83,302 results match your criteria attenuation


Magnetic Energy Morphing, Capacitive Concept for NiZnCaFeO Nanoparticles Embedded in Graphene Oxide Matrix, and Studies of Wideband Tunable Microwave Absorption.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Burdwan University, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal, India.

Nanoparticles of NiZnCaFeO (NZCF) were successfully prepared by the facile wet chemical method coupled with the sonochemical method. These nanoparticles were embedded in a graphene oxide (GO) matrix (NZCFG). Rietveld analyses of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out to extract different relevant information regarding the structure, morphology, and ionic state. Read More

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September 2021

Transient peripheral vestibular hypofunction measured with vestibular short-latency evoked potentials following noise exposure in rats.

J Neurophysiol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Otolaryngology, grid.214458.eUniversity of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Exposure to 120 decibel sound pressure level (dB SPL) band-limited noise results in delayed onset latency and reduced vestibular short-latency evoked potential (VsEP) responses. These changes are still present four weeks after noise overstimulation. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been shown to vary in extent and duration based on noise intensity. Read More

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September 2021

Sustained Replication of Synthetic Canine Distemper Virus Defective Genomes and .

mSphere 2021 Sep 22:e0053721. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburghgrid.21925.3d School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Defective interfering (DI) genomes restrict viral replication and induce type I interferon. Since DI genomes have been proposed as vaccine adjuvants or therapeutic antiviral agents, it is important to understand their generation, delineate their mechanism of action, develop robust production capacities, assess their safety and longevity, and determine their long-term effects. To address this, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (rCDV) from an entirely synthetic molecular clone designed using the genomic sequence from a clinical isolate obtained from a free-ranging raccoon with distemper. Read More

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September 2021

Interface Engineering of Heterogeneous CeO-CoO Nanofibers with Rich Oxygen Vacancies for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Performance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Engineering Research Center of Industrial Biocatalysis, Fujian Province University, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China.

The development of highly efficient and cheap electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is highly desirable in typical water-splitting electrolyzers to achieve renewable energy production, yet it still remains a huge challenge. Herein, we have presented a simple procedure to construct a new nanofibrous hybrid structure with the interface connecting the surface of CeO and CoO as a high-performance electrocatalyst toward the OER through an electrospinning-calcination-reduction process. The resultant CeO-CoO nanofibers exhibit excellent electrocatalytic properties with a small overpotential of 296 mV at 10 mA cm for the OER, which is superior to many previously reported nonprecious metal-based and commercial RuO catalysts. Read More

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September 2021

Acute high-intensity exercise and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function: The role of metabolic perturbation.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, grid.223827.eUniversity of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.

Recently it was documented that, fatiguing, high-intensity exercise resulted in a significant attenuation in maximal skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity, potentially due to the intramuscular metabolic perturbation elicited by such intense exercise. Utilizing intrathecal fentanyl to attenuate afferent feedback from group III/IV muscle afferents, permitting increased muscle activation and greater intramuscular metabolic disturbance, this study aimed to better elucidate the role of metabolic perturbation on mitochondrial respiratory function. Eight young, healthy males performed high-intensity cycle exercise in control (CTRL) and fentanyl-treated (FENT) conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Utility of Dual-Layer Spectral-Detector CTA to Characterize Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Components: An Imaging-Histopathology Comparison in Patients Undergoing Endarterectomy.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Tiantan Neuroimaging Center for Excellence, China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

The composition of non-calcified portions of carotid atherosclerotic plaque represents an important marker of plaque vulnerability and ischemia risk. To assess the utility of dual-layer spectral-detector CTA (DLCTA) parameters for carotid plaque component characterization, using histologic results from carotid endarterectomy (CEA) as reference. Seven patients (5 male, 2 female; 61. Read More

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September 2021

Plasmonic Oxygen Defects in MO (M = W or Mo) Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Modifications, and Biomedical Applications.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Sep 22:e2101331. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.

Nanomedicine is a promising technology with many advantages and provides exciting opportunities for cancer diagnosis and therapy. During recent years, the newly developed oxygen-deficiency transition metal oxides MO (M = W or Mo) have received significant attention due to the unique optical properties, such as strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) , tunable and broad near-IR absorption, high photothermal conversion efficiency, and large X-ray attenuation coefficient. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the development of MO nanomaterials for biomedical applications. Read More

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September 2021

Diagnostic performance of ultrasound attenuation imaging for assessing low-grade hepatic steatosis.

Eur Radiol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, South Korea.

Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic performance of attenuation imaging (ATI) for the assessment of low-grade hepatic steatosis using liver biopsy as the reference standard.

Methods: The study included 57 potential donor candidates for living liver transplantation who underwent ATI, transient elastography (TE), and liver biopsy for evaluation of hepatic steatosis between February 2020 and April 2020. The attenuation coefficient (AC) from ATI and the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) from TE were measured for each participant in a random and blind manner. Read More

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September 2021

Reducing stiffness of shock-absorbing pylon amplifies prosthesis energy loss and redistributes joint mechanical work during walking.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 Sep 21;18(1):143. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA.

Background: A shock-absorbing pylon (SAP) is a modular prosthetic component designed to attenuate impact forces, which unlike traditional pylons that are rigid, can compress to absorb, return, or dissipate energy. Previous studies found that walking with a SAP improved lower-limb prosthesis users' comfort and residual limb pain. While longitudinal stiffness of a SAP has been shown to affect gait kinematics, kinetics, and work done by the entire lower limb, the energetic contributions from the prosthesis and the intact joints have not been examined. Read More

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September 2021

Attenuation mechanisms and key parameters to enhance treatment performance in vegetation filters: A review.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 18;300:113752. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

IMDEA Agua, Avda Punto Com 2, 28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; Universidad de Alcalá, A-II km 33,0, 28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.

In times when environmental concerns are on the rise and the search of ways to reduce waste generation and to create a circular economy is booming, Nature Based Solutions (NBSs) play a very important role. Vegetation Filters (VFs) are a type of Land Application System (LAS) in which wastewater is used to irrigate a forestry plantation to treat the water and produce biomass. VFs show multiple benefits that render this technology a suitable solution for wastewater treatment, especially for scattered populations or isolated buildings that lack of connection to sewer systems. Read More

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September 2021

Fine sediment effects on seagrasses: A global review, quantitative synthesis and multi-stressor model.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Sep 17;171:105480. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Coastal Marine Field Station, University of Waikato, Tauranga, 3110, New Zealand.

This review collates research into fine sediment as a stressor of seagrass and emphasizes the multiple modes of action of this contaminant. The article is based on a bibliographic database search that identified 201 articles describing sediment impacts on seagrasses. Articles were classified by one of three non-exclusive modes of action: 1) light reduction; 2) smothering (burial), and 3) effects via rhizosphere physico-chemistry. Read More

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September 2021

Recipient bone marrow-derived IL-17 receptor A-positive cells drive allograft fibrosis in a mouse intrapulmonary tracheal transplantation model.

Transpl Immunol 2021 Sep 18:101467. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Latner Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratories, University Health Network, Canada. Electronic address:

IL-17A is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, which limits survival after lung transplantation. While many cells express the IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) which is the main receptor for IL-17A, the cellular targets of IL-17A in development of post-transplant fibrosis are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether IL-17RA expression by donor or recipient structural or bone marrow (BM) cells is required for the development of allograft fibrosis in a mouse intrapulmonary tracheal transplantation (IPTT) model. Read More

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September 2021

Absent or Mild Coronary Calcium Predicts Low-Risk Stress Test Results and Outcomes in Patients Considered for Flecainide Therapy.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 21:10742484211046671. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Intermountain Medical Center, 98078Intermountain Heart Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Flecainide is a useful antiarrhythmic for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, because of ventricular proarrhythmia risk, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary artery disease (CAD) is a flecainide exclusion, and stress testing is used to exclude ischemia. We assessed whether absent/mild coronary artery calcium (CAC) can supplement or avoid the need for stress testing. Read More

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September 2021

Virus Removal and Inactivation Mechanisms during Iron Electrocoagulation: Capsid and Genome Damages and Electro-Fenton Reactions.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3136, United States.

Virus destabilization and inactivation are critical considerations in providing safe drinking water. We demonstrate that iron electrocoagulation simultaneously removed (via sweep flocculation) and inactivated a non-enveloped virus surrogate (MS2 bacteriophage) under slightly acidic conditions, resulting in highly effective virus control (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

Noninvasive Estimation of Hepatic Steatosis by Controlled Attenuation Parameter in Living Donor Liver Transplant.

Exp Clin Transplant 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

From the Shiraz Transplant Center, Abu-Ali Sina Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: Estimation of liver fat among living donor candidates is necessary before living donor liver transplant. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of the controlled attenuation parameter compared with liver biopsy for pretransplant estimation of hepatic steatosis in living liver donors.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, we included all individuals who underwent transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter and ultrasonography-guided liver biopsy as a part of donor evaluations before living donor liver transplant. Read More

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September 2021

[Improvement of Cold Artifacts in Body Trunk F-FDG PET/CT by Absolute-single scatter simulation: Validation in an Out-of-body High-accumulation Phantom].

Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2021 ;77(9):947-958

Department of Radiological Technology, Keio University Hospital.

Purpose: This study aimed to verify whether cold artifacts caused by the gap state between attenuation correction computed tomography (ACCT) and positron emission tomography (PET) data (so-called hot-in-air (HIA) state) in body trunk PET/computer tomography (CT) examinations can be improved by the Absolute-single scatter simulation (SSS), which is a scatter correction method in a phantom experiment using the high-accumulation syringe of out-of-body phantom.

Method: PET imaging profile curves in the HIA state were evaluated using a high-accumulation syringe that simulated a urinary tract pouch encapsulated with F-FDG solution. The hot syringe-to-background ratio (HBR) of the syringe was changed to 5, 7, and 10. Read More

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September 2021

[Improvement of Standardized Uptake Value Accuracy in the Tc Body SPECT and SPECT/CT: Optimization of the Phantom for Calculating Becquerel Calibration Factor and Correction Method].

Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2021 ;77(9):921-931

Department of Radiological Technology, Yamaguchi University Hospital.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the best phantom for calculating the becquerel calibration factor (BCF) and correction method to obtain the improvement of standardized uptake value (SUV) accuracy in both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT/CT.

Method: A SPECT/CT scanner was used in this study. BCFs were calculated using four phantoms with different cross sections including National Electrical Manufacturers Association International Electrotechnical Commission body phantom (NEMA IEC body phantom) filled with TcO, and five correction methods were used for reconstruction. Read More

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September 2021

Pivotal Roles for Ribonucleases in Streptococcus pneumoniae Pathogenesis.

mBio 2021 Sep 21:e0238521. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

RNases perform indispensable functions in regulating gene expression in many bacterial pathogens by processing and/or degrading RNAs. Despite the pivotal role of RNases in regulating bacterial virulence factors, the functions of RNases have not yet been studied in the major human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Here, we sought to determine the impact of two conserved RNases, the endoribonuclease RNase Y and exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), on the physiology and virulence of S. Read More

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September 2021

Comparative study on polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to activated carbon and biochar and the influence of natural organic matter.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 13;287(Pt 3):132239. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, 100044, China.

The sorption isotherms of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on carbons (coal based activated carbon named AC and hardwood derived biochar named BC) and natural organic matter (NOM) loaded carbons were examined and carbon-water partition coefficients (K) were calculated. The purpose was to accurately predict the effectiveness of in-situ carbon treatments on the sediment impacted with hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs). For 1 month sorption, AC K values were significantly higher than BC, corresponding to the much larger surface area (particularly in mesopores) for AC. Read More

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September 2021

The effect of height on earnings: Is stature just a proxy for cognitive and non-cognitive skills?

Econ Hum Biol 2021 Jul 17;43:101046. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

World Bank, USA. Electronic address:

While taller workers are regularly observed to earn more, there is debate concerning the independent contribution of stature to labor earnings. This study investigates the degree to which the association of height and earnings in Pakistan is independent of other cognitive and socio-emotional skills. Next, the relationship between height and earnings is explored when measures of cognitive ability and an index of socio-emotional capacity are included separately. Read More

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The improvement in body composition including subcutaneous and visceral fat reduces ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

Liver Int 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Sarcopenia and myosteatosis have been associated to a poor prognosis of cirrhosis and to a higher incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The prognostic implications of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity are less known.

Aim: to evaluate the modifications of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue after TIPS and to investigate their relationships with the modification of muscle mass and with the incidence of post-TIPS HE. Read More

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September 2021

Ulvapyrone, a pyrone-linked benzochromene from sea lettuce Linnaeus (family Ulvaceae): newly described anti-inflammatory agent attenuates arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Sep 20:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Ernakulam North, Cochin, Kerala, India.

Green marine macroalgae, particularly , is an essential constituent of the cuisines in many Asian countries. The present work aims to separate a bioactive pyrone attached benzochromene analogue, named as ulvapyrone from the organic extract of , followed by its structural characterisation as 2-{(6a'-hydroxyethyl-4'-methyltetrahydro-2-pyran-2'-one)-6'-yl}-4-methyl-7-ethylacetate-8-hydroxy-7, 8-dihydrobenzo []chromene. Ulvapyrone exhibited prospective inhibition property against arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (IC ∼1 mg mL) comparable to that demonstrated by ibuprofen (IC 0. Read More

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September 2021

2D feasibility study of joint reconstruction of attenuation and activity in limited angle TOF-PET.

IEEE Trans Radiat Plasma Med Sci 2021 Sep 12;5(5):712-722. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Several research groups are studying organ-dedicated limited angle positron emission tomography (PET) systems to optimize performance-cost ratio, sensitivity, access to the patient and/or flexibility. Often open systems are considered, typically consisting of two detector panels of various sizes. Such systems provide incomplete sampling due to limited angular coverage and/or truncation, which leads to artefacts in the reconstructed activity images. Read More

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September 2021

A blood-mimicking fluid with cholesterol as scatter particles for wall-less carotid artery phantom applications.

J Ultrason 2021 Aug 9;21(86):e219-e224. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Physics, Plateau State University Bokkos, P.O Box 2012, Plateau Sate, Nigeria.

At present, there are few scatter particles used in preparing blood-mimicking fluids, such as nylon, sephadex, polystyrene microsphere, and poly(4-methystyrene). In this study, we present cholesterol as a new scatter particle for blood-mimicking fluid preparation. The procedure for the preparation of the proposed blood-mimicking fluid involved the use of propylene glycol, D(+)-Glucose and distilled water to form a ternary mixture fluid, with cholesterol used as scatter particles. Read More

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Regulatory T Cells in Autoimmunity and Cancer: A Duplicitous Lifestyle.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:731947. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Regulatory T (Treg) cells, possess a strategic role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, and their function has been closely linked to development of diverse pathologies including autoimmunity and cancer. Comprehensive studies in various disease contexts revealed an increased plasticity as a characteristic of Treg cells. Although Treg cell plasticity comes in various flavors, the major categories enclose the loss of Foxp3 expression, which is the master regulator of Treg cell lineage, giving rise to "ex-Treg" cells and the "fragile" Treg cells in which expression is retained but accompanied by the engagement of an inflammatory program and attenuation of the suppressive activity. Read More

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September 2021

Pathophysiology of Vascular Stenosis and Remodeling in Moyamoya Disease.

Front Neurol 2021 3;12:661578. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, United States.

Moyamoya disease (MMD) and moyamoya syndrome (MMS) are progressive vascular pathologies unique to the cerebrovasculature that are important causes of stroke in both children and adults. The natural history of MMD is characterized by primary progressive stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, followed by the formation of fragile collateral vascular networks. In MMS, stenosis and collateralization occur in patients with an associated disease or condition. Read More

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September 2021

Eosinophils in Health and Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Eosinophils play a homeostatic role in the body's immune responses. These cells are involved in combating some parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections and certain cancers and have pathologic roles in diseases including asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Treatment of eosinophilic diseases has traditionally been through nonspecific eosinophil attenuation by use of glucocorticoids. Read More

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September 2021

The Evolution of Image Reconstruction in PET: From Filtered Back-Projection to Artificial Intelligence.

PET Clin 2021 Oct;16(4):533-542

Department of Radiology, Center for Advanced Medical Computing and Analysis, Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

PET can provide functional images revealing physiologic processes in vivo. Although PET has many applications, there are still some limitations that compromise its precision: the absorption of photons in the body causes signal attenuation; the dead-time limit of system components leads to the loss of the count rate; the scattered and random events received by the detector introduce additional noise; the characteristics of the detector limit the spatial resolution; and the low signal-to-noise ratio caused by the scan-time limit (eg, dynamic scans) and dose concern. The early PET reconstruction methods are analytical approaches based on an idealized mathematical model. Read More

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October 2021

Advancements in Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Applications to Diagnostic Challenges in Neuroradiology.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2021 Oct 1;42(5):434-451. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Since the clinical adoption of magnetic resonance (MR) in medical imaging, MR has proven to be a workhorse in diagnostic neuroradiology, with the ability to provide superb anatomic detail as well as additional functional and physiologic data, depending on the techniques utilized. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography has also shown irreplaceable diagnostic value in certain disease processes of the central nervous system by providing molecular and metabolic information through the development of numerous disease-specific PET tracers, many of which can be utilized as a diagnostic technique in and of themselves or can provide a valuable adjunct to information derived from MR. Despite these advances, many challenges still remain in neuroradiology, particularly in malignancy, neurodegenerative disease, epilepsy, and cerebrovascular disease. Read More

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October 2021

Biomechanical comparison among five mid/hindfoot arthrodeses procedures in treating flatfoot using a musculoskeletal multibody driven finite element model.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Sep 9;211:106408. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China; Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Mid/hindfoot arthrodesis could modify the misalignment of adult-acquired flatfoot and attenuate pain. However, the long-term biomechanical effects of these surgical procedures remain unclear, and the quantitative evidence is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate and quantify the influences of five mid/hindfoot arthrodeses on the internal foot biomechanics during walking stance. Read More

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September 2021