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Reduction in the severity and duration of headache following fremanezumab treatment in patients with episodic and chronic migraine.

Headache 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Global Medical Affairs, Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R&D, Inc., West Chester, PA, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of fremanezumab on the severity and duration of remaining migraine attacks in patients with chronic migraine (CM) or episodic migraine (EM).

Background: Fremanezumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody (IgGΔa) that selectively targets calcitonin gene-related peptide and is efficacious in reducing migraine frequency.

Methods: This exploratory post hoc analysis included data from three randomized, double-blind, 12-week, phase 3 studies (HALO CM, HALO EM, and FOCUS). Read More

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Variations in response to trauma and hippocampal subfield changes.

Neurobiol Stress 2021 Nov 25;15:100346. Epub 2021 May 25.

Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, PSL Research University, EPHE, INSERM, U1077, CHU de Caen, GIP Cyceron, Neuropsychologie et Imagerie de la Mémoire Humaine, 14000, Caen, France.

Models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that the hippocampus is key to the persistence of traumatic memory. Yet very little is known about the precise changes that take place in this structure, nor their relation with PTSD symptoms. Previous studies have mostly used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at low resolutions, making it impossible to identify sensitive anatomical landmarks, or compared groups often unequally matched in terms of traumatic exposure. Read More

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November 2021

Guillain-Barré Syndrome With a Peculiar Course: A Case Report.

Cureus 2021 May 8;13(5):e14905. Epub 2021 May 8.

Pediatrics, Emergency Clinical Hospital for Children, Cluj-Napoca, ROU.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) is a rare autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the nerves. In this report, we present a case of a 15-month-old girl who presented with an inability to walk and support the vertical and sitting positions, pain in the lower limbs accompanied by grimaces, muscular weakness, and agitation due to gait disturbances. This is a unique case in that GBS affected a previously healthy girl and was associated with pneumonia and anemia as the disease progressed, causing an intriguing diagnosis. Read More

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The role of anthropogenic disturbance and invasion of yellow crazy ant in a recent decline of land crab population.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12234. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biology, National Changhua University of Education, No. 1, Jin-De Rd., Changhua City, 50007, Taiwan.

The yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes was first reported in Kenting National Park, Taiwan, in the 2000s, raising the concern of this invasive ant's potential effects on the native land crab populations. We investigated the distribution and abundance of A. gracilipes and its adverse effect on the land crab populations at four land crab hotspots within the park. Read More

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Medical recommender systems based on continuous-valued logic and multi-criteria decision operators, using interpretable neural networks.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 Jun 11;21(1):186. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Knowledgepark GmbH, Leonrodstr. 68, 80636, Munich, Germany.

Background: Out of the pressure of Digital Transformation, the major industrial domains are using advanced and efficient digital technologies to implement processes that are applied on a daily basis. Unfortunately, this still does not happen in the same way in the medical domain. For this reason, doctors usually do not have the time or knowledge to evaluate all alternative treatment options for each patient accurately and individually. Read More

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Prevention of Perioperative Abdominal Migraine in a Patient Undergoing Spinal Fusion: A Case Report.

A A Pract 2021 Jun 10;15(6):e01484. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona.

Abdominal migraine is a variant of migraine headaches characterized by episodic attacks of severe abdominal pain with migrainous features, including anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and pallor. It is more commonly diagnosed in children rather than adults. We describe a 74-year-old patient with progressively worsening back pain, severe neurogenic claudication, and a history of opioid-triggered abdominal migraine. Read More

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Removing Adversarial Noise via Low-rank Completion of High-sensitivity Points.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Jun 10;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Deep neural networks are fragile under adversarial attacks. In this work, we propose to develop a new defense method based on image restoration to remove adversarial attack noise. Using the gradient information back-propagated over the network to the input image, we identify high-sensitivity keypoints which have significant contributions to the image classification performance. Read More

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Immobilization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles onto Surfaces Using Different Strategies: Evaluating the Influence of the Functionalized Interface on the Performance of a Thermal Assay for the Detection of the Cardiac Biomarker Troponin I.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Merz Court, Claremont Road, NE1 7RU Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.

We demonstrate that a novel functionalized interface, where molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) are attached to screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPEs), can be utilized for the thermal detection of the cardiac biomarker troponin I (cTnI). The ultrasensitive detection of the unique protein cTnI can be utilized for the early diagnosis of myocardial infraction (i.e. Read More

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Characteristic differences between vestibular migraine and migraine only patients.

J Neurol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Health Sciences, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey.

Background: Vestibular migraine (VM) is one of the most common causes of vertigo in clinical practice but it is not always easy to make the correct diagnosis. Our aims were to find out how VM patients differ from migraine only (MO) patients, to evaluate co-morbid depression in these two groups and to determine if their disease has an effect on their quality of life.

Methods: We studied 50 definite VM and 35 MO patients. Read More

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Deep Graph Learning for Circuit Deobfuscation.

Front Big Data 2021 24;4:608286. Epub 2021 May 24.

Computer Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Circuit obfuscation is a recently proposed defense mechanism to protect the intellectual property (IP) of digital integrated circuits (ICs) from reverse engineering. There have been effective schemes, such as satisfiability (SAT)-checking based attacks that can potentially decrypt obfuscated circuits, which is called deobfuscation. Deobfuscation runtime could be days or years, depending on the layouts of the obfuscated ICs. Read More

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Protein kinase C δ as a neuronal mechanism for headache in a chronic intermittent nitroglycerin model of migraine in mice.

Pain 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Biomolecular Science, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612 Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA Department of Neurology & Rehabilitation, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612 Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607.

Abstract: Migraine is one of the most common neurological disorders characterized by recurrent attacks of typically throbbing and unilateral headaches, affecting up to 20 % of the population worldwide. Despite the high prevalence and severity of this primary headache disorder, it remains to be a challenge to fully understand and treat migraine headaches. By characterizing and validating a mouse migraine model, this study aimed to investigate the functional contribution of PKC isoforms in migraine. Read More

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Optic Neuritis-Independent Retinal Atrophy in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Neurology (AGF, ESV, KCF, GK, JL, MAM, EMM, SS, PAC, ESS), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (YH, YL, JLP), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; Viela Bio (MAM), Gaithersburg, Maryland; and Department of Neurology (ML), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: A limited number of studies have investigated the presence of ongoing disease activity independent of clinical relapses in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and data are conflicting. The objective of our study was to examine whether patients with aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG seropositive NMOSD exhibit progressive retinal neuroaxonal loss, independently of optic neuritis (ON) attacks.

Methods: In this single-center, longitudinal study, 32 AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD patients and 48 healthy controls (HC) were followed with serial spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and visual acuity (VA) assessments. Read More

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Pain, Depression, and Quality of Life in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study of 166 AQP4 Antibody-Seropositive Patients.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 May 20;8(3). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

From the Department of Neurology (I.A., D.R., E.H., K.H., R.G., I.K.), St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany; Department of Neurology (I.A.), Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russia; NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (S.A., F.P.), Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany; Department of Neurology (C.T., M.W.H.), Hannover Medical School, Germany; Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology (J.H., T.K., H.L.P.), University Hospital and Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Germany; Department of Neurology (M.R., O.A.), Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany; Department of Neurology (M.R.), Center for Neurology and Neuropsychiatry, LVR-Klinikum Düsseldorf, Germany; Molecular Neuroimmunology Group (B.W., S.J.), Department of Neurology, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Institut für Neuroimmunologie und Multiple Sklerose (INIMS) (V.H., J.-P.S.), Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie, Hamburg, Germany; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (V.H., J.-P.S.), Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; APHM (J.-P.S.), Hopital de la Timone, CEMEREM, Marseille, France; Aix Marseille Université (J.-P.S.), CRMBM, CNRS UMR 7339, Marseille, France; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Ulm, Germany; Münster Department of Neurology with Institute of Translational Neurology (L.K., M.P.), University Hospital Münster, Germany; Department of Neurology (H.L.P., M.S.W.), University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany; Department of Neurology (M.P.), Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; Department of Neurology (P.S.R.), Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Neuroimmunology Section (P.S.R.), Department of Neurology, University of Rostock, Germany; Department of Neurology (A.B.), School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Germany; Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, CRO SOSTANA GmbH Berlin (K.-D.W.), Germany; and Marianne-Strauß-Klinik (I.K.), Behandlungszentrum Kempfenhausen für Multiple Sklerose Kranke gGmbH, Berg, Germany.

Objectives: To evaluate prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of pain, depression, and their impact on the quality of life (QoL) in a large neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) cohort.

Methods: We included 166 patients with aquaporin-4-seropositive NMOSD from 13 tertiary referral centers. Patients received questionnaires on demographic and clinical characteristics, PainDetect, short form of Brief Pain Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Short Form 36 Health Survey. Read More

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Clinical observation of warming acupuncture and moxibustion at the temples combined with Deanxit in the treatment of tension headache with anxiety and depression: a retrospective study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5541-5548

Baotou Medical College, Baotou, China.

Background: Tension-type headache (TTH), also called muscle contraction headache or neurological headache, is mainly characterized by chronic and persistent bilateral headache in the neck and a severe sense of restraint in the head. This study aims to analyze the effect of warming acupuncture and moxibustion at temples combined with Deanxit on tension headache.

Methods: A total of 252 patients with anxiety and tension headache were randomly divided into routine group and study group. Read More

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Feasibility and safety of a rapid-access transient ischemic attack clinic.

J Am Assoc Nurse Pract 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Health Care Improvement Science, Virginia Mason Franciscan Health, Seattle, Washington Stanford University, Palo Alto, California Virginia Mason Franciscan Health, Seattle, Washington.

Background: In the United States, patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are commonly admitted to the hospital despite evidence that low-risk TIA patients achieve improved outcomes at lower costs at specialized rapid-access TIA clinics (RATCs).

Local Problem: All patients experiencing TIAs at a hospital system in the Pacific Northwest were being admitted to the hospital. This project aimed to implement an RATC to relocate care for low-risk TIA patients, showing feasibility and safety. Read More

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Sex-Specific Effects of Stress on Respiratory Control: Plasticity, Adaptation, and Dysfunction.

Compr Physiol 2021 Jun 9;11(3):1-38. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Département de Pédiatrie, Centre de Recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

As our understanding of respiratory control evolves, we appreciate how the basic neurobiological principles of plasticity discovered in other systems shape the development and function of the respiratory control system. While breathing is a robust homeostatic function, there is growing evidence that stress disrupts respiratory control in ways that predispose to disease. Neonatal stress (in the form of maternal separation) affects "classical" respiratory control structures such as the peripheral O sensors (carotid bodies) and the medulla (e. Read More

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Effectiveness and Safety of CGRP-mAbs in Menstrual-Related Migraine: A Real-World Experience.

Pain Ther 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences (DAMS), Headache Center, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Piazza Miraglia 2, 80138, Naples, Italy.

Introduction: Migraine shows a significantly higher prevalence in women, especially during reproductive age when menstrual-related hormonal fluctuations represent the most common migraine trigger. Indeed, over 50% of patients report a higher occurrence of migraine attacks during the perimenstrual window. Menstrual migraine attacks are consistently referred to as more disabling, less responsive to symptomatic treatments, longer in duration, and more prone to relapse than non-menstrual migraine attacks. Read More

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Death caused by a domestic pig attack.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pathology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA.

The primary medico-legal investigation goal in deaths due to animal attacks is distinguishing between animal-related injuries and potential homicidal wounds. We report the case of a 49-year-old male found dead in his farm's pigsty, where a sow and her piglets were present. At the postmortem examination, numerous, severe blunt force injuries were observed on the body, with special regard to the upper extremities where massive injuries involving soft tissues, bones, and regional vessels, tendons, and nerves were present. Read More

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Increased household secondary attacks rates with Variant of Concern SARS-CoV-2 index cases.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Health Protection, Public Health Ontario, 661 University Ave., Floor 17, Toronto, ON, M5G 1M1, Canada.

We compared secondary attack rates in households with B.1.1. Read More

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PEARL study protocol: a real-world study of fremanezumab effectiveness in patients with chronic or episodic migraine.

Pain Manag 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of First Neurology, Aeginition Hospital, Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, 11528, Greece.

Fremanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG2Δa) that selectively targets calcitonin gene-related peptide and is approved in Europe for migraine prevention in adults with ≥4 migraine days/month. The Pan-European Real Life (PEARL) study is a 24-month, prospective, observational study of fremanezumab in chronic or episodic migraine. End points include proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in monthly migraine days during 6 months of treatment (primary); changes in monthly migraine days, disability scores and acute headache medication use; adherence and persistence; and effectiveness in patients switching from another calcitonin gene-related peptide pathway-targeting monoclonal antibody. Read More

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How often do neurological disorders lead to dizziness in childhood?

Turk Arch Pediatr 2021 6;56(3):249-253. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Depatment of Pediatric Neurology, Ordu University Faculty of Medicine, Ordu, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the features and differential diagnosis of childhood dizziness and find out the prevalence of neurological diseases in children who were referred to the pediatric neurology outpatient clinic. A secondary aim was to evaluate the outcome of dizziness after 12 months.

Material And Methods: The records of children with a complaint of dizziness that were referred to the pediatric neurology outpatient clinic were retrospectively reviewed, and detailed medical and family history, clinical characteristics, laboratory investigations including vitamin B12 levels, and neuroimaging tests were analyzed. Read More

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January 2021

The Carbamate, Physostigmine does not Impair Axonal Transport in Rat Cortical Neurons.

Neurosci Insights 2021 24;16:26331055211020289. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Among the various chemicals that are commonly used as pesticides, organophosphates (OPs), and to a lesser extent, carbamates, are most frequently associated with adverse long-term neurological consequences. OPs and the carbamate, pyridostigmine, used as a prophylactic drug against potential nerve agent attacks, have also been implicated in Gulf War Illness (GWI), which is often characterized by chronic neurological symptoms. While most OP- and carbamate-based pesticides, and pyridostigmine are relatively potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), this toxicological mechanism is inadequate to explain their long-term health effects, especially when no signs of acute cholinergic toxicity are exhibited. Read More

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Aerial attack strategies of hawks hunting bats, and the adaptive benefits of swarming.

Behav Ecol 2021 May-Jun;32(3):464-476. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, OxfordUK.

Aggregation can reduce an individual's predation risk, by decreasing predator hunting efficiency or displacing predation onto others. Here, we explore how the behaviors of predator and prey influence catch success and predation risk in Swainson's hawks attacking swarming Brazilian free-tailed bats on emergence. Lone bats including stragglers have a high relative risk of predation, representing ~5% of the catch but ~0. Read More

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AXL inhibition in macrophages stimulates host-versus-leukemia immunity and eradicates naive and treatment resistant leukemia.

Cancer Discov 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Med. Klinik und Poliklinik I, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus.

Acute leukemias are systemic malignancies associated with a dire outcome. Due to low immunogenicity, leukemias display a remarkable ability to evade immune control and are often resistant to checkpoint blockade. Here, we discover that leukemia cells actively establish a suppressive environment to prevent immune attacks by co-opting a signaling axis that skews macrophages towards a tumor promoting tissue repair phenotype, namely the GAS6/AXL axis. Read More

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The STRYDE limb lengthening nail is susceptible to mechanically assisted crevice corrosion: an analysis of 23 retrieved implants.

Acta Orthop 2021 Jun 8:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Orthopaedic Reconstruction and Children's Orthopaedics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background and purpose - We noted several adverse events in patients in whom the first version of the STRYDE limb-lengthening nail (NuVasive Specialized Orthopaedics, San Diego, CA) had been implanted. Pain, osteolysis, periosteal reactions, and cortical hypertrophy at the nail junction were noted. Here, we present the analysis of 23 retrieved STRYDE implants. Read More

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Conspicuous animal signals avoid the cost of predation by being intermittent or novel: confirmation in the wild using hundreds of robotic prey.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jun 9;288(1952):20210706. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Social animals are expected to face a trade-off between producing a signal that is detectible by mates and rivals, but not obvious to predators. This trade-off is fundamental for understanding the design of many animal signals, and is often the lens through which the evolution of alternative communication strategies is viewed. We have a reasonable working knowledge of how conspecifics detect signals under different conditions, but how predators exploit conspicuous communication of prey is complex and hard to predict. Read More

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Oxidative Stress in Intoxıcation Type Inborn Errors of Metabolism using Thiol-Disulfide Ratio.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Jun;30(6):663-667

Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Dr. Sami Ulus, Maternity and Child Health, Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To determine the relationship of oxidative stress status with follow-up parameters, metabolic control status, and treatment compliance evaluation in patients diagnosed within toxication type inherited metabolic disease (IMDs).

Study Design: Descriptive, analytical study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Dr. Read More

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Effect of low dose methotrexate as an add-on therapy in patients with palindromic rheumatism unresponsive to hydroxychloroquine: An observational study.

Eur J Rheumatol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Biostatistics, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Objective: Palindromic rheumatism (PR) is characterized by repetitive attacks of arthritis and/or periarthritis. There is inadequate data regarding the role of low dose methotrexate in patients with PR. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of low dose methotrexate add-on therapy in patients with PR with inadequate response to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) monotherapy. Read More

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Working together.

Elife 2021 Jun 8;10. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey.

Heart attacks have a ripple effect on how other organs exchange biomolecules that help the heart respond to injury. Read More

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Use of extracorporeal physical vibration lithecbole through greater sciatic foramen for treatment of distal ureteral calculi.

J Endourol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

The Affiliated Jiangning Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 579164, Nanjing, China;

Introduction To evaluate the efficacy and safety of preforming extracorporeal physical vibration lithecbole(EVPL)through greater sciatic foramen(GSF)for distal ureteral calculi(DUC) treatment. Materials and methods All patients with a diagnosis of DUC (6 - 10 mm in diameter) were enrolled in this study from October 2018 to May 2020. Patients were randomly divided into three groups receiving EPVL through GSF (Group A, n = 58), or abdominal (Group B, n = 60), or combined with oral use of tamsulosin at 0. Read More

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