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Association between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene Polymorphism with the risk of Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 53 Studies.

Gene 2021 May 5:145696. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Hemorrhagic stroke (HS) results in significant mortality and disability worldwide. Angiotensin Convertase Enzyme (ACE) is responsible for blood pressure regulation and vascular homeostasis. Our objective was to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis for ascertaining the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with HS since a number of studies depicted inconclusive evidence. Read More

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Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Trauma Among Young People Who Offend: A Systematic Literature Review.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2021 May 7:15248380211013132. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

This systematic review synthesized current knowledge about the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among young people known to have offended and examined evidence of associations between ACEs, trauma symptoms, and offending behavior. A systematic search of English-language, peer-reviewed studies published from the year 2000 onwards was conducted. A final pool of 124 studies that reported quantitative data were included in the review. Read More

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Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and obstructive sleep apnoea in a Chinese population: A meta-analysis.

J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2020 Apr-Jun;21(2):1470320320934716. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ShenZhen Hospital of Southern Medical University, PR China.

Introduction: Many studies have investigated the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme () gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and susceptibility to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, few have confirmed the relationship between ACE and OSA in the Chinese population. We performed a meta-analysis of studies relating the I/D polymorphism to the risk of OSA in a Chinese population. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences and adult self-harm in a female forensic population.

BJPsych Bull 2021 May 7:1-5. Epub 2021 May 7.

South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Aims And Method: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among patients in a female forensic psychiatric in-patient medium-secure unit, and to analyse the link between ACEs, adulthood self-harm and associated comorbidities and risk factors. The study used a cross-sectional design, with data gathered from the anonymised electronic health records of patients.

Results: It was found that there was a high prevalence of both ACEs and self-harm among this patient group, and that there was a relationship between the two; those with more ACEs were more likely to have self-harmed during adulthood. Read More

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Immunoallergic disorders in the elderly.

Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Immunoallergology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal.

Summary: Although allergic diseases have become increasingly prevalent in the elderly, there are few data on this population. Through a retrospective analysis of the electronic medical records of patients aged 65 years and above followed in our Immunoallergology Unit, we aimed to characterize the immunoallergic diseases of the elderly. The most common disorders were respiratory diseases (n = 185; 50%), mucocutaneous diseases (n = 113; 31%), drug allergy (n = 31; 8%), food allergy (n = 9; 2%), and anaphylaxis (n = 9; 2%). Read More

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Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Adulthood: Examining Potential Psychological, Biological, and Behavioral Mediators in the Whitehall II Cohort Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 May 3:e019013. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychiatry McGill University Montreal Canada.

Background This study investigated potential psycho-bio-behavioral mediators of the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood. Methods and Results Participants were 5610 British civil servants (mean age, 55.5; 28% women) from the Whitehall II cohort study without CHD at baseline in 1997 to 1999 (wave 5) when retrospective data on the number of ACEs were collected via questionnaire (range, 0-8). Read More

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Comparison of five thyroid ultrasound stratification systems for differentiation of benign and malignant nodules and to avoid biopsy using histology as reference standard.

Endocr Pract 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University School of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey.

Objective: We aimed at to compare the thyroid ultrasound risk stratification systems (RSSs) of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS), European (EU) TI-RADS, Korean (K) TI-RADS, and American Thyroid association (ATA) guidelines and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME) guidelines to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules and to avoid unnecessary FNA.

Methods: The records of 1143 nodules ≥1 cm which underwent fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and thyroidectomy between 2012 and 2020 at our institution were reviewed. Ultrasound categories and FNA recommendation indications of five international RSSs were compared with histopathological finding as benign or malignant. Read More

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Evolutionary genetic algorithm identifies as a potential predictive biomarker for immune-checkpoint therapy in colorectal cancer.

NAR Genom Bioinform 2021 Jun 20;3(2):lqab016. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Patrick G Johnston Centre for Cancer Research, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 7AE, Northern Ireland.

Identifying robust predictive biomarkers to stratify colorectal cancer (CRC) patients based on their response to immune-checkpoint therapy is an area of unmet clinical need. Our evolutionary algorithm Atlas Correlation Explorer (ACE) represents a novel approach for mining The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data for clinically relevant associations. We deployed ACE to identify candidate predictive biomarkers of response to immune-checkpoint therapy in CRC. Read More

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Relationship between heart failure and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD.

Thorax 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK

Rationale: Heart failure (HF) management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often delayed or suboptimal.

Objectives: To examine the effect of HF and HF medication use on moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations.

Methods And Measurements: Retrospective cohort studies from 2006 to 2016 using nationally representative English primary care electronic healthcare records linked to national hospital and mortality data. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress among higher education students in Southeast Nigeria: an institutional-based cross-sectional study.

Arch Public Health 2021 Apr 29;79(1):62. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Background: Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) constitutes public health problems linked to adverse mental outcomes such as psychological distress during adulthood. This study examines the prevalence of ACEs and psychological distress and explores the association between ACEs and psychological distress and demographic factors among young adults.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 330 students from May 2018 to July 2018. Read More

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Key genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin system and left ventricular mass in a cohort of Polish patients with heart failure.

Kardiol Pol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Background: Heart failure (HF) is a complex disease that is under the control of different physiological systems. Left ventricular mass (LVM) is a strong predictor of HF. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to the pathogenesis of HF and LVM. Read More

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Antihypertensive Drug Use and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Death among Finnish Ovarian Cancer Patients-A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33520 Tampere, Finland.

Ovarian cancer (OC) has a poor prognosis. Hypertension may be a prognostic factor for OC, but it is unclear whether antihypertensive (anti-HT) drug use of modifies OC prognosis. We performed a population-based analysis assessing the effect of anti-HT drug use on OC mortality. Read More

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Hypertension in African Populations: Review and Computational Insights.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 6;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa.

Hypertension (HTN) is a persistent public health problem affecting approximately 1.3 billion individuals globally. Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined as high blood pressure (BP) in a hypertensive patient that remains above goal despite use of ≥3 antihypertensive agents of different classes including a diuretic. Read More

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Correlation between serum renin-angiotensin system (RAS) level and depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 17;28(4):2146-2154. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Neurology, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China.

To investigate the correlation between serum renin-angiotensin system (RAS) level and Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Parkinson disease patients (PD). A number of 90 PD patients (47 males and 43 females) were collected on an empty stomach 12 h after stopping taking anti-PD medicines. ELISA has been found in Serum RAS ((Ang) I, Ang II, Ang (1-7), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2). Read More

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Association of reperfusion success and emboli in new territories with long term mortality after mechanical thrombectomy.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Background: The degree of reperfusion is the most important modifiable predictor of 3 month functional outcome and mortality in ischemic stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Whether the beneficial effect of reperfusion also leads to a reduction in long term mortality is unknown.

Methods: Patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy between January 2010 and December 2018 were included. Read More

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Risk Assessment Using the Association Between Renin-Angiotensin Genes Polymorphisms and Coronary Artery Disease.

Cureus 2021 Mar 24;13(3):e14083. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Psychiatry, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences & Psychology, Fairfield, USA.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease that involves genetic and environmental interaction. In addition to the well-known CAD risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis, it has a genetic component that predisposes to its occurrence even in young people. One of the most commonly studied genes that increase the susceptibility to CAD is renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes polymorphisms mainly angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) polymorphisms, angiotensinogen polymorphisms, angiotensin- II type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms, and many other genes. Read More

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Will a little change do you good? A putative role of polymorphisms in COVID-19.

Immunol Lett 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Laboratório de Virologia Básica e Aplicada, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, CEP: 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; Biomarkers Research Group, Instituto René Rachou, Osvaldo Cruz Foundation - FIOCRUZ-MINAS, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

An alarming disease caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) named COVID-19 has emerged as an unprecedented public health problem and ignited a world health crisis. As opposed to what was believed at the beginning of the pandemic, the virus has not only spread but persevere causing secondary waves and challenging the concept of herd immunity against viral infections. While the majority of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals may remain asymptomatic, a fraction of individuals may develop low to high-grade severity signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Read More

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The contribution of individual mental health and socioeconomic status to the evolution of elderly patients with chronic heart failure.

Riv Psichiatr 2021 Jan-Feb;56(2):107-112

County Clinical Emergency Hospital "Pius Brinzeu" Timisoara - Neuroscience Department VIII, Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timisoara.

Aim: The purpose of this article is to assess the impact of comorbid depression on the outcome of elderly patients diagnosed with chronic heart failure (CHF).

Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of the outcomes of 251 patients, hospitalized throughout 2019 for an exacerbation of CHF. The sample was divided into two groups: group A - 153 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD); group B - 98 patients without clinical depression. Read More

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Racial/Ethnic Inequities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and Selected Health-Related Behaviors and Problems Among Maryland Adolescents.

Health Promot Pract 2021 Apr 24:15248399211008238. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

We examined racial/ethnic inequities in the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and examined the association between ACEs and selected health-related behaviors and problems. Data for this cross-sectional study come from the 2018 Maryland Youth Risk Behavior Survey/Youth Tobacco Survey, a statewide survey of high school students (n = 40,188). ACEs included caregiver verbal abuse and household food insecurity, substance use or gambling, mental illness, and involvement with the criminal justice system. Read More

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The Intergenerational Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Hispanic Families: The Mediational Roles of Parental Depression and Parent-Adolescent Communication.

Fam Process 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Schwartz Center for Nursing and Health Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA.

Parental exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has been documented as a strong risk factor for subsequent externalizing behaviors in their youth. Although studies have investigated ACEs and their intergenerational association with youth externalizing behaviors, this association has not been investigated in Hispanic families. Additionally, substantial gaps in the literature exist explaining the mechanisms by which this association occurs. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences in New Zealand and subsequent victimization in adulthood: Findings from a population-based study.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 18;117:105067. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

School of Māori Studies and School of Pacific Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are widespread and are associated with adverse outcomes in later life, yet few studies have explored their prevalence and consequences in New Zealand.

Objectives: To provide prevalence estimates of ACEs in New Zealand using a large sample of adults, and to explore the associations between ACEs and experience of violence by intimate partners and non-partners in adulthood.

Participants And Setting: 2,887 participants (1464 female, 1423 male) from the 2019 New Zealand Family Violence Survey, a population based study conducted in New Zealand between March 2017-March 2019. Read More

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Classical and Counter-regulatory Renin-angiotensin System: potential key roles in COVID-19 pathophysiology.

CJC Open 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

In the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor for cell entry leading to ACE-2 dysfunction and downregulation which disturbs the balance between classical and counter-regulatory renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in favor of classical RAS. RAS dysregulation is one of the major characteristics of several cardiovascular diseases, thus adjustment of this system is the main therapeutic target. RAS inhibitors - particularly angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) - are commonly used for treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Role of Cigarette Smoke on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Protein Membrane Expression in Bronchial Epithelial Cells Using an Air-Liquid Interface Model.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:652102. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Prevalence studies of current smoking, among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, demonstrated an unexpectedly low prevalence among patients with COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of smoke from cigarettes on ACE-2 in bronchial epithelial cells. Normal bronchial epithelial cells (H292) were exposed to smoke by an air-liquid-interface (ALI) system and ACE-2 membrane protein expression was evaluated after 24 h from exposure. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences and co-occurring psychological distress and substance abuse among juvenile offenders: the role of protective factors.

Public Health 2021 Apr 12;194:42-47. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate associations between cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), protective factors, and co-occurrence among male and female juvenile offenders.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Validated measures of ACEs, internal resilience, external youth assets, psychological distress, and substance abuse were collected from 429 youths involved in the juvenile justice system in Nevada. Read More

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[Association of AGT, ACE, NOS3, TNF, MMP9, CYBA polymorphism with subclinical arterial wall changes].

Kardiologiia 2021 Mar 30;61(3):57-65. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Medical Research and Educational Center of the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Aim    Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, decreased nitric oxide production, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress result in subclinical changes in the arterial wall, which favor the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The effect of allelic gene variants that encode the proteins participating in pathogenetic pathways of age-associated diseases with subclinical changes in the arterial wall [increased pulse wave velocity (PWV), increased intima-media thickness, endothelial dysfunction (ED), presence of atherosclerotic plaques (ASP)] are understudied. This study analyzed the relationship between AGT, ACE, NOS3 TNF, MMP9, and CYBA gene polymorphism and the presence of subclinical changes in the arterial wall, including the dependence on risk factors for CVD, in arbitrarily healthy people of various age. Read More

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Social consequences and contexts of adverse childhood experiences.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 3;277:113897. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Departments of Comparative Human Development and Sociology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Institute for the Science and Art of Learning and Teaching, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines. Electronic address:

Adverse childhood experiences' (ACEs) negative consequences on health, education, and life opportunities are often explained through the neurodevelopmental changes in a person's stress reactivity and coping, which contribute to the adoption of health-damaging and antisocial behaviors. However, such focus on the biological dimension eclipses the equally important social dimension of adversity, in particular, how adversities at home can influence association with peers who exhibit and can exacerbate negative behaviors like early and binge drinking, illegal drug use, and gang involvement. More than the consequences for peer formation, this study also investigates the contexts in which ACEs are most predictive. Read More

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Examination of Caregiver Social Factors and Its Influence on Low-Acuity Pediatric Emergency Department Utilization.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

From the *Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia †Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania ‡Center for Violence Prevention, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Objectives: Social factors, such as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), often influence health care utilization. Our study explores the association between caregiver social factors and low-acuity pediatric emergency department (ED) utilization, with the hypothesis that caregivers with high ACE exposure may use ED services more frequently for low-acuity complaints.

Methods: In this case-control study, we performed surveys of caregivers with children aged 1 to 12 years registered for care in our pediatric ED. Read More

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Introducing the tablet-based Oxford Cognitive Screen-Plus (OCS-Plus) as an assessment tool for subtle cognitive impairments.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):8000. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, New Radcliffe House, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Oxford, OX2 6AE, UK.

Here, we present the Oxford Cognitive Screen-Plus, a computerised tablet-based screen designed to briefly assess domain-general cognition and provide more fine-grained measures of memory and executive function. The OCS-Plus was designed to sensitively screen for cognitive impairments and provide a differentiation between memory and executive deficits. The OCS-Plus contains 10 subtasks and requires on average 24 min to complete. Read More

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Multiomics integrative analysis identifies allele-specific blood biomarkers associated to Alzheimer's disease etiopathogenesis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 12;13(7):9277-9329. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, currently affecting 35 million people worldwide. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the major risk factor for sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD), which comprises over 95% of AD cases, increasing the risk of AD 4-12 fold. Despite this, the role of APOE in AD pathogenesis is still a mystery. Read More

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Free SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein S1 Particles May Play a Role in the Pathogenesis of COVID-19 Infection.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Mar;86(3):257-261

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117312, Russia.

The imbalance of the renin-angiotensin system is currently considered as a potentially important factor of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease. It has been shown previously in the murine model, that the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the cell surface is downregulated in response to the infection by SARS-CoV virus or recombinant spike protein (S protein) alone. In the case of natural infection, circulation of the S protein in a soluble form is unlikely. Read More

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