2,279 results match your criteria astrocytes described


Q134R: Small chemical compound with NFAT inhibitory properties improves behavioral performance and synapse function in mouse models of amyloid pathology.

Aging Cell 2021 Jun 12:e13416. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

Inhibition of the protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN) ameliorates pathophysiologic and cognitive changes in aging rodents and mice with aging-related Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology. However, concerns over adverse effects have slowed the transition of common CN-inhibiting drugs to the clinic for the treatment of AD and AD-related disorders. Targeting substrates of CN, like the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs), has been suggested as an alternative, safer approach to CN inhibitors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

D-dopachrome tautomerase activates COX2/PGE pathway of astrocytes to mediate inflammation following spinal cord injury.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Jun 11;18(1):130. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration of Jiangsu and Ministry of Education, Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, 226001, People's Republic of China.

Background: Astrocytes are the predominant glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS) that can secrete various cytokines and chemokines mediating neuropathology in response to danger signals. D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT), a newly described cytokine and a close homolog of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) protein, has been revealed to share an overlapping function with MIF in some ways. However, its cellular distribution pattern and mediated astrocyte neuropathological function in the CNS remain unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Human Hippocampus in Parkinson's Disease: An Integrative Stereological and Proteomic Study.

J Parkinsons Dis 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease that is pathologically described as a six-stage α-synucleinopathy. In stage 4, α-synuclein reaches the hippocampus, inducing cognitive deficits, from which it progresses to the isocortex, leading to dementia. Among hippocampal fields, cornu ammonis 2 is particularly affected by this α-synucleinopathy and critical for cognitive decline. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Alzheimer Disease. From Dysbiosis to Neurodegeneration: Focus on the Central Nervous System Glial Cells.

J Clin Med 2021 May 27;10(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Research Unit of Histology and Embryology, University of Florence, Viale G. Pieraccini, 6, 50139 Florence, Italy.

The microbiota-gut system can be thought of as a single unit that interacts with the brain via the "two-way" microbiota-gut-brain axis. Through this axis, a constant interplay mediated by the several products originating from the microbiota guarantees the physiological development and shaping of the gut and the brain. In the present review will be described the modalities through which the microbiota and gut control each other, and the main microbiota products conditioning both local and brain homeostasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cholinergic Modulation of Neuroinflammation: Focus on α7 Nicotinic Receptor.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 6;22(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biology and Biotechnologies "Charles Darwin", Sapienza, University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

All nervous system pathologies (e.g., neurodegenerative/demyelinating diseases and brain tumours) develop neuroinflammation, a beneficial process during pathological events, aimed at removing damaged cells, toxic agents, and/or pathogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lentiviral Transduction of Neuronal Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2311:155-160

Department of Neuroscience, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University , Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Lentiviruses are a very reliable class of viral vectors wildly used in gene therapy. In this chapter, we described a general method for the construction of lentiviral delivery system by using a derived HIV-1 based lentivirus expression vector pKLV-Puro containing a monomeric blue fluorescent protein mammalian codon-optimized (TagBFP). HIV-1 based lentivirus particles are prepared by transfection of four plasmids into 293 T cells using the Fugene 6 transfection reagent. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Neuron and astrocyte aggregation and sorting in three-dimensional neuronal constructs.

Commun Biol 2021 May 17;4(1):587. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, USA.

Aggregation and self-sorting of cells in three dimensional cultures have been described for non-neuronal cells. Despite increased interest in engineered neural tissues for treating brain injury or for modeling neurological disorders in vitro, little data is available on collective cell movements in neuronal aggregates. Migration and sorting of cells may alter these constructs' morphology and, therefore, the function of their neural circuitry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neuronal and Glial Distribution of Tau Protein in the Adult Rat and Monkey.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 27;14:607303. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Translational Neuroscience, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI, United States.

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein for which the physiological functions remain a topic of vigorous investigation. Additionally, tau is a central player in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and several frontotemporal dementias. A critical variable to understanding tau in physiological and disease contexts is its normal localization within cells of the adult CNS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The emerging role of FTY720 as a sphingosine 1-phosphate analog for the treatment of ischemic stroke: The cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Brain Behav 2021 May 10:e02179. Epub 2021 May 10.

Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Finding novel and effective drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke is warranted because there is not a definitive treatment for this prevalent disease. Due to the relevance between the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor and several neurological diseases including ischemic stroke, it seems that fingolimod (FTY720), as an agonist of S1P receptor, can be a useful therapeutic strategy in these patients. FTY720 is the first oral drug approved by the US food and drug administration for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tau immunotherapy is associated with glial responses in FTLD-tau.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Translational Neuropathology Research Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 613A Stellar Chance Laboratories, 422 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are neuropathologic subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau inclusions (FTLD-tau), primary tauopathies in which intracellular tau aggregation contributes to neurodegeneration. Gosuranemab (BIIB092) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to N-terminal tau. While Gosuranemab passive immunotherapy trials for PSP failed to demonstrate clinical benefit, Gosuranemab reduced N-terminal tau in the cerebrospinal fluid of transgenic mouse models and PSP patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Formyl Peptide Receptor (FPR)1 Modulation by Resveratrol in an LPS-Induced Neuroinflammatory Animal Model.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 23;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, Section of Human Anatomy, University of Salento, I-73100 Lecce, Italy.

Among therapeutic approaches that have been investigated, targeting of receptors implicated in managing neuroinflammation has been described. One such family of receptors comprises the formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) whose ligands could play a role in host defense. The murine FPR gene family includes at least six members while in humans there are only three. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: One Lactate to Rule Them All.

Neuromolecular Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The Leslie and Susan Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a dynamic process involved in cognitive functions, like learning and memory. Numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate and affect hippocampal neurogenesis. An exceptionally beneficial external factor is physical exercise due to the impact of the lactate accumulated during physical effort on neural plasticity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Instructive roles of astrocytes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity: neuronal activity-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China.

In the adult hippocampus, synaptic plasticity is important for information processing, learning, and memory encoding. Astrocytes, the most common glial cells, play a pivotal role in the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. While astrocytes were initially described as a homogenous cell population, emerging evidence indicates that in the adult hippocampus, astrocytes are highly heterogeneous and can differentially respond to changes in neuronal activity in a subregion-dependent manner to actively modulate synaptic plasticity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Caloric restriction modifies spatiotemporal calcium dynamics in mouse hippocampal astrocytes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jun 6;1868(7):119034. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya street 16/10, Moscow 117997, Russia; Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

We analysed spatiotemporal properties of Ca signals in protoplasmic astrocytes in the CA1 stratum radiatum of hippocampal slices from young (2-3 months old) mice housed in control conditions or exposed to a caloric restriction (CR) diet for one month. The astrocytic Ca events became shorter in duration and smaller in size; they also demonstrated reduced velocity of expansion and shrinkage following CR. At the same time, Ca signals in the astrocytes from the CR animals demonstrated higher amplitude and the faster rise and decay rates. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Friend or Foe?

Cells 2021 Mar 1;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Laboratory for Research on Neurodegenerative Disorders, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a massive neuroinflammatory reaction, which plays a key role in the progression of the disease. One of the major mediators of the inflammatory response is the pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), mainly released within the central nervous system (CNS) by reactive astrocytes and microglia. Increased levels of TNFα and its receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2) have been described in plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and CNS tissue from both ALS patients and transgenic animal models of disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hypoxia-Induced Reactivity of Tumor-Associated Astrocytes Affects Glioma Cell Properties.

Cells 2021 Mar 10;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Division of Translational Cancer Research, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, 223 63 Lund, Sweden.

Glioblastoma is characterized by extensive necrotic areas with surrounding hypoxia. The cancer cell response to hypoxia in these areas is well-described; it involves a metabolic shift and an increase in stem cell-like characteristics. Less is known about the hypoxic response of tumor-associated astrocytes, a major component of the glioma tumor microenvironment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of glial cells in the generation of sex differences in neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Jun 22;196:111473. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Diseases and aging-associated alterations of the nervous system often show sex-specific characteristics. Glial cells play a major role in the endogenous homeostatic response of neural tissue, and sex differences in the glial transcriptome and function have been described. Therefore, the possible role of these cells in the generation of sex differences in pathological alterations of the nervous system is reviewed here. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modeling of Astrocyte Networks: Toward Realistic Topology and Dynamics.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 5;15:645068. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biophysics, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Neuronal firing and neuron-to-neuron synaptic wiring are currently widely described as orchestrated by astrocytes-elaborately ramified glial cells tiling the cortical and hippocampal space into non-overlapping domains, each covering hundreds of individual dendrites and hundreds thousands synapses. A key component to astrocytic signaling is the dynamics of cytosolic Ca which displays multiscale spatiotemporal patterns from short confined elemental Ca events (puffs) to Ca waves expanding through many cells. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of astrocyte morphology, coupling local synaptic activity to astrocytic Ca in perisynaptic astrocytic processes and morphology-defined mechanisms of Ca regulation in a distributed model. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Evernic Acid in an MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 20;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), which suggests that anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory compounds might provide an alternative treatment for PD. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of evernic aid (EA), which was screened from a lichen library provided by the Korean Lichen Research Institute at Sunchon National University. EA is a secondary metabolite generated by lichens, including and , and several studies have described its anticancer, antifungal, and antimicrobial effects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Mast Cell and Astrocyte Hemichannels and Their Role in Alzheimer's Disease, ALS, and Harmful Stress Conditions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 15;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICB), Faculty of Medicine & Faculty of Life Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8370186, Chile.

Considered relevant during allergy responses, numerous observations have also identified mast cells (MCs) as critical effectors during the progression and modulation of several neuroinflammatory conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). MC granules contain a plethora of constituents, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and mitogen factors. The release of these bioactive substances from MCs occurs through distinct pathways that are initiated by the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors/channels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The role of prolactin in central nervous system inflammation.

Rev Neurosci 2021 Apr 1;32(3):323-340. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Unidad de Investigación en Reproducción Humana, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología-Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CDMX, 04510Coyoacan, Mexico.

Prolactin has been shown to favor both the activation and suppression of the microglia and astrocytes, as well as the release of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Prolactin has also been associated with neuronal damage in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and in experimental models of these diseases. However, studies show that prolactin has neuroprotective effects in conditions of neuronal damage and inflammation and may be used as neuroprotector factor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 is implicated in BBB injury via the CCL2-CCR2 axis following acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 Jun 28;27(6):674-686. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, PR China.

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a catastrophic cerebrovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality. Evidence demonstrated that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) plays a vital role in inflammatory damage via the upregulation of CCL2 expression. However, whether S1PR3 is involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown via CCL2 activation after ICH has not been described. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterization of Subcellular Organelles in Cortical Perisynaptic Astrocytes.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 28;14:573944. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Perisynaptic astrocytic processes (PAPs) carry out several different functions, from metabolite clearing to control of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. All these functions are likely orchestrated by complex cellular machinery that resides within the PAPs and relies on a fine interplay between multiple subcellular components. However, traditional transmission electron microscopy (EM) studies have found that PAPs are remarkably poor of intracellular organelles, failing to explain how such a variety of PAP functions are achieved in the absence of a proportional complex network of intracellular structures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Glial Cells and Their Contribution to the Mechanisms of Action of Cannabidiol in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Front Pharmacol 2020 4;11:618065. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with a broad-range of therapeutic potential in several conditions, including neurological (epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic and ischemic brain injuries) and psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, addiction, major depressive disorder, and anxiety). The pharmacological mechanisms responsible for these effects are still unclear, and more than 60 potential molecular targets have been described. Regarding neuropsychiatric disorders, most studies investigating these mechanisms have focused on neuronal cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Regulation of GFAP Expression.

ASN Neuro 2021 Jan-Dec;13:1759091420981206

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

Expression of the GFAP gene has attracted considerable attention because its onset is a marker for astrocyte development, its upregulation is a marker for reactive gliosis, and its predominance in astrocytes provides a tool for their genetic manipulation. The literature on GFAP regulation is voluminous, as almost any perturbation of development or homeostasis in the CNS will lead to changes in its expression. In this review, we limit our discussion to mechanisms proposed to regulate GFAP synthesis through a direct interaction with its gene or mRNA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Reactive astrocyte nomenclature, definitions, and future directions.

Nat Neurosci 2021 03 15;24(3):312-325. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Dpto. Biología Celular, Genética y Fisiología, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga-IBIMA, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.

Reactive astrocytes are astrocytes undergoing morphological, molecular, and functional remodeling in response to injury, disease, or infection of the CNS. Although this remodeling was first described over a century ago, uncertainties and controversies remain regarding the contribution of reactive astrocytes to CNS diseases, repair, and aging. It is also unclear whether fixed categories of reactive astrocytes exist and, if so, how to identify them. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dectin-1 limits autoimmune neuroinflammation and promotes myeloid cell-astrocyte crosstalk via Card9-independent expression of Oncostatin M.

Immunity 2021 Mar 12;54(3):484-498.e8. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Pathologic roles of innate immunity in neurologic disorders are well described, but their beneficial aspects are less understood. Dectin-1, a C-type lectin receptor (CLR), is largely known to induce inflammation. Here, we report that Dectin-1 limited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), while its downstream signaling molecule, Card9, promoted the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Coding and Small Non-coding Hippocampal Synaptic RNAome.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 10;58(6):2940-2953. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Systems Medicine and Epigenetics, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Von Siebold Str. 3a, 37075, Goettingen, Germany.

Neurons are highly compartmentalized cells that depend on local protein synthesis. Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) have thus been detected in neuronal dendrites, and more recently in the pre- and postsynaptic compartments as well. Other RNA species such as microRNAs have also been described at synapses where they are believed to control mRNA availability for local translation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microglial Metabolism After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury - Overlooked Bystanders or Active Participants?

Front Neurol 2020 25;11:626999. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Microglia play an integral role in brain development but are also crucial for repair and recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI induces an intense innate immune response in the immature, developing brain that is associated with acute and chronic changes in microglial function. These changes contribute to long-lasting consequences on development, neurologic function, and behavior. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Inferences of glia-mediated control in Caenorhabditis elegans.

J Neurosci Res 2021 May 8;99(5):1191-1206. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Astrocytes modulate synaptic transmission; yet, it remains unclear how glia influence complex behaviors. Here, we explore the effects of Caenorhabditis elegans astrocyte-like cephalic glia (CEP ) and the glia-specific bHLH transcription factor HLH-17 on mating behavior and the defecation motor program (DMP). In C. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF