5,418 results match your criteria atlantic salmon


The structural features of an ancient ribonuclease from Salmo salar reveal an intriguing case of auto-inhibition.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant'Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples, Italy.

The superfamily of vertebrate ribonucleases, a large group of evolutionarily related proteins, continues to provide interesting structural and functional information. In particular, the crystal structure of SS-RNase-2 from Salmo salar (SS2), here presented, has revealed a novel auto-inhibition mechanism that enriches the number of inhibition strategies observed in some members of the family. Within an essentially unmodified RNase folding, the SS2 active site cleft is in part obstructed by the collapse of an extra pentapeptide inserted in the C-terminal region. Read More

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The transcriptomic responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to high temperature stress alone, and in combination with moderate hypoxia.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 12;22(1):261. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University, St. John's, NL, A1C 5S7, Canada.

Background: Increases in ocean temperatures and in the frequency and severity of hypoxic events are expected with climate change, and may become a challenge for cultured Atlantic salmon and negatively affect their growth, immunology and welfare. Thus, we examined how an incremental temperature increase alone (Warm & Normoxic-WN: 12 → 20 °C; 1 °C week), and in combination with moderate hypoxia (Warm & Hypoxic-WH: ~ 70% air saturation), impacted the salmon's hepatic transcriptome expr\ession compared to control fish (CT: 12 °C, normoxic) using 44 K microarrays and qPCR.

Results: Overall, we identified 2894 differentially expressed probes (DEPs, FDR < 5%), that included 1111 shared DEPs, while 789 and 994 DEPs were specific to WN and WH fish, respectively. Read More

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Higher mortality of the less suitable brown trout host compared to the principal Atlantic salmon host when infested with freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) glochidia.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Postboks 5685 Torgarden, 7485, Trondheim, Norway.

The freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) is a highly host-specific parasite, with an obligate parasitic stage on salmonid fish. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. trutta and Salmo trutta f. Read More

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Skin bacteria of rainbow trout antagonistic to the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 6;11(1):7518. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Fukui Prefectural University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Obama, Fukui, 917-0003, Japan.

Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) is a globally distributed freshwater fish disease caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. In spite of its importance, an effective vaccine is not still available. Manipulation of the microbiome of skin, which is a primary infection gate for pathogens, could be a novel countermeasure. Read More

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Large inter-stock differences in catch size-at-age of mature Atlantic salmon observed by using genetic individual origin assignment from catch data.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(4):e0247435. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Genetic individual assignment of river stock of origin of mixed stock catch fish offers a tool to analyze size differences among river stocks. Data on the genetically identified river stock of origin of individual fish from commercial mixed stock catches were used to compare the catch size-at-age of mature Atlantic salmon catch fish (Salmo salar) from different rivers in the Baltic Sea. In this application of genetic mixed stock modeling, individual assignments of the river stock of origin were analyzed together with length- and weight-at-age data for individual catch fish. Read More

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Quantity and Quality of Aquaculture Enrichments Influence Disease Epidemics and Provide Ecological Alternatives to Antibiotics.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaskyla, Finland.

Environmental heterogeneity is a central component influencing the virulence and epidemiology of infectious diseases. The number and distribution of susceptible hosts determines disease transmission opportunities, shifting the epidemiological threshold between the spread and fadeout of a disease. Similarly, the presence and diversity of other hosts, pathogens and environmental microbes, may inhibit or accelerate an epidemic. Read More

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The Analysis of Live-Attenuated Vaccine Reveals the Short-Term Upregulation of Innate and Adaptive Immune Genes in Atlantic Salmon (): An In Situ Open-Sea Cages Study.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 29;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Consorcio Tecnológico de Sanidad Acuícola, Ictio Biotechnologies S.A., 7500652 Santiago, Chile.

, the etiological agent of the Salmon Rickettsial Septicemia (SRS), is one the most serious health problems for the Chilean salmon industry. Typical antimicrobial strategies used against include antibiotics and vaccines, but these applications have largely failed. A few years ago, the first attenuated-live vaccine against SRS (ALPHA JECT LiVac SRS vaccine) was released to the market. Read More

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-Triggered Extracellular Traps Formation as an Innate Immune Response of Atlantic Salmon-Derived Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Applied Biochemistry Laboratory, Instituto de Farmacologia y Morfofisiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5090000, Chile.

Extracellular traps (ETs) are webs of DNA, citrullinated histones, anti-microbial peptides, and proteins that were not previously reported in Atlantic salmon (). ETs are mainly released from polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and are considered a novel PMN-derived effector mechanism against different invasive pathogens. Here, we showed that Atlantic salmon-derived PMN released ETs-like structures in vitro in response to highly pathogenic facultative intracellular rickettsial bacteria . Read More

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Piscine Orthoreovirus (PRV)-3, but Not PRV-2, Cross-Protects against PRV-1 and Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Atlantic Salmon.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 6;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Fish Health, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, 0454 Oslo, Norway.

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), caused by infection with (PRV-1), is a common disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (). Both an inactivated whole virus vaccine and a DNA vaccine have previously been tested experimentally against HSMI and demonstrated to give partial but not full protection. To understand the mechanisms involved in protection against HSMI and evaluate the potential of live attenuated vaccine strategies, we set up a cross-protection experiment using PRV genotypes not associated with disease development in Atlantic salmon. Read More

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Effects of long-term cortisol treatment on growth and osmoregulation of Atlantic salmon and brook trout.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Mar 29;308:113769. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Ecological Science Center, Conte Research Laboratory, Turners Falls, MA, USA; Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Cortisol is the final product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis and acts as a gluco- and mineralo-corticoid in fish. Long-term elevations of cortisol have been linked to reduced growth in fishes, but the mechanism(s) and relative sensitivities of species are still unclear. We carried out experiments to examine the relative effects of cortisol on growth and gill NKA activity in two salmonids: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Read More

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Acclimation effect on fish behavioural characteristics: determination of appropriate acclimation period for different species.

J Fish Biol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.

In the present study, we investigated the effect of acclimation duration (up to 4 h) on behavioural characteristics of taxonomically and functionally different fish species, i.e., the migratory rheophilic salmonids rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and the non-migratory eurytopic European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Read More

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Melatonin and osmoregulation in fish: A focus on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smoltification.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 Mar;33(3):e12955

Biologie des Organismes et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques (BOREA), MNHN, CNRS 7208, SU, IRD 207, UCN, UA, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

Part of the life cycle of several fish species includes important salinity changes, as is the case for the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) or the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Salmo salar juveniles migrate downstream from their spawning sites to reach seawater, where they grow and become sexually mature. The process of preparation enabling juveniles to migrate downstream and physiologically adapt to seawater is called smoltification. Read More

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Comparative proteomic profiling of newly acquired, virulent and attenuated Neoparamoeba perurans proteins associated with amoebic gill disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6830. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biopharmaceutical and Medical Science, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Co. Galway, Ireland.

The causative agent of amoebic gill disease, Neoparamoeba perurans is reported to lose virulence during prolonged in vitro maintenance. In this study, the impact of prolonged culture on N. perurans virulence and its proteome was investigated. Read More

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Filtration, concentration and detection of salmonid alphavirus in seawater during a post-smolt salmon (Salmo salar) cohabitant challenge.

Dis Aquat Organ 2021 Mar 25;144:61-73. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Norwegian Veterinary Institute, PO Box 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway.

Currently, the prevalence of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) in Norwegian Atlantic salmon farms is largely surveyed via sacrificing fish and sampling of organ tissue on a monthly basis. However, a more cost-efficient, straightforward, rapid, reliable, reproducible and animal welfare friendly method based on the detection of SAV in water could be considered as an alternative method. In the present study, such a method was developed and optimized through a 6 wk cohabitant challenge trial, using post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L challenged with high or low doses of SAV subtype 3 (SAV3). Read More

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Diet and Life Stage-Associated Lipidome Remodeling in Atlantic Salmon.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 23;69(12):3787-3796. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1430 Aas, Norway.

Salmon is an important source of long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (LC-HUFAs) such as 22:6-3 [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. In the present study, we conducted two identical experiments on salmon in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) stages, with a diet switch from fish oil (high in LC-HUFA) to vegetable oil (low in LC-HUFA) and vice versa. Our aim was to investigate the diet and life stage-specific features of lipid uptake (gut), processing (liver), and deposition (muscle). Read More

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Synchrony and multimodality in the timing of Atlantic salmon smolt migration in two Norwegian fjords.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 22;11(1):6504. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Faculty of Biosciences & Aquaculture, Nord University, Bodø, Norway.

The timing of the smolt migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a phenological trait increasingly important to the fitness of this species. Understanding when and how smolts migrate to the sea is crucial to understanding how salmon populations will be affected by both climate change and the elevated salmon lice concentrations produced by salmon farms. Here, acoustic telemetry was used to monitor the fjord migration of wild post-smolts from four rivers across two fjord systems in western Norway. Read More

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Deposition and metabolism of dietary -3 very-long-chain PUFA in different organs of rat, mouse and Atlantic salmon.

Br J Nutr 2021 Mar 10:1-20. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Nofima (Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research), 1432 Ås, Norway.

There is limited knowledge about the metabolism and function of n-3 very-long-chain PUFA (n-3 VLC-PUFA) with chain lengths ≥ 24. They are known to be produced endogenously in certain tissues from EPA and DHA and not considered to originate directly from dietary sources. The aim of this study was to investigate whether n-3 VLC-PUFA from dietary sources are bio-available and deposited in tissues of rat, fish and mouse. Read More

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Genetic drift dominates genome-wide regulatory evolution following an ancient whole genome duplication in Atlantic salmon.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Whole genome duplications (WGD) have been considered as springboards that potentiate lineage diversification through increasing functional redundancy. Divergence in gene regulatory elements is a central mechanism for evolutionary diversification, yet the patterns and processes governing regulatory divergence following events that lead to massive functional redundancy, such as WGD, remain largely unknown. We studied the patterns of divergence and strength of natural selection on regulatory elements in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) genome, which has undergone WGD 100-80 Mya. Read More

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Identification of High-Confidence Structural Variants in Domesticated Rainbow Trout Using Whole-Genome Sequencing.

Front Genet 2021 25;12:639355. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Kearneysville, WV, United States.

Genomic structural variants (SVs) are a major source of genetic and phenotypic variation but have not been investigated systematically in rainbow trout (), an important aquaculture species of cold freshwater. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify and validate high-confidence SVs in rainbow trout using whole-genome re-sequencing; and 2) to examine the contribution of transposable elements (TEs) to SVs in rainbow trout. A total of 96 rainbow trout, including 11 homozygous lines and 85 outbred fish from three breeding populations, were whole-genome sequenced with an average genome coverage of 17. Read More

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February 2021

Rapid Analysis and Authentication of Meat Using the MasSpec Pen Technology.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 10;69(11):3527-3536. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

Food authenticity and safety are major public concerns due to the increasing number of food fraud cases. Meat fraud is an economically motivated practice of covertly replacing one type of meat with a cheaper alternative raising health, safety, and ethical concerns for consumers. In this study, we implement the MasSpec Pen technology for rapid and direct meat analysis and authentication. Read More

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Dietary Inclusion of Black Soldier Fly () Larvae Meal and Paste Improved Gut Health but Had Minor Effects on Skin Mucus Proteome and Immune Response in Atlantic Salmon ().

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:599530. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.

The present study investigated effects of dietary inclusion of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) () meal and paste on gut health, plasma biochemical parameters, immune response and skin mucus proteome in pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (). The seven-week experiment consisted of seven experimental diets: a control diet based on fishmeal and plant protein (Control-1); three BSFL meal diets, substituting 6.25% (6. Read More

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February 2021

Anti-Viral microRNAs Profiling in Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV)-Infected Atlantic Salmon Kidney (ASK) Cells.

Authors:
Sung-Suk Suh

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Jul;21(7):3673-3678

Department of Biosciences, Mokpo National University, Muan 58554, Republic of Korea.

Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus causing fetal disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, leading to considerable financial losses farmers around the world. In the present study, we sequenced and identified microRNAs (miRNAs) from Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cells infected with ISAV. Based on initial experimental data derived from RNA-Seq analysis, a group of differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs from the infected ASK cells were selected for expression analysis and to identify their mRNA targets. Read More

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Photoperiod-dependent developmental reprogramming of the transcriptional response to seawater entry in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT -The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø NO-9037, Norway.

The developmental transition of juvenile salmon from a freshwater resident morph (parr) to a seawater (SW) migratory morph (smolt), known as smoltification, entails a reorganization of gill function to cope with the altered water environment. Recently, we used RNAseq to characterize the breadth of transcriptional change which takes place in the gill in the FW phase of smoltification. This highlighted the importance of extended exposure to short, winter-like photoperiods (SP) followed by a subsequent increase in photoperiod for completion of transcriptional reprogramming in FW and for efficient growth following transfer to SW. Read More

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Experimental exposure to low concentrations of Neoparamoeba perurans induces amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon.

J Fish Dis 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tas, Australia.

Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is a significant issue in Atlantic salmon mariculture. Research on the development of treatments or vaccines uses experimental challenges where salmon is exposed to amoebae concentrations ranging from 500 to 5,000/L. However, the water concentrations of N. Read More

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Protein-Based Vaccine Protect Against in Atlantic Salmon ().

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:602689. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Concepción, Chile.

An effective and economical vaccine against the pathogen is needed for sustainable salmon farming and to reduce disease-related economic losses. Consequently, the aquaculture industry urgently needs to investigate efficient prophylactic measures. Three protein-based vaccine prototypes against were prepared from a highly pathogenic Chilean isolate. Read More

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February 2021

Nutrient Digestibility, Growth, Mucosal Barrier Status, and Activity of Leucocytes From Head Kidney of Atlantic Salmon Fed Marine- or Plant-Derived Protein and Lipid Sources.

Front Immunol 2020 19;11:623726. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, Bodø, Norway.

Nutrient digestibility, growth, and mucosal barrier status of fish skin, gills, and distal intestine were studied in Atlantic salmon fed feeds based on marine or plant-derived ingredients. The barrier status was assessed by considering the expression of four mucin genes, five genes that encode antimicrobial proteins, distal intestine micromorphology, and design-based stereology of the midgut epithelium. In addition, the head kidney leukocytes were examined using flow cytometry; to understand the differences in their counts and function. Read More

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February 2021

Investigating mechanisms underlying genetic resistance to Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome in Atlantic salmon using RNA sequencing.

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 6;22(1):156. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome (SRS), caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis, is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality in Atlantic salmon aquaculture, particularly in Chile. Host resistance is a heritable trait, and functional genomic studies have highlighted genes and pathways important in the response of salmon to the bacteria. However, the functional mechanisms underpinning genetic resistance are not yet well understood. Read More

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