16,753 results match your criteria attention executive

EEG-neurofeedback and executive function enhancement in healthy adults: A systematic review.

Psychophysiology 2021 Jun 12:e13874. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neuroscience and Padova Neuroscience Center, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Electroencephalographic (EEG)-neurofeedback training (NFT) is a promising technique that supports individuals in learning to modulate their brain activity to obtain cognitive and behavioral improvements. EEG-NFT is gaining increasing attention for its potential "peak performance" applications on healthy individuals. However, evidence for clear cognitive performance enhancements with healthy adults is still lacking. Read More

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Patients with Hepatitis C Infection and Normal Liver Function: A Neuropsychological and Neurophysiological Assessment of Cognitive Functions.

Int J Hepatol 2021 19;2021:8823676. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Gastroenterology, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, 20270-004, Brazil.

Several studies have proposed a link between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of cognitive disorders. However, the inclusion of confounding factors in their samples significantly limits the interpretation of the results. Therefore, here, we aimed to compare the neurophysiological and cognitive performance between patients with HCV infection and a control group after excluding other factors that may cause cognitive impairment. Read More

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Volta Rev 2019 Oct;119(1):29-55

Department of Speech & Hearing Science, The Ohio State University.

This case study analyzes and describes the language, executive function, and psychosocial outcomes of two 6-year-old children with cochlear implants in the context of their respective family environments. Despite having nearly identical audiological histories, their language abilities and social skills are markedly different from one another, exemplifying the variability in outcomes of children with cochlear implants. Families play a critical role in child development. Read More

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October 2019

The treatment of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in persons with spinal cord injury: An open label, pilot study of anticholinergic agent vs. mirabegron to evaluate cognitive impact and efficacy.

Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2021 Jun 10;7(1):50. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Spinal Cord Injury Service, South Texas Veteran's Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Study Design: Pre-post intervention.

Objectives: 1. To test whether replacement of oral anticholinergic (AC) agents with mirabegron for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) yields improved cognitive function in older persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Read More

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Executive function as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-2: children and adolescents with Williams syndrome.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Background: Difficulties with executive functions (EF) are very common among individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). To characterise the pattern of relative strengths and weaknesses in EF for children and adolescents with WS, we considered the performance of a large sample on the parent version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-2 (BRIEF-2). Associations between distinct components of EF and adaptive behaviour, behaviour problems and intellectual ability were investigated. Read More

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Longitudinal Psychiatric and Developmental Outcomes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Jun-Jul 01;42(5):415-427

Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.

Objective: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common genetic deletion syndrome associated with psychiatric disorders and developmental delays. A significant amount of 22q11DS research literature is published annually; here, we focus exclusively on longitudinal data that have been published in the past 5 years regarding psychiatric disorders and/or cognitive and social development. Read More

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ADHD should be considered in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and poor metabolic control.

Diabetologia 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.

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Acute Effects of Polyphenols on Human Attentional Processes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurosci 2021 24;15:678769. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.

The effects of polyphenols on cognitive functions have been extensively studied. Due to the large heterogeneity in the study designs, however, it is often difficult to interpret their efficacy. To address this issue, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to examine whether acute polyphenol intake may have a beneficial effect on cognition and specifically on the accuracy and speed of attention. Read More

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Brain Connect 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Cape Town, 37716, Biomedical Engineering Research Centre, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Human Biology, Observatory, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.

Introduction: Even with the increased access and early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), children with perinatally acquired HIV (CPHIV) continue to demonstrate white matter alterations. Children perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (CHEU) alike show differences in white matter integrity compared to children who are HIV-unexposed and uninfected (CHUU).

Objectives: Mapping white matter connections that link grey matter regions that form resting-state (RS) functional networks may demonstrate whether structural and functional connectivity alterations in HIV infection and exposure may be related. Read More

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[The experience of pain: A review of the new results of pain research].

Judit Gyulaházi

Ideggyogy Sz 2021 May;74(5-6):157-170

Debreceni Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Aneszteziológiai és Intenzív Terápiás Tanszék, Debrecen.

According to the basic assumption of pain research, the activity of pain matrix shows an increase in functional neuroimaging studies during nociceptive stimulation whose extent is correlated with the intensity of the stimulus and that of the emerged experience of pain. Research conducted over the past decade has questioned this assumption. In order to understand the controversial findings I have reviewed new results of pain research. Read More

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Association of regional white matter hyperintensity volumes with cognitive dysfunction and vascular risk factors in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been reported to promote neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, little is known about the association between regional WMH (rWMH) and cognitive dysfunction in MCI. We hence investigated the associations between rWMH volumes and cognitive dysfunction in MCI. Read More

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Cognitive functions in adult-onset phenotypes of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

Ann Neurol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Leipzig Univrsity Medical Center, Leukodystrophy Outpatient Clinic, Department of Neurology, Leipzig, Germany.

Objective: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive demyelination ranging from mild myelopathic forms (adrenomyeloneuropathy, AMN) to severe cerebral variants (adult cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy, ACALD). The study's aim was to compare cognitive function in adult-onset X-ALD phenotypes.

Methods: Cognitive function in various domains (intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, processing speed) was assessed in N = 172 adults (n = 117 AMN, n = 30 arrested ACALD, n = 25 acute ACALD) using comprehensive neuropsychological batteries. Read More

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Body mass index and neuropsychological and emotional variables: joint contribution for the screening of sleep apnoea syndrome in obese.

Sleep Sci 2021 Jan-Mar;14(1):19-26

Hospital de Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department - Lisbon - Portugal.

Objective: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder and its prevalence has increased with the obesity pandemic. We aimed to explore the presence of OSA in severe obesity and to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with sleep architecture, cognition, emotional distress and comorbidities in OSA versus non-OSA patients.

Methods: A sample of 61 patients performed a neuropsychological battery that included tasks of attention, memory, perceptual/visuospatial ability, vocabulary, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and distress symptomatology, before overnight polysomnography. Read More

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Increased resting-state cerebellar-cortical connectivity in breast cancer survivors with cognitive complaints after chemotherapy.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12105. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, 03722, Seoul, South Korea.

Cognitive complaints after chemotherapy are common in breast cancer patients, but the neural bases for these complaints remain unclear. This pilot study explored resting-state functional connectivity (FC) as a marker of subtle cognitive changes in breast cancer patients who experience cognitive complaints. Chemotherapy-treated (n = 20, at least 6 months off therapy) and untreated (n = 17, disease-control) female breast cancer patients with cognitive complaints and healthy controls (n = 20) were recruited. Read More

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Protocol for the Project SAVE randomised controlled trial examining CBT for insomnia among veterans in treatment for alcohol use disorder.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 8;11(6):e045667. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Introduction: As many as 74% of veterans with alcohol use disorders (AUDS) report symptoms of insomnia. Insomnia represents a barrier to alcohol treatment because insomnia symptoms (1) may lead to relapse among those who use alcohol to help them sleep and may negatively impact (2) executive functions and (3) emotion regulation skills. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an efficacious first-line treatment for insomnia; however, no research has examined the impact of CBT-I on individuals' response to alcohol treatment. Read More

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Quality of life is independently associated with neurocognitive function in brain tumor patients: analysis of a prospective clinical trial.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego. Electronic address:

Background: We conducted the first prospective longitudinal study examining the independent association between patient-reported hrQoL (physical, social/family, emotional, functional, and brain cancer-specific) and neurocognitive function (NCF), while controlling for mood symptoms in primary brain tumor patients.

Methods: Primary brain tumor patients (n=59) receiving brain radiotherapy (RT) underwent hrQOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain), mood (Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories), and neurocognitive evaluation at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-RT on a prospective clinical trial. Neurocognitive assessments measured attention/processing speed, memory, and executive function, including the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency (DKEFS-VF), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test Revised (HVLT-R), and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (BVMT). Read More

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Effects of substance misuse on inhibitory control in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Addict Biol 2021 Jun 7:e13063. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often diagnosed with comorbid substance misuse (SM), which is associated with poor treatment efficacy. Although literature indicates similar inhibitory control deficits in both conditions, it is unclear whether SM in ADHD exaggerates pre-existing deficits, with additive or distinct impairments in patients. Our aim was to examine SM effects on inhibitory control in ADHD. Read More

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Malnutrition in early life and its neurodevelopmental and cognitive consequences: A scoping review.

Nutr Res Rev 2021 Jun 8:1-41. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

FrieslandCampina AMEA, Singapore.

The negative impact of stunting and severe underweight on cognitive neurodevelopment of children is well-documented; however, the effect of overweight/obesity is still unclear. The 2018 Global Nutrition Report reported that stunting and overweight concurrently affect 189 million children worldwide. As existing reviews separately discuss undernutrition from overweight/obesity, this scoping review aims to document the impact of mild/moderate and severe underweight, stunting, and overweight/obesity among children aged 0-60 months on their cognitive neurodevelopmental trajectories. Read More

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Compressed sensorimotor-to-transmodal hierarchical organization in schizophrenia.

Psychol Med 2021 Jun 8:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, High-Field Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China.

Background: Schizophrenia has been primarily conceptualized as a disorder of high-order cognitive functions with deficits in executive brain regions. Yet due to the increasing reports of early sensory processing deficit, recent models focus more on the developmental effects of impaired sensory process on high-order functions. The present study examined whether this pathological interaction relates to an overarching system-level imbalance, specifically a disruption in macroscale hierarchy affecting integration and segregation of unimodal and transmodal networks. Read More

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Gestational exposure to organophosphate pesticides and longitudinally assessed behaviors related to ADHD and executive function.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States.

The prefrontal cortex directs higher-order cognitive and behavioral processes important for attention, working memory, and inhibitory control. We investigated whether gestational exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides was associated with these abilities in childhood and early adolescence. We enrolled pregnant women between 1999-2000 in a birth cohort drawn from an agricultural region of California. Read More

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Bridging the gap: aligning economic research with disease burden.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jun;6(6)

Center for the Evaluation of Value and Risk in Health, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is critical for identifying high-value interventions that address significant unmet need. This study examines whether CEA study volume is proportionate to the burden associated with 21 major disease categories.

Methods: We searched the Tufts Medical Center CEA and Global Health CEA Registries for studies published between 2010 and 2019 that measured cost per quality-adjusted life-year or cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY). Read More

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Effectiveness of a chess-training program for improving cognition, mood, and quality of life in older adults: A pilot study.

Geriatr Nurs 2021 Jun 4;42(4):894-900. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Universidade da Coruña, Gerontology and Geriatrics Research Group, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (CHUAC), SERGAS, A Coruña, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Regular practice of a cognitively stimulating activity, such as chess, can help maintain a healthy cognitive, social, and psychological state during the aging process.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of a chess-training program on cognitive status, mood, and quality of life (QoL) in a sample of institutionalized and semi-institutionalized older adults.

Method: A nonrandomized, controlled pilot study with repeated measures (pre- and post-intervention) was conducted. Read More

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A novel cognitive-motor exercise program delivered via a tablet to improve mobility in older people with cognitive impairment - StandingTall Cognition and Mobility.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jun 8;152:111434. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Falls, Balance and Injury Research Centre, Neuroscience Research Australia, Barker Street, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia; School of Population Health, University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Evidence-based interventions to improve mobility in older people include balance, strength and cognitive training. Digital technologies provide the opportunity to deliver tailored and progressive programs at home. However, it is unknown if they are effective in older people, especially in those with cognitive impairment. Read More

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The Impact of Bilingualism on Everyday Executive Functions of English-Arabic Autistic Children: Through a Parent-Teacher Lens.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

The Salvesen Mindroom Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

There is evidence that autistic children may have reduced executive function skills, contributing to day-to-day difficulties, but much remains unknown regarding the influence of bilingualism. We investigated its influence on sustained attention, interference control, flexible switching and working memory, in Arabic-English autistic (n = 27) and typically developing peers (n = 53) children, aged 5 to 12 years old. Parents and teachers completed rating measures assessing children's daily EF abilities. Read More

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General description of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and assessment tools in Lebanon: A scoping review.

Schizophr Res Cogn 2021 Sep 21;25:100199. Epub 2021 May 21.

INSERM, Univ. Limoges, IRD, U1094 Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Tropical Neurology, GEIST, Limoges, France.

Many cognitive functions are affected in schizophrenia patients, particularly memory, attention, motor skills, executive function, and social cognition. Cognitive assessment is one of the best indicators of the functional and social prognosis of schizophrenic patients. In Lebanon, no study has yet examined the assessment of cognitive functions in patients with neurological or psychiatric diseases. Read More

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September 2021

The protective effect of olanzapine on ketamine induced cognitive deficit and increased NR1 expression in rat model of schizophrenia.

Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 2021 15;13(2):22-35. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Assiut, Egypt.

Background: Impaired cognitive flexibility is the core manifestation of schizophrenia (SZ). Previous literature raised a claim against the effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAD) on cognitive and executive functions whose cause needs further investigation. Attention set-shifting task (ASST) tests the prefrontal cortex's (PFC) executive and flexibility functions. Read More

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Physical Activity as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in an Elderly Essential Tremor Cohort: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study.

Front Neurol 2021 20;12:658527. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas (UT) Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Essential tremor (ET), one of the most common neurological diseases, is associated with cognitive impairment. Surprisingly, predictors of cognitive decline in ET remain largely unidentified, as longitudinal studies are rare. In the general population, however, lower physical activity has been linked to cognitive decline. Read More

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Effects of Chinese Mind-Body Exercises on Executive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychol 2021 21;12:656141. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Chinese mind-body exercises (CMBEs) are positively associated with executive function (EF), but their effects on EF, from synthesized evidence using systematic and meta-analytic reviews, have not been conducted. Therefore, the present systematic review with meta-analysis attempted to determine whether CMBEs affect EF and its sub-domains, as well as how exercise, sample, and study characteristics moderate the causal relationship between CMBEs and EF in middle-aged and older adults. Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published from the inception of each database through June 2020 (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Weipu). Read More

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Promoting Third Graders' Executive Functions and Literacy: A Pilot Study Examining the Benefits of Mindfulness vs. Relaxation Training.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:643794. Epub 2021 May 20.

Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Research suggested that developing mindfulness skills in children improves proximal outcomes, such as attention and executive functions, as well as distal outcomes, such as academic achievement. Despite empirical evidence supporting this claim, research on the benefits of mindfulness training in child populations is scarce, with some mixed findings in the field. Here, we aimed to fill in this gap, by examining the effects of a mindfulness training on third graders' proximal and distal outcomes, namely, attention and executive functions (viz. Read More

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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and executive dysfunction in preschool children. A comparison of NEPSY and BRIEF-P assessments.

Encephale 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of the study was to explore prevalence, interrelations and accuracy of assessing psychopathology, intelligence, and executive functions (EF) in preschool children with ADHD (age 2.1-6.5 years). Read More

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