism, biological activities, and advantages.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2020 07 23;19(4):1420-1448. Epub 2020 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

In recent years, docosahexaenoic acid-containing phospholipids (DHA-PLs) have attracted much attention because of theirs unique health benefits. Compared with other forms of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), DHA-PLs possess superior biological effects (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RIHOOP: Robust Invisible Hyperlinks in Offline and Online Photographs.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2020 Dec 14;PP. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

In the era of multimedia and Internet, the quick response (QR) code helps people obtain information from offline to online quickly. However, the QR code is often limited in many scenarios because of its random and dull appearance. Therefore, this article proposes a novel approach to embed hyperlinks into common images, making the hyperlinks invisible for human eyes but detectable for mobile devices equipped with a camera. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

A Multimodal Attract-and-Kill Device for the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

Insects 2020 Dec 8;11(12). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Citrus Research and Education Center, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Rd., Lake Alfred, FL 33850, USA.

Phytophagous insects, including Asian citrus psyllids ( Kuwayama), use multiple sensory modalities (vision, olfaction, and gustation,) to locate and accept host plants. We explored incorporation of several sensory cues into a multi-modal attract-and-kill device (AK device) using a three-dimensional shape to increase visibility, as well as elements of color, attractant, phagostimulant, UV reflectant, and toxicant. Attraction of adult to the device was mediated by a combination of a highly reflective yellow cylinder, a UV reflectant compound (magnesium oxide), and an odorant blend as a short-range attractant. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

mutant male mosquitoes gain attraction to human odor.

Elife 2020 12 7;9. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, United States.

The mosquito shows extreme sexual dimorphism in feeding. Only females are attracted to and obtain a blood-meal from humans, which they use to stimulate egg production. The gene is sex-specifically spliced and encodes a BTB zinc-finger transcription factor proposed to be a master regulator of male courtship and mating behavior across insects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Directly visualizing the momentum-forbidden dark excitons and their dynamics in atomically thin semiconductors.

Science 2020 12;370(6521):1199-1204

Femtosecond Spectroscopy Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Okinawa, Japan 904-0495.

Resolving momentum degrees of freedom of excitons, which are electron-hole pairs bound by the Coulomb attraction in a photoexcited semiconductor, has remained an elusive goal for decades. In atomically thin semiconductors, such a capability could probe the momentum-forbidden dark excitons, which critically affect proposed opto-electronic technologies but are not directly accessible using optical techniques. Here, we probed the momentum state of excitons in a tungsten diselenide monolayer by photoemitting their constituent electrons and resolving them in time, momentum, and energy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Attractiveness in the Eyes: A Possibility of Positive Loop between Transient Pupil Constriction and Facial Attraction.

J Cogn Neurosci 2021 Feb 9;33(2):315-340. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

California Institute of Technology.

Contrary to the long-held belief of a close linkage between pupil dilation and attractiveness, we found an early and transient pupil constriction response when participants viewed an attractive face (and the effect of luminance/contrast was controlled). While human participants were making an attractiveness judgment on faces, their pupil constricted more for the more attractive (as-to-be-rated) faces. Further experiments showed that the effect of pupil constriction to attractiveness judgment extended to intrinsically esthetic visual objects such as natural scene images (as well as faces) but not to line-drawing geometric figures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Attraction to similar options: The Gestalt law of proximity is related to the attraction effect.

PLoS One 2020 28;15(10):e0240937. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Previous studies have suggested that there are common mechanisms between perceptual and value-based processes. For instance, both perceptual and value-based choices are highly influenced by the context in which the choices are made. However, the mechanisms which allow context to influence our choice process as well as the extent of the similarity between the perceptual and preferential processes are still unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020