3,840 results match your criteria astronauts preflight


Microglia: Ally and Enemy in Deep Space.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Brain and Spinal Injury Center, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Weill Institute for Neuroscience, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Kavli Institute of Fundamental Neuroscience, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

In 2024 the first female astronaut will land on the moon, advancing our preparations for human missions to Mars. While on Earth we are protected from space radiation by our planet's magnetic field, on such deep space voyages astronauts will be exposed to high energy particles from solar flares and galactic cosmic rays (GCR). This exposure carries risks to the central nervous system (CNS) that could jeopardize the mission and astronaut health. Read More

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Effects of Acute and Chronic Exposure to a Mixed Field of Neutrons and Photons and Single or Fractionated Simulated Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposure on Behavioral and Cognitive Performance in Mice.

Radiat Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience and.

During space missions, astronauts experience acute and chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposures. Given the clear gap of knowledge regarding such exposures, we assessed the effects acute and chronic exposure to a mixed field of neutrons and photons and single or fractionated simulated galactic cosmic ray exposure (GCRsim) on behavioral and cognitive performance in mice. In addition, we assessed the effects of an aspirin-containing diet in the presence and absence of chronic exposure to a mixed field of neutrons and photons. Read More

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Patient-Specific Organoid and Organ-on-a-Chip: 3D Cell-Culture Meets 3D Printing and Numerical Simulation.

Adv Biol (Weinh) 2021 Apr 15:e2000024. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

The last few decades have witnessed diversified in vitro models to recapitulate the architecture and function of living organs or tissues and contribute immensely to advances in life science. Two novel 3D cell culture models: 1) Organoid, promoted mainly by the developments of stem cell biology and 2) Organ-on-a-chip, enhanced primarily due to microfluidic technology, have emerged as two promising approaches to advance the understanding of basic biological principles and clinical treatments. This review describes the comparable distinct differences between these two models and provides more insights into their complementarity and integration to recognize their merits and limitations for applicable fields. Read More

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Quantitative magnetic resonance image assessment of the optic nerve and surrounding sheath after spaceflight.

NPJ Microgravity 2020 Oct 8;6(1):30. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

KBR, Houston, TX, USA.

A subset of long-duration spaceflight astronauts have experienced ophthalmic abnormalities, collectively termed spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS). Little is understood about the pathophysiology of SANS; however, microgravity-induced alterations in intracranial pressure (ICP) due to headward fluid shifts is the primary hypothesized contributor. In particular, potential changes in optic nerve (ON) tortuosity and ON sheath (ONS) distension may indicate altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics during weightlessness. Read More

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October 2020

Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest Studies as a Terrestrial Analog for Spaceflight Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:648958. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Departments of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States.

Astronauts who undergo prolonged periods of spaceflight may develop a unique constellation of neuro-ocular findings termed Spaceflight Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome (SANS). SANS is a disorder that is unique to spaceflight and has no terrestrial equivalent. The prevalence of SANS increases with increasing spaceflight duration and although there have been residual, structural, ocular changes noted, no irreversible or permanent visual loss has occurred after SANS, with the longest spaceflight to date being 14 months. Read More

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Dammarane Sapogenins Improving Simulated Weightlessness-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Cognitive Dysfunction in Rats.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:638328. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Affiliated (T.C.M) Hospital, Sino-Portugal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) International Cooperation Center, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Our studies demonstrated that the space environment has an impact on the brain function of astronauts. Numerous ground-based microgravity and social isolation showed that the space environment can induce brain function damages in humans and animals. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), an active fraction from oriental ginseng, possesses neuropsychic protective effects and has been shown to improve depression and memory. Read More

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Global transcriptomic analysis of a murine osteocytic cell line subjected to spaceflight.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21578

Department of Translational Dental Medicine, Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Bone loss is a major health concern for astronauts during long-term spaceflight and for patients during prolonged bed rest or paralysis. Growing evidence suggests that osteocytes, the most abundant cells in the mineralized bone matrix, play a key role in sensing mechanical forces applied to the skeleton and integrating the orchestrated response into subcellular biochemical signals to modulate bone homeostasis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying both mechanosensation and mechanotransduction in late-osteoblast-to-osteocyte cells under microgravity (µG) have yet to be elucidated. Read More

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Microsaccades in Applied Environments: Real-World Applications of Fixational Eye Movement Measurements.

J Eye Mov Res 2020 May 15;12(6). Epub 2020 May 15.

SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Across a wide variety of research environments, the recording of microsaccades and other fixational eye movements has provided insight and solutions into practical problems. Here we review the literature on fixational eye movements-especially microsaccades-in applied and ecologically-valid scenarios. Recent technical advances allow noninvasive fixational eye movement recordings in real-world contexts, while observers perform a variety of tasks. Read More

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The small protein MafG plays a critical role in MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis induced by simulated microgravity and radiation.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 2;555:175-181. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

The Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine, Ministry of Education, Air Force Medical University, 710032, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Microgravity and radiation exposure-induced bone damage is one of the most significant alterations in astronauts after long-term spaceflight. However, the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Recent ground-based simulation studies have suggested that this impairment is likely mediated by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during spaceflight. Read More

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Effects of Low Dose Space Radiation Exposures on the Splenic Metabolome.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 17;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

Future space missions will include a return to the Moon and long duration deep space roundtrip missions to Mars. Leaving the protection that Low Earth Orbit provides will unavoidably expose astronauts to higher cumulative doses of space radiation, in addition to other stressors, e.g. Read More

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Effects of O charged-particle irradiation on cognition, hippocampal morphology and mutagenesis in female mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Mar 29;407:113257. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 72205, United States; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 72205, United States; Neurobiology & Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 72205, United States. Electronic address:

The effects of radiation in space on human cognition are a growing concern for NASA scientists and astronauts as the possibility for long-duration missions to Mars becomes more tangible. Oxygen (O) radiation is of utmost interest considering that astronauts will interact with this radiation frequently. O radiation is a class of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation and also present within spacecrafts. Read More

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Evidence Supporting the Management of Medical Conditions During Long-Duration Spaceflight: Protocol for a Scoping Review.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Mar 29;10(3):e24323. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec, QC, Canada.

Background: Future long-duration space exploration missions, such as traveling to Mars, will create an increase in communication time delays and disruptions and remove the viability of emergency returns to Earth for timely medical treatment. Thus, higher levels of medical autonomy are necessary. Crew selection is proposed as the first line of defense to minimize medical risk for future missions; however, the second proposed line of defense is medical preparedness and crew member autonomy. Read More

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The Overview Effect and Creative Performance in Extreme Human Environments.

Front Psychol 2021 12;12:584573. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Division of Continuing Education, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.

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Analysis of the effects of spaceflight and local administration of thrombopoietin to a femoral defect injury on distal skeletal sites.

NPJ Microgravity 2021 Mar 26;7(1):12. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

With increased human presence in space, bone loss and fractures will occur. Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a recently patented bone healing agent. Here, we investigated the systemic effects of TPO on mice subjected to spaceflight and sustaining a bone fracture. Read More

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Biological Effects of Space Hypomagnetic Environment on Circadian Rhythm.

Front Physiol 2021 9;12:643943. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiological Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

The intrinsic earth magnetic field (geomagnetic field, GMF) provides an essential environmental condition for most living organisms to adapt the solar cycle by rhythmically synchronizing physiological and behavioral processes. However, hypomagnetic field (HMF) of outer space, the Moon, and the Mars differs much from GMF, which poses a critical problem to astronauts during long-term interplanetary missions. Multiple experimental works have been devoted to the HMF effects on circadian rhythm and found that HMF perturbs circadian rhythms and profoundly contributes to health problems such as sleep disorders, altered metabolic as well as neurological diseases. Read More

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Progressive increase in the complexity and translatability of rodent testing to assess space-radiation induced cognitive impairment.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Mar 22;126:159-174. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Center for Integrative Neuroscience and Inflammatory Diseases, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, 23507, USA; Department of Pathology & Anatomy, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, 23507, USA.

Ground-based rodent models have established that space radiation doses (approximately those that astronauts will be exposed to on a mission to Mars) significantly impair performance in a wide range of cognitive tasks. Over the last 40 years there has been a progressive increase in both the complexity and the translatability (to humans) of the cognitive tasks investigated. This review outlines technical and conceptual advances in space radiation rodent testing approaches, along with the advances in analytical approaches, that will make data from ground based studies more amenable to probabilistic risk analysis. Read More

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Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Enhances Vasoconstriction by Altering Calcium Homeostasis in Cerebrovascular Smooth Muscle Cells under Simulated Microgravity.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Mar;34(3):203-212

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital & Chinese PLA Medical School, Beijing 100853, China.

Objective: Exposure to microgravity results in postflight cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported during this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondrial oxidative stress regulates calcium homeostasis and vasoconstriction in hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat cerebral arteries. Read More

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Persistent Globe Flattening in Astronauts following Long-Duration Spaceflight.

Neuroophthalmology 2021 3;45(1):29-35. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Blanton Eye Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Posterior globe flattening has been well-documented in astronauts both during and after long-duration space flight (LDSF) and has been observed as early as 10 days into a mission on the International Space Station. Globe flattening (GF) is thought to be caused by the disc centred anterior forces created by elevated volume and/or pressure within the optic nerve sheath (ONS). This might be the result of increased intracranial pressure, increased intraorbital ONS pressure from compartmentalisation or a combination of these mechanisms. Read More

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September 2020

Weekly Bone Loading Exercise Effects on a Healthy Subjects Strength, Bone Density, and Bone Biomarkers.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 Mar;92(3):201-206

Bone density loss affects astronauts in long-duration spaceflight. The OsteoStrong Company has shown increased hip (14.95%) and lumbar (16. Read More

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Exercises and Skin Physiology During International Space Station Expeditions.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 Mar;92(3):160-166

: The first skin physiological pilot experiment (SkinA) on a single astronaut showed a deterioration of the skin. In a follow-up experiment (SkinB) we showed that skin physiological parameters improved on average. However, it is well known that sports have positive effects on the skin, that astronauts prefer special sports devices, and do sports with different intensity. Read More

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Electrical Shock Hazard Severity Estimation During Extravehicular Activity for the International Space Station.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 Apr;92(4):231-239

Research has shown that astronauts performing extravehicular activities may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical hazards. This study used computer models to determine whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. A multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a magnetic resonance image millimeter resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate the following: 1) induced electric fields; 2) resistance between contact areas in a Extravehicular Mobility Unit spacesuit; 3) currents induced in the human body; 4) the physiological effects of these electrical exposures; and 5) the risk to the crew during extravehicular activities. Read More

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Evaluating the effect of spaceflight on the host-pathogen interaction between human intestinal epithelial cells and Salmonella Typhimurium.

NPJ Microgravity 2021 Mar 9;7(1). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Biodesign Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Spaceflight uniquely alters the physiology of both human cells and microbial pathogens, stimulating cellular and molecular changes directly relevant to infectious disease. However, the influence of this environment on host-pathogen interactions remains poorly understood. Here we report our results from the STL-IMMUNE study flown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-131, which investigated multi-omic responses (transcriptomic, proteomic) of human intestinal epithelial cells to infection with Salmonella Typhimurium when both host and pathogen were simultaneously exposed to spaceflight. Read More

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Extracting copper and cobalt from non-ferrous residues by iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

How to recycle metals from the waste resources becomes a hotspot all around the world. Non-ferrous residues, which was produced by non-ferrous melting industry, and various of Cu and Co compounds exist in the residues in the form of CuO, CuS, CoS. In order to efficiently extract valuable metals from the non-ferrous residues, this study investigated the bioleaching behavior of Cu and Co from non-ferrous residues, using iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB, Leptospirillum ferriphilum CS13) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB, Acidithiobacillus caldus S2) by controlling the microbial composition, initial pH, and initial ferrous ion concentration. Read More

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Static Magnetic Field of 0.2 ∼ 0.4 T Promotes the Recovery of Hindlimb Unloading-induced Bone Loss in Mice.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Mar 15:1-29. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Research & Development Institute of Northwestern Polytechnical University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

Purpose: Bone loss is one of the most serious medical problem associated with prolonged weightlessness in long-term spaceflight mission. Skeletal reloading after prolonged spaceflight have indicated incomplete recovery of lost bone, which may lead to an increased risk of fractures in astronauts when returning to Earth. Substantial studies have revealed the capacity of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on treating various bone disorders, whereas it is unknown whether SMFs have the potential regulatory effects on bone quality in unloaded mice during unloading. Read More

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The Effect of Zero Gravity on Eyelid and Brow Position.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Division of Orbital and Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, Doheny and Stein Eye Institutes, University of California; University of Southern California; and Department of Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.

Purpose: To describe the effect of spaceflight on upper eyelid and brow position.

Materials And Methods: Images of astronauts on earth and in space were collected from a National Aeronautics and Space Administration image library. For each astronaut, front facing portraits captured within a 5-year period were obtained. Read More

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Predicting chromosome damage in astronauts participating in international space station missions.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5293. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, 77058, USA.

Space radiation consists of energetic protons and other heavier ions. During the International Space Station program, chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of astronauts have been analyzed to estimate received biological doses of space radiation. More specifically, pre-flight blood samples were exposed ex vivo to varying doses of gamma rays, while post-flight blood samples were collected shortly and several months after landing. Read More

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A Low-Pressure, N/CO Atmosphere Is Suitable for Cyanobacterium-Based Life-Support Systems on Mars.

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:611798. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

The leading space agencies aim for crewed missions to Mars in the coming decades. Among the associated challenges is the need to provide astronauts with life-support consumables and, for a Mars exploration program to be sustainable, most of those consumables should be generated on site. Research is being done to achieve this using cyanobacteria: fed from Mars's regolith and atmosphere, they would serve as a basis for biological life-support systems that rely on local materials. Read More

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February 2021

Myocardial Disease and Long-Distance Space Travel: Solving the Radiation Problem.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:631985. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Regenerative Medicine Center Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease is a well-known complication of radiation exposure. Over the last few years, planning for deep space missions has increased interest in the effects of space radiation on the cardiovascular system, as an increasing number of astronauts will be exposed to space radiation for longer periods of time. Research has shown that exposure to different types of particles found in space radiation can lead to the development of diverse cardiovascular disease via fibrotic myocardial remodeling, accelerated atherosclerosis and microvascular damage. Read More

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February 2021

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Improves the Gait Disorders of Rats Under Simulated Microgravity Conditions Associated With the Regulation of Motor Cortex.

Front Physiol 2021 4;12:587515. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Institute of Medical Engineering and Translational Medicine, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

In previous studies, it has been proved that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves dyskinesia induced by conditions such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson diseases and cerebral ischemia. However, it is still unknown whether it can be used as a countermeasure for gait disorders in astronauts during space flight. In this study, we evaluated the effects of rTMS on the rat gait function under simulated microgravity (SM) conditions. Read More

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February 2021

Simultaneous exposure to chronic irradiation and simulated microgravity differentially alters immune cell phenotype in mouse thymus and spleen.

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2021 Feb 29;28:66-73. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, United States. Electronic address:

Deep-space missions may alter immune cell phenotype in the primary (e.g., thymus) and secondary (e. Read More

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February 2021