24 results match your criteria athero-protective functions

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Insights into the Functional Role of ADTRP (Androgen-Dependent TFPI-Regulating Protein) in Health and Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 24;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Cardiovascular Biology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

The novel protein ADTRP, identified and described by us in 2011, is androgen-inducible and regulates the expression and activity of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor, the major inhibitor of the Tissue Factor-dependent pathway of coagulation on endothelial cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADTRP associate with coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, and deep vein thrombosis/venous thromboembolism. Some athero-protective effects of androgen could exert through up-regulation of expression. Read More

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Single cell morphological metrics and cytoskeletal alignment regulate VCAM-1 protein expression.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 2;555:160-167. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, 3303 S Bond Avenue CH13B, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. Electronic address:

In the initial stages of atherosclerosis, vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a surface protein that mediates leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium's luminal surface. VCAM-1 expression is upregulated on endothelial cells (ECs) under pro-inflammatory conditions and is known to be modulated by fluid shear stress (FSS). High, pulsatile FSS induces endothelial elongation and cytoskeletal alignment and downregulates pro-inflammatory induced VCAM-1 expression, which is associated with an athero-protective EC phenotype. Read More

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Fetal High-Density Lipoproteins: Current Knowledge on Particle Metabolism, Composition and Function in Health and Disease.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 30;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Cholesterol and other lipids carried by lipoproteins play an indispensable role in fetal development. Recent evidence suggests that maternally derived high-density lipoprotein (HDL) differs from fetal HDL with respect to its proteome, size, and function. Compared to the HDL of adults, fetal HDL is the major carrier of cholesterol and has a unique composition that implies other physiological functions. Read More

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Antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected adults with coronary artery disease are characterized by a distinctive regulatory T-cell signature.

AIDS 2021 06;35(7):1003-1014

Department of Biological Sciences, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM).

Background: Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control viral replication, people living with HIV (PWH) have high levels of chronic systemic inflammation and immune dysregulation which drives accelerated co-morbidities including coronary artery disease (CAD). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ectonucleotidases CD39/CD73 are known to be athero-protective via their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory functions.

Design: We assessed the dynamics of Treg subsets in ART-treated PWH with or without CAD vs. Read More

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Proteolytic Regulation of the Lectin-Like Oxidized Lipoprotein Receptor LOX-1.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 20;7:594441. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Institute for Physiological Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

The lectin-like oxidized-LDL (oxLDL) receptor LOX-1, which is broadly expressed in vascular cells, represents a key mediator of endothelial activation and dysfunction in atherosclerotic plaque development. Being a member of the C-type lectin receptor family, LOX-1 can bind different ligands, with oxLDL being the best characterized. LOX-1 mediates oxLDL uptake into vascular cells and by this means can promote foam cell formation. Read More

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January 2021

Blood miR-1275 is associated with risk of ischemic stroke and inhibits macrophage foam cell formation by targeting ApoC2 gene.

Gene 2020 Mar 11;731:144364. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Apolipoprotein C2 (ApoC2) is an important member of the apolipoprotein C family and functions as a major activator of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, the lipolytic activity of the LPL-ApoC2 complex is critical for the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and contributes to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS). However, the regulation of ApoC2 in IS development remains unclear. Read More

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The Effects of Anthocyanins and Their Microbial Metabolites on the Expression and Enzyme Activities of Paraoxonase 1, an Important Marker of HDL Function.

Nutrients 2019 Nov 24;11(12). Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Food Innovation & Health, Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UA, UK.

High circulating HDL concentrations and measures of various HDL functions are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) contributes to many of the athero-protective functions of HDL, such as promoting the reverse cholesterol transport process and reducing the levels of oxidized LDL. PON1 activities are influenced by several factors, the most important being diet and genetic polymorphisms. Read More

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November 2019

Modification of HDL by reactive aldehydes alters select cardioprotective functions of HDL in macrophages.

FEBS J 2020 02 14;287(4):695-707. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

While increased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol correlate with protection against cardiovascular disease, recent findings demonstrate that HDL function, rather than HDL-cholesterol levels, may be a better indicator of cardiovascular risk. One mechanism by which HDL function can be compromised is through modification by reactive aldehydes such as acrolein (Acro), 4-hydroxynonenal, and malondialdehyde (MDA). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that modification of HDL with reactive aldehydes would impair HDL's athero-protective functions in macrophages. Read More

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February 2020

Stimulation of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) inhibits atherosclerosis via immunomodulatory effects on myeloid cells.

Atherosclerosis 2019 08 15;287:122-133. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) stimulation can regulate acute inflammation, and lack of α7nAChR accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of the novel α7nAChR agonist, AZ6983, on atherosclerosis and assess its possible immunomodulating effects.

Methods: AZ6983 was tested in vitro in LPS-challenged mouse and human blood and in vivo using the acute inflammatory air pouch model. Read More

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Paraoxonase-1 activities in individuals with different HDL circulating levels: Implication in reverse cholesterol transport and early vascular damage.

Atherosclerosis 2019 06 11;285:64-70. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine and CardioRespiratory Section, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Epidemiological data showing that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease have led to the idea that cholesterol contained in this lipoprotein may be protective. Against, recent evidence suggests that the athero-protection from HDLs may result from other functions, unrelated to the carried cholesterol. HDL accessory proteins, such as paraoxonase 1 (PON1), have been suggested to endows HDL with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and to contribute to the athero-protective function of the lipoprotein. Read More

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Maternal Gestational Diabetes Mellitus increases placental and foetal lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 which might exert protective functions against oxidative stress.

Sci Rep 2017 10 3;7(1):12628. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Increased Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A (LpPLA) has been associated with inflammatory pathologies, including Type 2 Diabetes. Studies on LpPLA and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) are rare, and have focused mostly on maternal outcome. In the present study, we investigated whether LpPLA activity on foetal lipoproteins is altered by maternal GDM and/or obesity (a major risk factor for GDM), thereby contributing to changes in lipoprotein functionality. Read More

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October 2017

Combined use of probucol and cilostazol with atorvastatin attenuates atherosclerosis in moderately hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

Lipids Health Dis 2015 Jul 29;14:82. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

Research Institute of Atherosclerotic Disease, Xi'an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061, China.

Background: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is one of the major diseases that seriously impacts human health. Combined drug therapy may be efficacious in delaying the occurrence of cardiovascular events.

Aim: The current study was designed to investigate whether combined use of probucol (an anti-oxidant agent) with cilostazol (a platelet aggregation inhibitor) would increase the inhibitory effect of statins (a lipid-lowering agent) on atherosclerosis in moderately hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Read More

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Acrolein impairs the cholesterol transport functions of high density lipoproteins.

PLoS One 2015 7;10(4):e0123138. Epub 2015 Apr 7.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America; Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America; Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America.

High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. Read More

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Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis: a protector or culprit?

Vascul Pharmacol 2014 Dec 5;63(3):135-44. Epub 2014 Nov 5.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:

In addition to inducing tumor cell apoptosis, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) shows broad biological functions both in vitro and in vivo. TRAIL gene deletion enhanced atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic mice, supporting that endogenous TRAIL has protective actions in maintaining blood vessel homeostasis and repressing atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of this beneficial effect are not understood. Read More

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December 2014

SR-BI/CD36 chimeric receptors define extracellular subdomains of SR-BI critical for cholesterol transport.

Biochemistry 2014 Oct 23;53(39):6173-82. Epub 2014 Sep 23.

Departments of Pharmacology & Toxicology, ‡Biochemistry, and §Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, United States.

High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are athero-protective, primarily because of their ability to promote cholesterol flux from peripheral tissues to the liver by reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The delivery of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into cells is mediated by the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), a promising target for enhancing whole body cholesterol disposal and preventing cardiovascular disease. A detailed understanding of the structural determinants underlying proper SR-BI/HDL alignment that supports the selective uptake of HDL-CE into cells remains lacking. Read More

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October 2014

Epigenetic Mechanism in Regulation of Endothelial Function by Disturbed Flow: Induction of DNA Hypermethylation by DNMT1.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2014 Jun;7(2):218-224

Department of Bioengineering and Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

There is increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms such as changes in DNA methylation and histone modification play an important role in regulating cellular functions in physiological and pathophysiological states. We investigated the effects of hemodynamic force disturbance, one of the risk factors for atherogenesis, on DNA methylation in HUVECs and rat carotid arteries. Our results demonstrated that athero-prone oscillatory shear flow (OS) without a clear direction induces DNA hypermethylation in comparison to the athero-protective pulsatile shear flow (PS) with a definite direction. Read More

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Differing association of macrophage subsets with atherosclerotic plaque stability.

Int Angiol 2013 Feb;32(1):74-84

Vascular Biology Research Centre, Department of Surgery, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.

Aim: While initial research suggests that M2 macrophages are athero-protective, more recently, proatherogenic functions, such as a greater uptake of lipid than M1 macrophages, have been demonstrated, raising the question of their actual association with plaque stability. The present study, therefore, assessed the association between macrophage subset and plaque stability. Furthermore, it examined whether the fibrocyte, that we have previously identified in the plaque, represents a subset of M2 macrophages. Read More

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February 2013

Functional genomics of the human high-density lipoprotein receptor scavenger receptor BI: an old dog with new tricks.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2013 Apr;20(2):124-31

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Clinical Nutrition, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The athero-protective role of scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is primarily attributed to its ability to selectively transfer cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) to the liver during reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In this review, we highlight recent findings that reveal the impact of SR-BI on lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans. Moreover, additional responsibilities of SR-BI in modulating adrenal and platelet function, as well as female fertility in humans, are discussed. Read More

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Nuclear Receptors in atherosclerosis: a superfamily with many 'Goodfellas'.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Apr 2;368(1-2):71-84. Epub 2012 Jun 2.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Nuclear Receptors form a superfamily of 48 transcription factors that exhibit a plethora of functions in steroid hormone signaling, regulation of metabolism, circadian rhythm and cellular differentiation. In this review, we describe our current knowledge on the role of Nuclear Receptors in atherosclerosis, which is a multifactorial disease of the vessel wall. Various cell types are involved in this chronic inflammatory pathology in which multiple cellular processes and numerous genes are dysregulated. Read More

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Oxidized phospholipid content destabilizes the structure of reconstituted high density lipoprotein particles and changes their function.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2012 Sep 24;1821(9):1200-10. Epub 2012 May 24.

Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Punjab, India.

High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are made up of lipid and protein constituents and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a principal protein component that facilitates various biological activities of HDL particles. Increase in Ox-PL content of HDL particles makes them 'dysfunctional' and such modified HDL particles not only lose their athero-protective properties but also acquire pro-atherogenic and pro-inflammatory functions. The details of Ox-PL-induced alteration in the molecular properties of HDL particles are not clear. Read More

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September 2012

ABC transporters, atherosclerosis and inflammation.

Atherosclerosis 2010 Aug 21;211(2):361-70. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

Lipid Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Atherosclerosis, driven by inflamed lipid-laden lesions, can occlude the coronary arteries and lead to myocardial infarction. This chronic disease is a major and expensive health burden. However, the body is able to mobilize and excrete cholesterol and other lipids, thus preventing atherosclerosis by a process termed reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Read More

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Endothelial cell cytoskeletal alignment independent of fluid shear stress on micropatterned surfaces.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 Jul 8;371(4):787-92. Epub 2008 May 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, 3303 SW Bond Avenue CH13B, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

Endothelial cells (ECs) in athero-protective regions are elongated with actin and microtubule fibers aligned parallel to the direction of blood flow. Fluid shear stress (FSS) affects EC shape and functions, but little is known about shape-dependent EC properties that are independent of FSS. To evaluate these properties, ECs were elongated on micropatterned (MP) 25mum wide collagen-coated lanes (MPECs) and characterized by cell shape index, actin and microtubule alignment, and polarization of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). Read More

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Effects of disturbed flow on endothelial cells.

Authors:
Shu Chien

Ann Biomed Eng 2008 Apr 3;36(4):554-62. Epub 2008 Jan 3.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, PFBH room 134, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0412, USA.

Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) play significant roles in regulating circulatory functions. The shear stress resulting from blood flow modulates EC functions by activating mechano-sensors, signaling pathways, and gene and protein expressions. Shear stress with a clear direction resulting form pulsatile or steady flow causes only transient activation of pro-inflammatory and proliferative pathways, which become down-regulated when such directed shearing is sustained. Read More

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Laminar shear stress inhibits CXCR4 expression on endothelial cells: functional consequences for atherogenesis.

FASEB J 2005 Apr 10;19(6):629-31. Epub 2005 Feb 10.

Laboratorio di Patologia Vascolare, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Laminar shear stress (LSS) represents a major athero-protective stimulus. However, the mechanisms for this effect are poorly characterized. As chemokine receptors modulate endothelial cell functions, we hypothesized that at least some LSS effects on endothelial cells (ECs) may be due to LSS-dependent changes in chemokine receptor expression and function. Read More

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