4,570 results match your criteria astrocytes alzheimer's

Shenqi Yizhi Granule attenuates Aβ induced cognitive dysfunction via inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 activated astrocyte reactivity.

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 8:111400. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Meterial Medica Integration and Transformation for Brain Disorders, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, PR China; School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, PR China. Electronic address:

Shenqi Yizhi Granule (SYG), a modern preparation herbs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved to be effective against Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, APP/PS1 mice and 5XFAD transgenic mice. But the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. Increasing evidence supports the crucial role of astrocyte reactivity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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Growing role of S100B protein as a putative therapeutic target for neurological -and nonneurological- disorders.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Translational Medicine and Surgery, Section of General Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy; Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli 1-8, 00168 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

S100B is a calcium-binding protein mainly expressed by astrocytes, but also localized in other definite neural and extra-neural cell types. While its presence in biological fluids is widely recognized as a reliable biomarker of active injury, growing evidence now indicates that high levels of S100B are suggestive of pathogenic processes in different neural, but also extra-neural, disorders. Indeed, modulation of S100B levels correlates with the occurrence of clinical and/or toxic parameters in experimental models of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, acute neural injury, inflammatory bowel disease, uveal and retinal disorders, obesity, diabetes and cancer, thus directly linking the levels of S100B to pathogenic mechanisms. Read More

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Astrocyte and glutamate involvement in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in Alzheimer's disease.

Epilepsia 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, The Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) can increase the risk of epilepsy by up to 10-fold compared to healthy age-matched controls. However, the pathological mechanisms that underlie this increased risk are poorly understood. Because disruption in brain glutamate homeostasis has been implicated in both AD and epilepsy, this might play a mechanistic role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in AD. Read More

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Methylation as a key regulator of Tau aggregation and neuronal health in Alzheimer's disease.

Cell Commun Signal 2021 May 7;19(1):51. Epub 2021 May 7.

Neurobiology Group, Division of Biochemical Sciences, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory (CSIR-NCL), Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, 411008,, Pune, India.

Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease involves abnormal aggregation and accumulation of toxic proteins aggregates. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the causative proteins play an important role in the etiology of disease as they could either slow down or accelerate the disease progression. Alzheimer disease is associated with the aggregation and accumulation of two major protein aggregates-intracellular neurofibrillary tangles made up of microtubule-associated protein Tau and extracellular Amyloid-β plaques. Read More

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Cell-Type-Specific Gene Modules Related to the Regional Homogeneity of Spontaneous Brain Activity and Their Associations With Common Brain Disorders.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:639527. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Radiology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Mapping gene expression profiles to neuroimaging phenotypes in the same anatomical space provides opportunities to discover molecular substrates for human brain functional properties. Here, we aimed to identify cell-type-specific gene modules associated with the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of spontaneous brain activity and their associations with brain disorders. Fourteen gene modules were consistently associated with ReHo in the three datasets, five of which showed cell-type-specific expression (one neuron-endothelial module, one neuron module, one astrocyte module and two microglial modules) in two independent cell series of the human cerebral cortex. Read More

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Oral Administration of Gintonin Protects the Brains of Mice against A-Induced Alzheimer Disease Pathology: Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 16;2021:6635552. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Life Science and Applied Life Science (BK21 FOUR), College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.

The study was aimed at analyzing the protective effects of gintonin in an amyloid beta- (A-) induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. For the development of the A-induced AD mouse model, the amyloid- (A) peptide was stereotaxically injected into the brains of mice. Subsequently, gintonin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day/per oral (p. Read More

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Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) as a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 May 4;13(1):94. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center (UMG), Georg-August-University, Von-Siebold-Str. 5, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with extracellular amyloid-β peptide deposition and progressive neuron loss. Strong evidence supports that neuroinflammatory changes such as the activation of astrocytes and microglia cells are important in the disease process. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that has recently been associated with an emerging role in neuroinflammation, which has been reported to be increased in post-mortem brain samples from AD and Parkinson's disease patients. Read More

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Oxymatrine Extends Survival by Attenuating Neuroinflammation in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Neuroscience 2021 May 1;465:11-22. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 215 Heping West Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China; Beijing Geriatric Healthcare Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 45 Changchun Street, Beijing 100053, China. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the leading causes of death associated with neurodegenerative diseases worldwide, and the progression of the disease is characteristically accompanied by severe neuroinflammation. Neuroprotective effects of oxymatrine (OMT) were shown to be due to reduced neuroinflammation in the mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The present study investigated whether OMT has a therapeutic potential in transgenic SOD1-G93A (TgSOD1-G93A) mice. Read More

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Microglia Specific Drug Targeting Using Natural Products for the Regulation of Redox Imbalance in Neurodegeneration.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:654489. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Microglia, a type of innate immune cell of the brain, regulates neurogenesis, immunological surveillance, redox imbalance, cognitive and behavioral changes under normal and pathological conditions like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injury. Microglia produces a wide variety of cytokines to maintain homeostasis. It also participates in synaptic pruning and regulation of neurons overproduction by phagocytosis of neural precursor cells. Read More

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Novel botanical therapeutic NB-02 effectively treats Alzheimer's neuropathophysiology in an APP/PS1 mouse model.

eNeuro 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurology, MassGeneral Institute of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 114 Sixteenth St., Charlestown, MA 02129.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder and a major cause of dementia. Some of the hallmarks of AD include presence of amyloid plaques in brain parenchyma, calcium dysregulation within individual neurons, and neuroinflammation. A promising therapeutic would reverse or stymie these pathophysiologies in an animal model of AD. Read More

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Towards physiologically relevant human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) models of Parkinson's disease.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Apr 29;12(1):253. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Nash Family Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, 10029, NY, US.

The derivation of human embryonic stem cells followed by the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells and leaps in genome editing approaches have continuously fueled enthusiasm for the development of new models of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is characterized by the relative selective loss of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) in specific areas of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). While degeneration in late stages can be widespread, there is stereotypic early degeneration of these uniquely vulnerable neurons. Read More

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Blood-Brain Barrier and Neurovascular Unit In Vitro Models for Studying Mitochondria-Driven Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Research Institute of Molecular Medicine and Pathobiochemistry, Prof. V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, 660022 Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

Pathophysiology of chronic neurodegeneration is mainly based on complex mechanisms related to aberrant signal transduction, excitation/inhibition imbalance, excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction, oxidative stress, proteotoxicity and protein misfolding, local insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, excessive cell death, development of glia-supported neuroinflammation, and failure of neurogenesis. These mechanisms tightly associate with dramatic alterations in the structure and activity of the neurovascular unit (NVU) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). NVU is an ensemble of brain cells (brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs), astrocytes, pericytes, neurons, and microglia) serving for the adjustment of cell-to-cell interactions, metabolic coupling, local microcirculation, and neuronal excitability to the actual needs of the brain. Read More

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Precision Nutrition for Alzheimer's Prevention in Carriers.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 19;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian, New York, NY 10065, USA.

The allele is the most well-studied genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, a condition that is increasing in prevalence and remains without a cure. Precision nutrition targeting metabolic pathways altered by provides a tool for the potential prevention of disease. However, no long-term human studies have been conducted to determine effective nutritional protocols for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease in carriers. Read More

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Alternative Targets to Fight Alzheimer's Disease: Focus on Astrocytes.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 19;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "Vittorio Erspamer", SAPIENZA University of Rome-P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy.

The available treatments for patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not curative. Numerous clinical trials have failed during the past decades. Therefore, scientists need to explore new avenues to tackle this disease. Read More

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A New Tool to Study Parkinsonism in the Context of Aging: MPTP Intoxication in a Natural Model of Multimorbidity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience (NiCE), Institute for Aging Research (IUIE), School of Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

The diurnal rodent () is considered an attractive natural model for Alzheimer's disease and other human age-related features. However, it has not been explored so far if the could be used as a model to study Parkinson's disease. To test this idea, 10 adult male were divided into control group and MPTP-intoxicated animals. Read More

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Endothelin ET Receptor-Mediated Astrocytic Activation: Pathological Roles in Brain Disorders.

Yutaka Koyama

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyama-Kita Higashinada, Kobe 668-8558, Japan.

In brain disorders, reactive astrocytes, which are characterized by hypertrophy of the cell body and proliferative properties, are commonly observed. As reactive astrocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of several brain disorders, the control of astrocytic function has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy, and target molecules to effectively control astrocytic functions have been investigated. The production of brain endothelin-1 (ET-1), which increases in brain disorders, is involved in the pathophysiological response of the nervous system. Read More

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Utilising Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Neurodegenerative Disease Research: Focus on Glia.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a self-renewable pool of cells derived from an organism's somatic cells. These can then be programmed to other cell types, including neurons. Use of iPSCs in research has been two-fold as they have been used for human disease modelling as well as for the possibility to generate new therapies. Read More

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Pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 signaling links cognitive impairments and peripheral metabolic alterations in Alzheimer's disease.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Apr 28;11(1):251. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Medical Biochemistry Leopoldo de Meis, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with memory impairment and altered peripheral metabolism. Mounting evidence indicates that abnormal signaling in a brain-periphery metabolic axis plays a role in AD pathophysiology. The activation of pro-inflammatory pathways in the brain, including the interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway, comprises a potential point of convergence between memory dysfunction and metabolic alterations in AD that remains to be better explored. Read More

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Network-based analysis on genetic variants reveals the immunological mechanism underlying Alzheimer's disease.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070, China.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the impairment of cognitive function and loss of memory. Previous studies indicate an essential role of immune response in AD, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we obtained 1664 credible risk variants (CRVs) based on the most significant SNP detected by International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project, from which 99 genes (CRVs-related genes) were identified. Read More

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P2X4 receptor participates in autophagy regulation in Parkinson's disease.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Dec;16(12):2505-2511

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University; Neurological Regulation Institute of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China.

Dysfunctional autophagy often occurs during the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The purinergic P2X4 receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel that is widely expressed in the microglia, astrocytes, and neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. P2X4R is involved in the regulation of cellular excitability, synaptic transmission, and neuroinflammation. Read More

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December 2021

Blocking microglial activation of reactive astrocytes is neuroprotective in models of Alzheimer's disease.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 Apr 26;9(1):78. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Russell H, Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of age-related dementia. Increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation mediated by microglia and astrocytes contributes to disease progression and severity in AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. During AD progression, resident microglia undergo proinflammatory activation, resulting in an increased capacity to convert resting astrocytes to reactive astrocytes. Read More

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Microglia-Derived Interleukin 23: A Crucial Cytokine in Alzheimer's Disease?

Front Neurol 2021 7;12:639353. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Neuronal cell death, amyloid β plaque formation and development of neurofibrillary tangles are among the characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to neurodegeneration, inflammatory processes such as activation of microglia and astrocytes are crucial in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Cytokines are essential immune mediators of the immune response in AD. Read More

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GLP-1 improves the neuronal supportive ability of astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease by regulating mitochondrial dysfunction via the cAMP/PKA pathway.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 22;188:114578. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine Pharmacology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China. Electronic address:

The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was shown to have neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Astrocytic mitochondrial abnormalities have been revealed to constitute important pathologies. Read More

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Endothelial ether lipids link the vasculature to blood pressure, behavior, and neurodegeneration.

J Lipid Res 2021 Apr 21:100079. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Departments of Cell Biology & Physiology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Vascular disease contributes to neurodegeneration, which is associated with decreased blood pressure in older humans. Plasmalogens, ether phospholipids produced by peroxisomes, are decreased in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanistic links between ether phospholipids, blood pressure, and neurodegeneration are not fully understood. Read More

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Astroglial tracer BU99008 detects multiple binding sites in Alzheimer's disease brain.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

With reactive astrogliosis being established as one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is high interest in developing novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracers to detect early astrocyte reactivity. BU99008, a novel astrocytic PET ligand targeting imidazoline-2 binding sites (IBS) on astrocytes, might be a suitable candidate. Here we demonstrate for the first time that BU99008 could visualise reactive astrogliosis in postmortem AD brains and propose a multiple binding site [Super-high-affinity (SH), High-affinity (HA) and Low-affinity (LA)] model for BU99008, IBS specific ligands (2-BFI and BU224) and deprenyl in AD and control (CN) brains. Read More

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The Astrogenic Balance in the Aging Brain.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Neuroscience Program, Biology Department, University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT 06117, United States.

An inverse correlation between the incidence of cancer and neurodegenerative disease has been observed, with the prevalence of cancer peaking around 60 years of age, then slowly tapering off as neurodegenerative diseases increase in the elderly. Although the diseases rarely occur concurrently, the same genes are differentially expressed between the diseases, with four transcription factors found to be in common for their expression. In the brain, mature astrocytes are the origin of astrocytoma, which make up 58. Read More

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Ginkgolide B‑induced AMPK pathway activation protects astrocytes by regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and energy metabolism induced by Aβ1‑42.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jun 21;23(6). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, Liaoning 116034, P.R. China.

Ginkgolide B (GB), the diterpenoid lactone compound isolated from the extracts of leaves, significantly improves cognitive impairment, but its potential pharmacological effect on astrocytes induced by β‑amyloid (Aβ) remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of GB on astrocytes with Aβ‑induced apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Astrocytes obtained from Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, Aβ, GB and GB + compound C groups. Read More

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Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: One Lactate to Rule Them All.

Neuromolecular Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The Leslie and Susan Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a dynamic process involved in cognitive functions, like learning and memory. Numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate and affect hippocampal neurogenesis. An exceptionally beneficial external factor is physical exercise due to the impact of the lactate accumulated during physical effort on neural plasticity. Read More

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Inhibition of CD38 and supplementation of nicotinamide riboside ameliorate lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial and astrocytic neuroinflammation by increasing NAD.

J Neurochem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroanatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Neuroinflammation is initiated by activation of the brain's innate immune system in response to an inflammatory challenge. Insufficient control of neuroinflammation leads to enhanced or prolonged pathology in various neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ) plays critical roles in cellular energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis. Read More

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Instructive roles of astrocytes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity: neuronal activity-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China.

In the adult hippocampus, synaptic plasticity is important for information processing, learning, and memory encoding. Astrocytes, the most common glial cells, play a pivotal role in the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. While astrocytes were initially described as a homogenous cell population, emerging evidence indicates that in the adult hippocampus, astrocytes are highly heterogeneous and can differentially respond to changes in neuronal activity in a subregion-dependent manner to actively modulate synaptic plasticity. Read More

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