755 results match your criteria att-20 pituitary


The expression of mimecan in adrenal tissue plays a role in an organism's responses to stress.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 10;13. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Core Laboratory in Medical Center of Clinical Research, Department of Molecular Diagnostic and Endocrinology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiao tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Mimecan encodes a secretory protein that is secreted into the human serum as two mature proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 12 kDa. We found 12-kDa mimecan to be a novel satiety hormone mediated by the upregulation of the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the hypothalamus. Mimecan was found to be expressed in human pituitary corticotroph cells and was up-regulated by glucocorticoids, while the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in pituitary corticotroph AtT-20 cells was induced by mimecan. Read More

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Functional Autoreactive Anti-β2 Adrenergic Antibodies May Contribute to Insulin Resistance Profile in Patients with Chronic Chagas Disease.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 21;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Cátedra de Fisiología Humana, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, C2002 Rosario, Argentina.

Potential activation of β2 adrenergic receptors (β2AR) by specific autoreactive antibodies (Abs) that arise during the host reaction to , could contribute to the elevated prevalence of metabolic disturbances described in patients with chronic Chagas disease (CCD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-β2AR Abs in patients with CCD, as well as the correlation of these Abs with the presence of glucose and lipid metabolism disturbances, in order to explore their association with an insulin resistance profile. Additionally, we tested the functional effects of anti-β2AR Abs employing an in vitro bioassay with neuroendocrine cells expressing β2AR. Read More

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A potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 on pituitary glands and pituitary neuroendocrine tumors.

Endocrine 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center of Pituitary Tumor, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 200025, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The effects of SARS-CoV-2 on normal pituitary glands function or pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) have not yet been elucidated. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the impairment of pituitary glands and the development of PitNETs. Read More

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A Novel Mechanism Regulating Dopamine Receptor Type 2 Signal Transduction in Pituitary Tumoral Cells: The Role of cAMP/PKA-Induced Filamin A Phosphorylation.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 16;11:611752. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

The actin binding protein filamin A (FLNA) is required for somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) and dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2) expression and signaling in GH- and PRL-secreting PitNETs, respectively, playing a role in tumor responsiveness to somatostatin receptors ligands and dopaminergic drugs. FLNA functions are regulated by several mechanisms, including phosphorylation. It has been shown that in GH-secreting PitNETs FLNA phosphorylation on Ser2152 (P-FLNA) switches FLNA function from a scaffold that allows SSTR2 signal transduction, to a signal termination protein that hampers SSTR2 antitumoral effects. Read More

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February 2021

Regulation of the EGFR Pathway by HSP90 Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Cushing's Disease.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 18;11:601984. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Neurosurgical Institute of Fudan University, Shanghai Clinical Medical Center of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Brain Function Restoration and Neural Regeneration, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To investigate the role of heat-shock protein Hsp90 in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting cells, and to explore the potential clinical application of an inhibitor of Hsp90, 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin(17-AAG) in corticotropinomas [also known as "Cushing's disease" (CD)].

Methods: Culture of mouse pituitary tumor [AtT-20/D16v-F2 (ATCC CRL-1795™)] cells and human pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor cells were employed. Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HLE) was used to evaluate EGFR inhibition by 17-AAG. Read More

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January 2021

Targeting the TR4 nuclear receptor with antagonist bexarotene can suppress the proopiomelanocortin signalling in AtT-20 cells.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Mar 24;25(5):2404-2417. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Urology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Drug options for the life-threatening Cushing's disease are limited, and surgical resection or radiation therapy is not invariably effective. Testicular receptor 4 (TR4) has been identified as a novel drug target to treat Cushing's disease. We built the structure model of TR4 and searched the TR4 antagonist candidate via in silico virtual screening. Read More

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Filamin A is required for somatostatin receptor type 5 expression and pasireotide-mediated signaling in pituitary corticotroph tumor cells.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 03 9;524:111159. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Endocrinology Unit, Milan, Italy.

Somatostatin receptor type 5 (SST5) represents the main pharmacological target in the treatment of adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumors. However, molecular predictors of responsiveness to pasireotide require further investigation. The cytoskeleton protein filamin A (FLNA) modulates the responsiveness to somatostatin analogs (SSA) treatment in other types of pituitary tumors by regulating somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2)/dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) expression and activity. Read More

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Involvement of histone deacetylase 1/2 in adrenocorticotropic hormone synthesis and proliferation of corticotroph tumor AtT-20 cells.

Peptides 2021 Feb 9;136:170441. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan.

Cushing's disease is mainly caused by autonomous production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from pituitary adenomas. In our previous study, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A, inhibited cell proliferation and ACTH production via decreased pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) in AtT-20 mouse corticotroph tumor cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of romidepsin, a potent and selective HDAC1/2 inhibitor, on cell proliferation and ACTH synthesis. Read More

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February 2021

The activation of G protein-coupled receptor 30 increases pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression through cAMP/PKA/NR4A pathway in mouse pituitary corticotroph AtT-20 cells.

Neurosci Lett 2020 11 2;739:135468. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine and Hospital, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan.

G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) signaling plays an important role in many regulatory pathways, such as gene expression, cell proliferation and migration. However, whether GPR30 is involved in transcription of the pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene in pituitary corticotroph cells is currently unknown. Here, we report that GPR30 signaling, activated by the GPR30 specific agonist G-1, increases Pomc expression in the mouse corticotroph cell line AtT-20. Read More

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November 2020

Selective estrogen receptor modulators decrease invasiveness in pituitary adenoma cell lines AtT-20 and TtT/GF by affecting expression of MMP-14 and ADAM12.

FEBS Open Bio 2020 Nov 26;10(11):2489-2498. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Marburg, Germany.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) significantly affect survival and invasiveness of rodent pituitary adenoma (PA) cells. The impact of three clinically relevant SERMs (bazedoxifene, clomiphene, raloxifene) on invasiveness and on gene and protein expression of invasion-related proteases [matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) and A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12)] was analyzed in murine PA cells (AtT-20 and TtT/GF). All SERMs significantly decreased cell invasiveness. Read More

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November 2020

Differential effects of β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2 on somatostatin receptors in murine AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells.

Endocr J 2021 Feb 18;68(2):163-170. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan.

Autonomous production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from pituitary corticotroph adenomas is the primary cause of Cushing's disease. Somatostatin receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), types 2 (SSTR2) and 5 (SSTR5) mRNA expression is greater than that of other SSTR subtypes in human corticotroph adenomas. Further, the multiligand SOM230 shows potent effects in decreasing ACTH plasma levels and urinary free cortisol levels in patients with Cushing's disease. Read More

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February 2021

Hormonal Regulation of Glucocorticoid Inactivation and Reactivation in αT3-1 and LβT2 Gonadotroph Cells.

Biology (Basel) 2019 Oct 26;8(4). Epub 2019 Oct 26.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, Camden, London NW1 0TU, UK.

The regulation of reproductive function by glucocorticoids occurs at all levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Within the pituitary, glucocorticoids have been shown to directly alter gene expression in gonadotrophs, indicating that these cell types are sensitive to regulation by the glucocorticoid receptor. Whilst the major glucocorticoid metabolising enzymes, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD; HSD11B1 and HSD11B2), have been described in human pituitary adenomas, the activity of these enzymes within different pituitary cell types has not been reported. Read More

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October 2019

Ubiquitin-specific protease 8 inhibitor suppresses adrenocorticotropic hormone production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation.

Endocr J 2020 Feb 30;67(2):177-184. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan.

Cushing's disease is primarily caused by autonomic hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from a pituitary adenoma. In Cushing's disease, mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) have been detected. These mutations are associated with hyperactivation of USP8 that prevent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation. Read More

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February 2020

COL6A6 interacted with P4HA3 to suppress the growth and metastasis of pituitary adenoma via blocking PI3K-Akt pathway.

Aging (Albany NY) 2019 10 17;11(20):8845-8859. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650032, Yunnan, China.

The role and mechanism of collagen type VI alpha 6 (COL6A6) on tumor growth and metastasis in pituitary adenoma (PA) was determined. COL6A6 was downregulated in PA tissues and cell lines, which was negatively associated with the expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylase alpha polypeptide III (P4HA3) in the progression of PA. Overexpression of COL6A6 significantly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis capacity in PA. Read More

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October 2019

Splicing Machinery is Dysregulated in Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors and is Associated with Aggressiveness Features.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 09 26;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Maimonides Institute of Biomedical Research of Cordoba (IMIBIC), 14004 Cordoba, Spain.

Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) constitute approximately 15% of all brain tumors, and most have a sporadic origin. Recent studies suggest that altered alternative splicing and, consequently, appearance of aberrant splicing variants, is a common feature of most tumor pathologies. Moreover, spliceosome is considered an attractive therapeutic target in tumor pathologies, and the inhibition of SF3B1 (e. Read More

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September 2019

Reduced Stability and pH-Dependent Activity of a Common Obesity-Linked PCSK1 Polymorphism, N221D.

Endocrinology 2019 11;160(11):2630-2645

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Common mutations in the human prohormone convertase (PC)1/3 gene (PCKSI) are linked to increased risk of obesity. Previous work has shown that the rs6232 single-nucleotide polymorphism (N221D) results in slightly decreased activity, although whether this decrease underlies obesity risk is not clear. We observed significantly decreased activity of the N221D PC1/3 enzyme at the pH of the trans-Golgi network; at this pH, the mutant enzyme was less stable than wild-type enzyme. Read More

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November 2019

In vitro determination of the efficacy of illicit synthetic cannabinoids at CB receptors.

Br J Pharmacol 2019 12 10;176(24):4653-4665. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background And Purpose: The morbidity and mortality associated with recreational use of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) may reflect strong activation of CB receptors and is a major health concern. The properties of SCRA at CB receptors are not well defined. Here we have developed an assay to determine acute CB receptor efficacy using receptor depletion with the irreversible CB receptor antagonist AM6544, with application of the Black and Leff operational model to calculate efficacy. Read More

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December 2019

Crosstalk of BMP-4 and RA signaling pathways on Pomc gene regulation in corticotrophs.

J Mol Endocrinol 2019 10;63(3):161-174

Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires (IBioBA) - CONICET - Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of Vitamin A, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) pathways control the transcription of pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc), the precursor of ACTH. We describe a novel mechanism by which RA and BMP-4 act together in the context of pituitary corticotroph tumoral cells to regulate Pomc transcription. BMP-4 and RA exert a potentiated inhibition on Pomc gene expression. Read More

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October 2019

O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase is involved in pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression in mouse pituitary corticotroph AtT-20 cells.

Neurosci Lett 2019 10 29;711:134407. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine and Hospital, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan.

Glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) suppress pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene expression. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, mediated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), plays an important role during gene transcription. However, whether OGT is involved in the GR-mediated transrepression that occurs in pituitary corticotroph cells is currently unknown. Read More

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October 2019

A New Generation Somatostatin-Dopamine Analogue Exerts Potent Antitumoral Actions on Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells.

Neuroendocrinology 2020 5;110(1-2):70-82. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Maimonides Institute of Biomedical Research of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Cordoba, Spain,

Background: Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) represent approximately 15% of all intracranial tumors and usually are associated with severe comorbidities. Unfortunately, a relevant number of patients do not respond to currently available pharmacological treatments, that is, somatostatin analogs (SSAs) or dopamine-agonists (DA). Thus, novel, chimeric somatostatin/dopamine compounds (dopastatins) that could improve medical treatment of PitNETs have been designed. Read More

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February 2021

Lineage-dependent role of miR-410-3p as oncomiR in gonadotroph and corticotroph pituitary adenomas or tumor suppressor miR in somatotroph adenomas via MAPK, PTEN/AKT, and STAT3 signaling pathways.

Endocrine 2019 09 4;65(3):646-655. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Center for Preclinical Research, The Department of Methodology, Medical University of Warsaw, 1B Banacha Str., 02-097, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: miR-410-3p plays opposite roles in different cancers and may act as an oncomiR or tumor suppressor miR. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of miR-410-3p in somatotroph, gonadotroph, and corticotroph pituitary adenomas.

Methods: Tissue samples were obtained from 75 patients with pituitary adenoma. Read More

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September 2019

Inhibition of Heat Shock Factor 1 Enhances Repressive Molecular Mechanisms on the POMC Promoter.

Neuroendocrinology 2019 16;109(4):362-373. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Clinical Neuroendocrinology, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

Background: Cushing's disease (CD) is caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumours. They express high levels of heat shock protein 90 and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in comparison to the normal tissue counterpart, indicating activated cellular stress.

Aims: Our objectives were: (1) to correlate HSF1 expression with clinical features and hormonal/radiological findings of CD, and (2) to investigate the effects of HSF1 inhibition as a target for CD treatment. Read More

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Lapatinib decreases the ACTH production and proliferation of corticotroph tumor cells.

Endocr J 2019 Jun 15;66(6):515-522. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan.

Cushing's disease is almost always caused by hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from a pituitary adenoma. A mutation in the deubiquitinase gene USP8 has been found in human ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma cells. This mutational hotspot hyperactivates USP8, rescuing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) from lysosomal degradation and ensuring its sustained signaling in Cushing's disease. Read More

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Biguanides Exert Antitumoral Actions in Pituitary Tumor Cells Through AMPK-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 08;104(8):3501-3513

Maimonides Institute of Biomedical Research of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.

Context: Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) are a commonly underestimated pathology in terms of incidence and associated morbimortality. Currently, an appreciable subset of patients are resistant or poorly responsive to the main current medical treatments [i.e. Read More

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Culture in 10% O enhances the production of active hormones in neuro-endocrine cells by up-regulating the expression of processing enzymes.

Biochem J 2019 03 12;476(5):827-842. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Molecular Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Akita Prefectural University, Akita 010-0195, Japan

To closely mimic physiological conditions, low oxygen cultures have been employed in stem cell and cancer research. Although oxygen concentrations in tissues are often much lower than ambient 21% O (ranging from 3.6 to 12. Read More

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Role of Vasopressin Receptor 2 and 3 in ACTH-Secreting Tumors and their Potential Therapeutic Implications.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2020 Apr 22;128(4):263-269. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: We investigated the expression of vasopressin receptor 2 and 3 on corticotrophin tumor cells, their role in regulating ACTH secretion, and their potential therapeutic implications.

Methods: We retrospectively assessed 52 hospitalized patients with pathologically confirmed ACTH-secreting tumors. The expression of vasopressin receptor 2 and 3 was explored via qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemistry analyses. Read More

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Melatonin prevents early pituitary dysfunction induced by sucrose-rich diets.

J Pineal Res 2019 Mar 21;66(2):e12545. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Facultad de Medicina, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Centro de Estudios Farmacológicos y Botánicos (CEFYBO), Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

While physiological levels of glucocorticoids are required to ensure proper functions of the body, consistently high levels may engender several deleterious consequences. We have previously shown an increase in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in rats fed sucrose-rich diets (SRD). The main goal of this study was to analyze the processes involved in the modulation of the pituitary production of ACTH by SRD, and to test melatonin as a possible therapeutic agent for the prevention of the HPA axis dysfunction. Read More

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Proton Sensitivity of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 Signaling to Proopiomelanocortin in Male Mice.

Endocrinology 2019 02;160(2):276-291

Pituitary Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Because an acidic cellular microenvironment is engendered by inflammation and may determine cell differentiation, we elucidated the impact of acidic conditions on induction of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression. Here, we demonstrate mechanisms for proton sensitivity of CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) signaling to POMC and ACTH production. Low pH (6. Read More

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February 2019

Characterization of Activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis by the Herbicide Atrazine in the Female Rat.

Endocrinology 2018 09;159(9):3378-3388

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine-Phoenix, University of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona.

Atrazine (ATR) is a commonly used pre-emergence and early postemergence herbicide. Rats gavaged with ATR and its chlorometabolites desethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) respond with a rapid and dose-dependent rise in plasma corticosterone, whereas the major chlorometabolite, diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), has little or no effect on corticosterone levels. In this study, we investigated the possible sites of ATR activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Read More

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September 2018

The Effects of Smad3 on Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Development, Cell Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Hormone Secretion.

World Neurosurg 2018 Jun 8;114:e329-e337. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders Brain Tumor Center, China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Key Laboratory of Central Nervous System Injury Research, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Down-regulation of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) results in the formation of tumors both in vivo and in vitro. However, little is known about the effect of Smad3 on adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas (ACTH-PAs). Our objective was to study the expression and effect of Smad3 in ACTH-PAs and its possible mechanisms. Read More

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