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Prevalence of GII.4 Sydney Norovirus Strains and Associated Factors of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children: 2019/2020 Season in Guangzhou, China.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Medical Genetic Centre, Guangdong Women and Children's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 511442, People's Republic of China.

Norovirus, the leading cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, is constantly mutating. Continuous monitoring of the evolution of epidemic genotypes and emergence of novel genotypes is, therefore, necessary. This study determined the prevalence and clinical characteristics of norovirus strains in AGE in Guangzhou, China in 2019/2020 season. Read More

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Expansion and Accelerated Evolution of 9-Exon Odorant Receptors in Polistes Paper Wasps.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Laboratory for Animal Social Evolution and Recognition, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Independent origins of sociality in bees and ants are associated with independent expansions of particular odorant receptor (OR) gene subfamilies. In ants, one clade within the OR gene family, the 9-exon subfamily, has dramatically expanded. These receptors detect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), key social signaling molecules in insects. Read More

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February 2021

Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC) for the Treatment of Excessive Dynamic Airway Collapse (EDAC): An Animal Pilot Study.

J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 2021 Jul;28(3):221-227

Division of Thoracic Surgery and Interventional Pulmonology.

Background: Surgical stabilization of the airway through tracheobronchoplasty (TBP) is the current treatment modality for patients with severe symptomatic excessive dynamic airway collapse. However, TBP is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Bronchoscopic treatment of the posterior membrane using argon plasma coagulation (APC) may be a safer alternative to TBP in highly selected patients. Read More

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Understanding cost-utility analysis studies in the trauma and orthopaedic surgery literature.

EFORT Open Rev 2021 May 4;6(5):305-315. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Cost-utility analysis (CUA) studies are becoming increasingly important due to the need to reduce healthcare spending, especially in the field of trauma and orthopaedics.There is an increasing need for trauma and orthopaedic surgeons to understand these economic evaluations to ensure informed cost-effective decisions can be made to benefit the patient and funding body.This review discusses the fundamental principles required to understand CUA studies in the literature, including a discussion of the different methods employed to assess the health outcomes associated with different management options and the various approaches used to calculate the costs involved. Read More

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Place Attachment and Views on Tree Management.

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:639830. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Faculty of Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.

Few studies have investigated relational environmental views of different stakeholder groups. In this study, we investigated how residents of rural and urban municipalities view the management of trees (who should decide about trees' removal - the landowner, or the municipality), which provides a various range of ecosystem services and the extent that place attachment as a relational variable affects these views. The analysis was based on 231 questionnaires conducted in two Polish municipalities: one rural (Nysa) and one urban (Racibórz). Read More

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Determinants of economic motivations for food choice: insights for the understanding of consumer behaviour.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 21:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Agricultural School and CERNAS-IPV Research Centre, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Viseu, Portugal.

Food consumption involves several dimensions, being some of them directly associated with the consumers' characteristics. The interrelationships between these domains impact consumer behaviour for food choice and the consequent decisions for food consumption. In these frameworks, economic motivations are determinant. Read More

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Clinical features and treatment of bronchial rupture of pulmonary hydatid cyst in children: a retrospective study of 36 patients.

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Faculté de Médecine Et de Pharmacie, Université Mohammed V, Rabat, Morocco.

Background: The aim of this study was to review the clinical symptoms, radiological data, surgical techniques, and postoperative complications associated with bronchial rupture of pulmonary hydatid cysts in children and evaluate the results of surgical treatment.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study of 40 surgical procedures performed for pulmonary hydatid cyst ruptured in the bronchial tree in 36 children (22 boys and 14 girls), aged between 7 and 18 from January 2009 to December 2019.

Results: The study included 36 patients with a mean age of 14. Read More

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Eupomatenes A - E: Neolignans isolated from the leaves of Australian rainforest plant Eupomatia laurina.

Fitoterapia 2021 Jun 17:104972. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown Campus, Sydney, Australia.

A detailed phytochemical investigation of the leaves of the Australian rainforest tree Eupomatia laurina, led to the discovery of five new neolignans, eupomatenes A - E and eight known compounds, eupomatenoid-2, trans-(2'S)-2-[1'-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2'-yl]anethol, chlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid-methyl ester, tyrosol-1-O-β-xylopyranosyl-1(1 → 6)-O-β-glucopyranoside, leucoside, kaempferol-3-O-neohesperidoside, and pachypodol. The structures of all the compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis. All compounds were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties by assessing their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production and TNF- α release in RAW 264. Read More

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Biorefinery potential of sustainable municipal wastewater treatment using fast-growing willow.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;792:148146. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

University of Montreal, Institut de recherche en biologie végétale (IRBV), 4101 Sherbrooke Est, Montreal, QC H1X 2B2, Canada; Montreal Botanical Garden, 4101 Sherbrooke Est, Montreal, QC H1X 2B2, Canada.

The use of willow plantations can be a sustainable approach for treating primary municipal wastewater, potentially reducing both the environmental and economic burdens associated with conventional treatment. However, the impact of wastewater irrigation upon the willow biorefinery potential has not yet been established. To investigate this effect, three-year-old field grown willows were harvested from plots kept as either controls or irrigated with primary municipal wastewater effluent at 29. Read More

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The Biogeography of Dromiciops in Southern South America: middle Miocene transgressions, speciation and associations with Nothofagus.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Jun 16:107234. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 6513677, Chile; Millenium Institute for Integrative Biology (iBio), Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

The current distribution of the flora and fauna of southern South America is the result of drastic geological events that occurred during the last 20 million years, including marine transgressions, glaciations and active vulcanism. All these have been associated with fragmentation, isolation and subsequent expansion of the biota, south of 35°S, such as the temperate rainforest. This forest is mostly dominated by Nothofagus trees and is the habitat of the relict marsupial monito del monte, genus Dromiciops, sole survivor of the order Microbiotheria. Read More

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Color Polymorphism is a Driver of Diversification in the Lizard Family Lacertidae.

Syst Biol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Life & Environmental Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced 5400 N. Lake Rd., Merced, CA, 95340 USA.

Color polymorphism - two or more heritable color phenotypes maintained within a single breeding population - is an extreme type of intra-specific diversity widespread across the tree of life. Color polymorphism is hypothesized to be an engine for speciation, where morph loss or divergence between distinct color morphs within a species results in the rapid evolution of new lineages, and thus, color polymorphic lineages are expected to display elevated diversification rates. Multiple species in the lizard family Lacertidae are color polymorphic, making them an ideal group to investigate the evolutionary history of this trait and its influence on macroevolution. Read More

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Outcomes after ultramassive transfusion in the modern era: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Jul;91(1):24-33

From the Department of Surgery at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco (Z.A.M., Z.J.H., R.A.C., B.N.-G., L.Z.K., E.E.R., J.J.P., B.R., M.K.A., A.T.F.), San Francisco, California; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco (E.C.M), San Francisco, California; Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (J.H.E., A.N., J.M.), San Francisco, California; Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine (W.D., J.N.), Irvine, Orange, California; Department of Surgery, Ohio Health Grant Medical Center (A.K.L., M.C.S.), Columbus, Ohio; Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky (S.S.D., J.K.R.), Lexington, Kentucky; Department of Surgery, Miami Valley Hospital (H.L., Y.W., C.H.), Dayton, Ohio; Department of Surgery, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center (A.M.C., R.A.K., P.T.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Surgery, Loma Linda Medical Center (L.P., K.M., X.L.-O.), Loma Linda, California; Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center (K.T., C.A.G.), Kansas City, Kansas; Department of Surgery, Crozer-Chester Medical Center (S.S.S., A.R.), Upland, Pennsylvania; Department of Surgery, WakeMed Health and Hospitals (A.M., P.U., A.S., B.P., K.T.), Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Surgery, University of New Mexico School of Medicine (K.M., S.A.M.), Albuquerque, New Mexico; Department of Surgery, Wellspan York Hospital (J.G.), York, Pennsylvania; Department of Surgery, Ascension Via Christi Hospitals St. Francis (J.K., J.H., K.L.), Wichita, Kansas; Department of Surgery, Maine Medical Center (J.B.O., D.C.C.), Portland, Maine; Department of Surgery, South Shore Hospital/Brigham and Women's Hospital (S.A.S., J.C.K.), Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Surgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (J.G., J.P.H.), Hershey, Pennsylvania; Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (A.Z.B., J.A.P.), Chicago, Illinois; Department of Surgery, University of California (R.A.C.), UC Davis, Sacramento, California; Department of Surgery, Ryder Trauma Center (K.A.J., G.R.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida; and Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis (J.K.), Missouri.

Background: Despite the widespread institution of modern massive transfusion protocols with balanced blood product ratios, survival for patients with traumatic hemorrhage receiving ultramassive transfusion (UMT) (defined as ≥20 U of packed red blood cells [RBCs]) in 24 hours) remains low and resource consumption remains high. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors associated with mortality in trauma patients receiving UMT in the modern resuscitation era.

Methods: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter retrospective study of 461 trauma patients from 17 trauma centers who received ≥20 U of RBCs in 24 hours was performed (2014-2019). Read More

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Effectiveness of resampling methods in coping with imbalanced crash data: Crash type analysis and predictive modeling.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jun 16;159:106240. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. Electronic address:

Crash data analysis is commonly subjected to imbalanced data. Varied by facility and control types, some crash types are more frequent than others. However, uncommon crash types are routinely more severe and associated with higher economic and societal costs, and thus crucial to prevent. Read More

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Spatio-temporal modelling of the first Chikungunya epidemic in an intra-urban setting: The role of socioeconomic status, environment and temperature.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 18;15(6):e0009537. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Programa de Computação Científica (PROCC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Three key elements are the drivers of Aedes-borne disease: mosquito infestation, virus circulating, and susceptible human population. However, information on these aspects is not easily available in low- and middle-income countries. We analysed data on factors that influence one or more of those elements to study the first chikungunya epidemic in Rio de Janeiro city in 2016. Read More

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First Report of Shot-hole on Flowering Cherry Caused by and pv. .

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Chonnam National University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 98413, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, Korea (the Republic of), 61186;

The shot-hole disease (SH) is one of the most common and important diseases affecting the flowering cherry (FC; Matsumura; 'Somei-yoshino') trees in South Korea every year, resulting in premature defoliation and reduced flowering in the following year. However, pathogens associated with the disease remain unknown, which has rendered disease management challenging. Here, the pathogens associated with SH, their biochemical characteristics, and their host range were elucidated. Read More

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Old unreduced obturator dislocation of the hip: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(16):3979-3987

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan Province, China.

Background: Obturator dislocation is a rare type of hip dislocation, accounting for about 2%-5% of all hip dislocations. The occurrence of old unreduced obturator dislocation is even more infrequent, with only 17 cases reported in nine studies, most of which were from the 1950s to 1980s in developing countries.

Case Summary: A 38-year-old woman from Hunan Province, China presented with stiffness of the left hip in abduction, flexion, and external rotation after falling from a 2-meter-tall tree onto her left knee 1. Read More

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MAN1B1-CDG: Three new individuals and associated biochemical profiles.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Sep 2;28:100775. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

AP-HP, Biochimie Métabolique et Cellulaire, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris, France.

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) constitute an ever-growing group of genetic diseases affecting the glycosylation of proteins. CDG individuals usually present with severe multisystem disorders. MAN1B1-CDG is a CDG with nonspecific clinical symptoms such as intellectual deficiency and developmental delay. Read More

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September 2021

as a reservoir of fruit fly parasitoid populations in the Eastern Amazon: an undervalued ecosystem service.

PeerJ 2021 4;9:e11530. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade Tropical, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá, Amapá, Brazil.

Fruit flies are economically important pests that infest a wide variety of host trees. The environmental damage caused by traditional pesticide-based control methods has prompted scientists to seek less damaging alternatives such as biological control by native species. Parasitoids, especially Braconidae species, have excellent potential as biological control agents for fruit flies, being both generalists and well distributed geographically. Read More

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Spatial patterns and associations of tree species at different developmental stages in a montane secondary temperate forest of northeastern China.

PeerJ 2021 3;9:e11517. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

College of Forestry, Shenyang Agriculture University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Secondary forests have become the major forest type worldwide. Research on spatial patterns and associations of tree species at different developmental stages may be informative in understanding the structure and dynamic processes of secondary forests.

Methods: In this study, we used point pattern analysis to analyze the spatial patterns and associations of tree species at seedling, sapling and adult stages in a 4ha plot in the montane secondary temperate forest of northeastern China. Read More

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Abundance, not diversity, of host beetle communities determines abundance and diversity of parasitoids in deadwood.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 8;11(11):6881-6888. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology (Zoology III) Field Station Fabrikschleichach Julius Maximilians University Würzburg Rauhenebrach Germany.

Most parasites and parasitoids are adapted to overcome defense mechanisms of their specific hosts and hence colonize a narrow range of host species. Accordingly, an increase in host functional or phylogenetic dissimilarity is expected to increase the species diversity of parasitoids. However, the local diversity of parasitoids may be driven by the accessibility and detectability of hosts, both increasing with increasing host abundance. Read More

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Drivers of diversity and community structure of bees in an agroecological region of Zimbabwe.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 1;11(11):6415-6426. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Crop science and Post-Harvest Technology Chinhoyi University of Technology Chinhoyi Zimbabwe.

Worldwide bees provide an important ecosystem service of plant pollination. Climate change and land-use changes are among drivers threatening bee survival with mounting evidence of species decline and extinction. In developing countries, rural areas constitute a significant proportion of the country's land, but information is lacking on how different habitat types and weather patterns in these areas influence bee populations. Read More

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Tree diversity and functional leaf traits drive herbivore-associated microbiomes in subtropical China.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 31;11(11):6153-6166. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution Institute of Zoology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.

Herbivorous insects acquire microorganisms from host plants or soil, but it remains unclear how the diversity and functional composition of host plants contribute to structuring herbivore microbiomes. Within a controlled tree diversity setting, we used DNA metabarcoding of 16S rRNA to assess the contribution of Lepidoptera species and their local environment (particularly, tree diversity, host tree species, and leaf traits) to the composition of associated bacterial communities. In total, we obtained 7,909 bacterial OTUs from 634 caterpillar individuals comprising 146 species. Read More

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Molecular Phylogeny Revealing the Single Origin of -associated (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Asia, with Descriptions of Three New and One Newly Recorded Species from Taiwan.

Zool Stud 2020 30;59:e66. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Biological Resource Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, Japan. E-mail (Tokuda).

Cecidomyiid genus contains four Lauraceae-associated species in Asia and 13 species associated with various plant families in Latin American. In this article, three new species, sp. nov. Read More

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November 2020

Impact of Olive Saplings and Organic Amendments on Soil Microbial Communities and Effects of Mineral Fertilization.

Front Microbiol 2021 1;12:653027. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Section Environmental Health and Soil Science, Department of Biology, Health and Environment, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Plant communities and fertilization may have an impact on soil microbiome. Most commercial olive trees are minerally fertilized, while this practice is being replaced by the use of organic amendments. Organic amendments can both fertilize and promote plant growth-promoting organisms. Read More

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Increased duration of pollen and mold exposure are linked to climate change.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 17;11(1):12816. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, Stanford University School of Medicine and Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Pollen and molds are environmental allergens that are affected by climate change. As pollen and molds exhibit geographical variations, we sought to understand the impact of climate change (temperature, carbon dioxide (CO), precipitation, smoke exposure) on common pollen and molds in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the largest urban areas in the United States. When using time-series regression models between 2002 and 2019, the annual average number of weeks with pollen concentrations higher than zero increased over time. Read More

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Comprehensive hospital-based regional survey of anaphylaxis in Japanese children: Time trends of triggers and adrenaline use.

Allergol Int 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Aichi Children's Health and Medical Center, Aichi, Japan.

Background: Since few studies have analyzed time trends in pediatric anaphylaxis, including triggers and adrenaline usage, this study aimed to reveal these issues in a comprehensive analysis of pediatric anaphylaxis cases.

Methods: The Aichi Medical Association performed a comprehensive survey of pediatric anaphylaxis cases aged under 15 years from 87 secondary and 25 tertiary emergency care hospitals in Aichi Prefecture (population 7.5 million), Japan. Read More

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Fungi associated with galleries of the emerald ash borer.

Fungal Biol 2021 Jul 25;125(7):551-559. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.

The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic forest pest that has killed millions of ash trees in the United States and Canada, resulting in an ecological disaster and billions of dollars in economic losses of urban landscape and forest trees. The beetle was first detected in Michigan in 2002 and has spread through much of the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. Read More

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Baseline Frailty as a Predictor of Survival after Critical Care: a Retrospective Cohort Study of Older Adults Receiving Home Care in Ontario, Canada.

Chest 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The extent by which the degree of baseline frailty, as measured using standardized multidimensional health assessments before admission to hospital, predicts survival among older adults following admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) remains unclear.

Research Question: Is baseline frailty an independent predictor of survival among older adults receiving care in an ICU?

Study Design And Methods: Retrospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults (age ≥65 years) receiving public home services that were admitted to any ICU in Ontario, Canada between April 1st, 2009 and March 31st, 2015. All individuals had an interRAI-Home Care (RAI-HC) assessment completed within 180 days of ICU admission; these assessments were linked to hospital discharge abstract records. Read More

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Coordination between compound-specific chemistry and morphology in plant roots aligns with ancestral mycorrhizal association in woody angiosperms.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, USA.

Recent studies on fine root functional traits proposed a root economics hypothesis where adaptations associated with mycorrhizal dependency strongly influence the organization of root traits, forming a dominant axis of trait covariation unique to roots. This conclusion, however, is based on tradeoffs of a few widely-studied root traits. It is unknown how other functional traits fit into this mycorrhizal-collaboration gradient. Read More

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Toward the identification of molecular markers associated with phytochemical traits in the Iranian sumac ( L.) population.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 3;9(6):3142-3154. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Plant Production and Genetics Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Urmia University Urmia Iran.

Sumac ( L.) is one of the important forest species dispersed in the northwest of Iran. It is one of the important spice in Iran and the Middle East because of active components containing organic acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins and terpenoids. Read More

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