1,200 results match your criteria astrocytic markers

Recovery of Depleted miR-146a in ALS Cortical Astrocytes Reverts Cell Aberrancies and Prevents Paracrine Pathogenicity on Microglia and Motor Neurons.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 23;9:634355. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Instituto de Investigação do Medicamento (iMed.ULisboa), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Reactive astrocytes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) change their molecular expression pattern and release toxic factors that contribute to neurodegeneration and microglial activation. We and others identified a dysregulated inflammatory miRNA profile in ALS patients and in mice models suggesting that they represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Such cellular miRNAs are known to be released into the secretome and to be carried by small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), which may be harmful to recipient cells. Read More

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Cell death of hippocampal CA1 astrocytes during early epileptogenesis.

Epilepsia 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Cellular Neurosciences, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Objective: Growing evidence suggests that dysfunctional astrocytes are crucial players in the development of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Using a mouse model closely recapitulating key alterations of chronic human MTLE with hippocampal sclerosis, here we asked whether death of astrocytes contributes to the initiation of the disease and investigated potential underlying molecular mechanisms.

Methods: Antibody staining was combined with confocal imaging and semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis to identify markers of different cellular death mechanisms between 4 h and 3 days after epilepsy induction. Read More

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NF-κB and TNF Affect the Astrocytic Differentiation from Neural Stem Cells.

Cells 2021 Apr 8;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Life Sciences and Medicine, Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication, University of Luxembourg, L-1511 Luxembourg, Luxembourg.

The NF-κB signaling pathway is crucial during development and inflammatory processes. We have previously shown that NF-κB activation induces dedifferentiation of astrocytes into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we provide evidence  that the NF-κB pathway plays also a fundamental role during the differentiation of NPCs into astrocytes. Read More

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Quantitative morphometric and cell-type-specific population analysis of microglia-enriched cultures subcloned to high purity from newborn rat brains.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 6;10:119-129. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Morphological and functional characterizations of cultured microglia are essential for the improved understanding of their roles in neuronal health and disease. Although some studies (phenotype analysis, phagocytosis) can be carried out in mixed or microglia-enriched cultures, in others (gene expression) pure microglia must be used. If the use of genetically modified microglial cells is not feasible, isolation of resident microglia from nervous tissue must be carried out. Read More

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Astrocytic glycogen accumulation drives the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration in Lafora disease.

Brain 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Barcelona, 08028, Spain.

The hallmark of Lafora disease, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, is the accumulation of intracellular glycogen aggregates, called Lafora bodies. Until recently, it was widely believed that brain Lafora bodies were present exclusively in neurons and thus that Lafora disease pathology derived from their accumulation in this cell population. However, recent evidence indicates that Lafora bodies are also present in astrocytes. Read More

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Disease-modifying treatment with I2 imidazoline receptor ligand LSL60101 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model: A Comparative study with donepezil.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Pharmacology Section. Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, and Institut de Neurociències, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, 27-31, E-08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Background And Purpose: The development of effective therapeutic strategies against Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a challenge. I2 Imidazoline receptors (I2-IR) ligands have a neuroprotective role in AD. Moreover, co-treatment of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with neuroprotective agents has shown better effects on the prevention of dementia. Read More

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Evidence of p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Involvement in the Central Nervous System Pathogenesis of Classical Scrapie in Sheep and a Transgenic Mouse Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 8;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Centro de Encefalopatías y Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes, Facultad de Veterinaria, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón - IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza - CITA), 50013 Zaragoza, Spain.

Neurotrophins constitute a group of growth factor that exerts important functions in the nervous system of vertebrates. They act through two classes of transmembrane receptors: tyrosine-kinase receptors and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75). The activation of p75 can favor cell survival or apoptosis depending on diverse factors. Read More

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C21orf91 Regulates Oligodendroglial Precursor Cell Fate-A Switch in the Glial Lineage?

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 16;15:653075. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Neuropathological diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are frequently associated with impaired differentiation of the oligodendroglial cell lineage and subsequent alterations in white matter structure and dynamics. Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause for cognitive impairments and intellectual disability (ID) and is associated with a reduction in the number of neurons and oligodendrocytes, as well as with hypomyelination and astrogliosis. Recent studies mainly focused on neuronal development in DS and underestimated the role of glial cells as pathogenic players. Read More

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No neurochemical evidence of neuronal injury or glial activation in children with Paediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome. An explorative pilot study.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 16:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience & Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Paediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is characterised by an acute onset of obsessive compulsive disorder, combined with at least two other neuropsychiatric symptoms with acute onset. Diagnostic criteria also require that no specific medical aetiology is identified. Although there are no verified aetiological biomarkers, PANS is assumed to be a neuroinflammatory disorder with a possible autoimmune aetiology. Read More

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Simvastatin Prevents Neurodegeneration in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease via Inhibition of A1 Reactive Astrocytes.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 Mar 18:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, Chaoyang Hospital, Huainan, China.

Emerging evidence indicates that A1 reactive astrocytes play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, development of agents that could inhibit the formation of A1 reactive astrocytes could be used to treat PD. Simvastatin has been touted as a potential neuroprotective agent for neurologic disorders such as PD, but the specific underlying mechanism remains unclear. Read More

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Pharmacological ablation of astrocytes reduces Aβ degradation and synaptic connectivity in an ex vivo model of Alzheimer's disease.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Mar 17;18(1):73. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, W12 0NN, UK.

Background: Astrocytes provide a vital support to neurons in normal and pathological conditions. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, reactive astrocytes have been found surrounding amyloid plaques, forming an astrocytic scar. However, their role and potential mechanisms whereby they affect neuroinflammation, amyloid pathology, and synaptic density in AD remain unclear. Read More

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Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 (LRP1) as a Novel Regulator of Early Astroglial Differentiation.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 18;15:642521. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Cell Morphology and Molecular Neurobiology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type within the central nervous system (CNS) with various functions. Furthermore, astrocytes show a regional and developmental heterogeneity traceable with specific markers. In this study, the influence of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) on astrocytic maturation within the hippocampus was analyzed during development. Read More

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February 2021

Fibrinogen Interaction with Astrocyte ICAM-1 and PrP Results in the Generation of ROS and Neuronal Death.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 27;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Surgery, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, FL 33612 Tampa, USA.

Many neuroinflammatory diseases, like traumatic brain injury (TBI), are associated with an elevated level of fibrinogen and short-term memory (STM) impairment. We found that during TBI, extravasated fibrinogen deposited in vasculo-astrocyte interfaces, which was associated with neurodegeneration and STM reduction. The mechanisms of this fibrinogen-astrocyte interaction and its functional role in neurodegeneration are still unclear. Read More

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February 2021

Experimental cerebral palsy causes microstructural brain damage in areas associated to motor deficits but no spatial memory impairments in the developing rat.

Brain Res 2021 Feb 24;1761:147389. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Child Development and Growth, Department of Pediatrics, Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the major cause of motor and cognitive impairments during childhood. CP can result from direct or indirect structural injury to the developing brain. In this study, we aimed to describe brain damage and behavioural alterations during early adult life in a CP model using the combination of maternal inflammation, perinatal anoxia and postnatal sensorimotor restriction. Read More

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February 2021

The Key Regulator of Necroptosis, RIP1 Kinase, Contributes to the Formation of Astrogliosis and Glial Scar in Ischemic Stroke.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases and College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Cerebrovascular Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou, 215123, Jiangsu, China.

Necroptosis initiation relies on the receptor-interacting protein 1 kinase (RIP1K). We recently reported that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of RIP1K produces protection against ischemic stroke-induced astrocytic injury. However, the role of RIP1K in ischemic stroke-induced formation of astrogliosis and glial scar remains unknown. Read More

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February 2021

Immunohistochemical characterisation and histopathology of astrocytic neoplasms at a tertiary Nigerian hospital.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Feb 22:e14094. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Pathology, Molecular Neuropathology Laboratory, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Aim: To describe histological features and pattern of expression of selected markers including epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant p53 and mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1R132H) among astrocytic neoplasms at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study involving histologically diagnosed Central Nervous System (CNS) neoplasms between January 2004 and December 2015. Haematoxylin and Eosin Slides of 81 cases of astrocytomas were retrieved, re-cut and reviewed. Read More

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February 2021

Region-specific distribution of Olig2-expressing astrocytes in adult mouse brain and spinal cord.

Mol Brain 2021 02 17;14(1):36. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Biology, Huck Institutes of Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Olig2 is an important transcription factor essential for the specification and differentiation of oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytes and neurons during developmental stages. However, Olig2 distribution pattern and its relationship among different types of glial cells in the adult central nervous system (CNS) are not well characterized. Here, we systematically examined Olig2 expression pattern in combination with major markers of neurons and glial cells throughout the brain and spinal cord in the adult mice. Read More

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February 2021

Generation of the Human Pluripotent Stem-Cell-Derived Astrocyte Model with Forebrain Identity.

Brain Sci 2021 Feb 9;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland.

Astrocytes form functionally and morphologically distinct populations of cells with brain-region-specific properties. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offer possibilities to generate astroglia for studies investigating mechanisms governing the emergence of astrocytic diversity. We established a method to generate human astrocytes from hPSCs with forebrain patterning and final specification with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Read More

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February 2021

The effects of trifluoperazine on brain edema, aquaporin-4 expression and metabolic markers during the acute phase of stroke using photothrombotic mouse model.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 May 6;1863(5):183573. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability globally. Edema is a hallmark of stroke resulting from dysregulation of water homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) and plays the major role in stroke-associated morbidity and mortality. The overlap between cellular and vasogenic edema makes treating this condition complicated, and to date, there is no pathogenically oriented drug treatment for edema. Read More

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Diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced status epilepticus drives complex glial cell phenotypes in adult male mice.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 May 30;152:105276. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de recherche biomédicale des armées, BP73, F-91223 Brétigny sur Orge cedex, France. Electronic address:

Organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents (OPs), are characterized by cholinesterase inhibition. In addition to severe peripheral symptoms, high doses of OPs can lead to seizures and status epilepticus (SE). Long lasting seizure activity and subsequent neurodegeneration promote neuroinflammation leading to profound pathological alterations of the brain. Read More

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Acute systemic LPS-exposure impairs perivascular CSF distribution in mice.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Jan 29;18(1):34. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Experimental Neuroinflammation Laboratory, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, SE-221 84, Lund, Sweden.

Background: The exchange of cerebrospinal (CSF) and interstitial fluid is believed to be vital for waste clearance in the brain. The sleep-dependent glymphatic system, which is comprised of perivascular flow of CSF and is largely dependent on arterial pulsatility and astrocytic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression, facilitates much of this brain clearance. During the last decade, several observations have indicated that impaired glymphatic function goes hand in hand with neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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January 2021

Contributive Role of TNF-α to L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in a Unilateral 6-OHDA Lesion Model of Parkinson's Disease.

Front Pharmacol 2020 11;11:617085. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Basic and Oral Biology, FORP, Campus USP, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Our present objective was to better characterize the mechanisms that regulate striatal neuroinflammation in mice developing L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). For that, we used 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mice rendered dyskinetic by repeated intraperitoneal injections of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA) and quantified ensuing neuroinflammatory changes in the dopamine-denervated dorsal striatum. LID development was associated with a prominent astrocytic response, and a more moderate microglial cell reaction restricted to this striatal area. Read More

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January 2021

In-depth quantitative proteomic characterization of organotypic hippocampal slice culture reveals sex-specific differences in biochemical pathways.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 28;11(1):2560. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, 70910-900, Brazil.

Sex differences in the brain of mammals range from neuroarchitecture through cognition to cellular metabolism. The hippocampus, a structure mostly associated with learning and memory, presents high vulnerability to neurodegeneration and aging. Therefore, we explored basal sex-related differences in the proteome of organotypic hippocampal slice culture, a major in vitro model for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms related to neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

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January 2021

Transcriptional markers of excitation-inhibition balance in germ-free mice show region-specific dysregulation and rescue after bacterial colonization.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 03 19;135:248-255. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Studies of germ-free (GF) mice demonstrate that gut microbiota can influence behaviour by modulating neurochemical pathways in the brain, and that bacterial colonization normalizes behavioural deficits in GF-mice. Since disrupted GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling are reported in mood disorders, this study investigated the effect of gut microbiota manipulations on EIB-relevant gene expression in the brain.

Methods: GF Swiss-Webster mice were colonized with E. Read More

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Massive Retinal Gliosis in an Infant Microphthalmic Globe: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jan 26;22:e929363. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

BACKGROUND Massive retinal gliosis (MRG) is a rare benign intraocular tumor that results from the proliferation of well-differentiated glial cells in response to long-standing pathological processes, including glaucoma, trauma, chronic inflammation, vascular disorders, and congenital anomalies. This lesion is considered to be nonneoplastic and occurs ≥10 years after the predisposing insult. It usually affects children and can mimic other conditions, including uveal melanomas, vasoproliferative tumors of the retina, astrocytic hamartomas, and retinal hemangioblastomas. Read More

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January 2021

Characterizing effects of excess copper levels in a human astrocytic cell line with focus on oxidative stress markers.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 May 14;65:126711. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558, Nuthetal, Germany; TraceAge - DFG Research Unit on Interactions of Essential Trace Elements in Healthy and Diseased Elderly (FOR 2558), Berlin-Potsdam-Jena, Germany; German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Max-Dohrn-Strasse 8-10, 10589, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Being an essential trace element, copper is involved in diverse physiological processes. However, excess levels might lead to adverse effects. Disrupted copper homeostasis, particularly in the brain, has been associated with human diseases including the neurodegenerative disorders Wilson and Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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Repeated fluoxetine treatment induces transient and long-term astrocytic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex of normal adult rats.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 20;107:110252. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, PR China. Electronic address:

Fluoxetine (Flx)-induced neuronal plasticity plays an important role in the effective treatment of depression and mood disorders. It is less understood whether repeated Flx treatment induces astrocytic plasticity that outlasts the presence of the drug in the body. We showed previously that Flx-induced neuronal plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) persisted up to 20 days after the treatment. Read More

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Inflammation-driven glial alterations in the cuprizone mouse model probed with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 11.7 T.

NMR Biomed 2021 Apr 21;34(4):e4480. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Center for Neuroimaging Research-CENIR, Paris Brain Institute (Institut du Cerveau-ICM), Paris, France.

Inflammation of brain tissue is a complex response of the immune system to the presence of toxic compounds or to cell injury, leading to a cascade of pathological processes that include glial cell activation. Noninvasive MRI markers of glial reactivity would be very useful for in vivo detection and monitoring of inflammation processes in the brain, as well as for evaluating the efficacy of personalized treatments. Due to their specific location in glial cells, myo-inositol (mIns) and choline compounds (tCho) seem to be the best candidates for probing glial-specific intra-cellular compartments. Read More

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Rab6A as a Pan-Astrocytic Marker in Mouse and Human Brain, and Comparison with Other Glial Markers (GFAP, GS, Aldh1L1, SOX9).

Cells 2021 01 5;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Institute of Anatomy II, Goethe-University, D-60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Astrocytes contribute to many higher brain functions. A key mechanism in glia-to-neuron signalling is vesicular exocytosis; however, the identity of exocytosis organelles remains a matter of debate. Since vesicles derived from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) are not considered in this context, we studied the astrocyte TGN by immunocytochemistry applying anti-Rab6A. Read More

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January 2021